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Abraham Lincoln: In His Own Words

Abraham Lincoln: In His Own Words

Professor David Zarefsky Ph.D.
Northwestern University

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Abraham Lincoln: In His Own Words

Abraham Lincoln: In His Own Words

Professor David Zarefsky Ph.D.
Northwestern University
Course No.  877
Course No.  877
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Course Overview

About This Course

24 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture

A century and a half after his death, the cadence, argument, and power of Abraham Lincoln's speeches still stir the heart of any American who encounters them.

The speeches of Abraham Lincoln are a precious inheritance for all Americans, and for all the world. As he led the nation through its gravest crisis, Lincoln emerged as a master of eloquence without equal.

The Art of Rhetoric, and Lincoln's Rise from Student to Master

This series of 24 lectures examines the rhetoric of Abraham Lincoln—the public messages in which Lincoln evolved his views on slavery and the Union and by which he sought to persuade others. Rhetoric is the study of the available means of persuasion in a given case.

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A century and a half after his death, the cadence, argument, and power of Abraham Lincoln's speeches still stir the heart of any American who encounters them.

The speeches of Abraham Lincoln are a precious inheritance for all Americans, and for all the world. As he led the nation through its gravest crisis, Lincoln emerged as a master of eloquence without equal.

The Art of Rhetoric, and Lincoln's Rise from Student to Master

This series of 24 lectures examines the rhetoric of Abraham Lincoln—the public messages in which Lincoln evolved his views on slavery and the Union and by which he sought to persuade others. Rhetoric is the study of the available means of persuasion in a given case.

By tracing significant moments in Lincoln's career from the standpoint of public persuasion, you explore how Lincoln navigated the constraints posed by his audiences and situations and how he took advantage of creative opportunities.

You also see how heavily Lincoln's public career developed through public speeches and writings. And the course shows us the importance of thinking rhetorically, reasoning with specific audiences and situations in mind.

You witness American history in the making as you follow Lincoln's career as an orator from the Young Men's Lyceum Speech of 1838 to the majestic biblical cadences of the Second Inaugural. You'll even learn about the last speech Lincoln gave—a discussion on his plans for Reconstruction delivered at the White House three days before his death.

Rhetoric and Lincoln have been Professor David Zarefsky's scholarly passions for decades. He is the Owen L. Coon Professor of Argumentation and Debate, and Professor of Communication Studies at Northwestern University, where he has taught for more than 30 years.

Northwestern University's Associated Student Government has voted Professor Zarefsky, a gifted speaker in his own right, to the Honor Roll for Teaching 12 times.

Lincoln's Rhetorical Greatness: A Fact and a Second Look

Lincoln's rhetorical greatness is well known, observes Professor Zarefsky, but, like everything else about our 16th president, we see it through a retrospective lens that is unavoidably distorted by our knowledge of his assassination. In other words, precisely because Abraham Lincoln is a national hero and martyr, we have lost sight of some of his depth and complexity. In a similar way, some of his greatest words—the Gettysburg Address especially—have become so familiar to us that we have almost lost the power truly to hear them.

Many people, for instance, labor under the false notion that Lincoln was always a skilled public communicator. Or that he and Stephen A. Douglas met in their famous debates while they were running against each other for the presidency. Or that Lincoln was predicting the Civil War when he famously said that "a house divided against itself cannot stand."

The Road to the Gettysburg Address

In fact, Lincoln had to learn the art of democratic persuasion amid the intense political and moral debates that gripped America during the middle third of the 19th century, especially the controversy over slavery and its expansion that culminated in the Civil War.

He did not start out at the level of the Gettysburg Address but walked a long road to reach that surpassing height. Thanks to Professor Zarefsky's profound learning and superb gifts as a lecturer, you can use these lectures to follow Lincoln step by step on that road.

You will see how Lincoln:

  • Reflected on the issues of his day and the nature of the American promise
  • Shaped and was shaped by public opinion
  • Responded to changing events and circumstances
  • Behaved in the cut and thrust of debate with formidable opponents such as Stephen A. Douglas: Four lectures are devoted to these debates.

In short, you will gain a comprehensive, inside view of Lincoln's statesmanship, leading you to an understanding of how he could call America to "a new birth of freedom" even while the nation was enduring the terrible ordeal of civil war.

A Compelling Human Story

Behind all the evidence and analysis that Professor Zarefsky so ably marshals, there stands a compelling human story. Abraham Lincoln: In His Own Words shows you how a frontier lawyer who had less than a year of formal schooling and described his own origins as "the short and simple annals of the poor" could give us the Emancipation Proclamation, the Gettysburg Address, and the Second Inaugural.

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24 Lectures
  • 1
    Lincoln and Rhetoric
    In this lecture, we will review Lincoln's basic biography and introduce a rhetorical perspective to the study of his career. A rhetorical perspective focuses especially on Lincoln's use of public persuasion to create a sense of community with his audience and to influence his listeners to achieve his goals. Lincoln's speaking career began as a young man in Springfield and continued until his death. We will review the major phases and highlights of that career. x
  • 2
    The Lyceum Speech, 1838
    Lincoln's first major public address was about the dangers of lawlessness to the survival of American political institutions. Although delivered in the aftermath of the murder of abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy in Alton, the speech does not mention the attack but refers instead to other examples of lawless behavior. In this speech Lincoln previews much of his later political philosophy and raises questions about the relationship between the current generation and the Founding Fathers. x
  • 3
    The Temperance Speech, 1842
    Another early Lincoln speech was delivered to the Washington Temperance Society of Springfield in 1842. Although praising the aims of the temperance movement, Lincoln promotes moderate rather than radical approaches to this important social reform. The speech can also be read as revealing Lincoln's theories of politics and of rhetoric, foreshadowing how he will oppose slavery without calling for its outright abolition. x
  • 4
    Lincoln as a Young Whig
    From an early age, Lincoln identified himself with the Whig Party. He served a single term in Congress from 1847 to 1849 and is known chiefly for his opposition to the Mexican War, then a popular cause. He claimed to be guided in all his actions by the example of Whig leader Henry Clay. In this lecture we will examine his speaking in opposition to the Mexican War and his eulogy of Henry Clay. x
  • 5
    Lincoln Returns to Politics
    After his one term in Congress, Lincoln retired from politics and returned to Springfield to practice law. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 brought him back into politics. This law, by repealing the Missouri Compromise (1820), opened territory that previously was free to the possible spread of slavery. This lecture will review the Missouri Compromise, the Kansas-Nebraska Act controversy, and why this issue rekindled Lincoln's interest in politics. x
  • 6
    The Peoria Speech, 1854
    During the fall of 1854, while the major political parties were in flux, Lincoln campaigned for candidates opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. His major speech was delivered in substantially identical form in Springfield and Peoria. In this speech, Lincoln explained how he found the Kansas-Nebraska Act to be a historical aberration and a dangerous departure. We will examine the speech and the effects of the midterm elections of 1854. x
  • 7
    Lincoln's Rhetoric and Politics, 1854-1857
    In this lecture, we will examine the evolution of Lincoln's thought during the time between the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Dred Scott decision. We will find Lincoln building on the logic of the Peoria speech. The Dred Scott decision, however, seemed to threaten the political positions of both Lincoln and Douglas. x
  • 8
    The Springfield Speech, 1857
    By holding that Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories, the Dred Scott decision undercut the Republican platform. But it also invalidated the Democratic Party's devotion to popular sovereignty, in which the people who populated a territory decided whether it would be slave or free. Both Douglas and Lincoln found it necessary to restate and defend their political principles in the wake of the Dred Scott decision. This lecture will explore the speeches in which they did so. x
  • 9
    The "House Divided" Speech, 1858
    In 1858, the Illinois State Republican Convention took the unusual step of nominating Lincoln to fill the senate seat then occupied by Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln accepted the nomination with a speech known by its key phrase, "a house divided against itself cannot stand." Although often understood today as a forecast of civil war, the speech was intended to convey a quite different message—that Republicans should not succumb to the temptation of supporting Douglas because he was encouraging a plan to make slavery legal nationally. x
  • 10
    The Chicago Speech, July 1858
    When Congress adjourned, Douglas returned to Illinois to begin his campaign. He delivered a blistering attack on the "house divided" doctrine. Lincoln answered Douglas the next night. He claimed his speech had been misconstrued, but he delivered a ringing statement in support of racial equality. This statement would create problems for Lincoln among more moderate voters, and he would retreat from it later in the campaign. x
  • 11
    The Springfield Speech, July 1858
    From Chicago, Lincoln and Douglas both traveled to Springfield. Lincoln was in the audience while Douglas spoke, then rose and offered to speak later to explain his views. Again Lincoln denied the radical nature of the "house divided" position, and he pointed out that Douglas had not answered his allegation that the incumbent was part of a plot to spread slavery all over the nation. x
  • 12
    The Debate about the Debates
    Having trouble attracting his own crowds, Lincoln followed Douglas as a kind of "truth squad." When the partisan press began to ridicule him for doing so, Lincoln used a different strategy. After Douglas's schedule of campaign appearances had been published, Lincoln challenged him to a series of about 50 debates. Intense negotiations between the principals on the details of the debates followed. This lecture will review the "debate about the debates" and suggest that it has a contemporary character. x
  • 13
    The Lincoln-Douglas Debates I
    Douglas opened the first debate on a strong note, charging that Lincoln's "house divided" doctrine would mandate national uniformity and alleging that he was part of a plot to abolitionize both major parties. He posed several questions to try to tie Lincoln to a radical Republican platform. Lincoln answered defensively and had difficulty establishing his own position.This lecture will review the course of the argument in the first two debates. x
  • 14
    The Lincoln-Douglas Debates II
    Douglas had expected to do well in the third debate, held in heavily Democratic southern Illinois. But Lincoln arrested his momentum and posed a fifth question that forced Douglas to state whether he would support territorial legislation to protect slavery. The fourth (Charleston) debate is unlike any of the others; it is devoted to an argument that Douglas plotted to deny Kansas the chance to vote on slavery while claiming to champion popular sovereignty. This lecture will analyze arguments in the third and fourth debates. x
  • 15
    The Lincoln-Douglas Debates III
    Lincoln found his stride in the last three debates. He derived the nationalization of slavery from a formal logical structure rather than from an alleged conspiracy, and he finally introduced the basic moral argument that slavery was wrong. Lincoln's positions advanced from the beginning of the debates to the end, while Douglas repeated arguments he had put forward in earlier debates. This lecture will examine the fifth and sixth debates between Lincoln and Douglas. x
  • 16
    The Aftermath of the Debates
    The final debate was anticlimactic for Douglas, but it enabled Lincoln to sharpen his moral argument. Following the debates, the last few weeks of the campaign were marked by a key last-minute endorsement for Douglas and by charges of vote fraud. Douglas was re-elected to the Senate, although it is likely that candidates pledged to Lincoln had the larger popular vote. Certainly Lincoln was not harmed by the results of the election. x
  • 17
    Lincoln's 1859 Speeches
    After his defeat in 1858, Lincoln returned to his law practice but remained active on the speaking circuit. He developed a lecture on discoveries and inventions. Both Lincoln and Douglas also campaigned for candidates in the Ohio elections of 1859. Lincoln's Ohio speeches can be seen as extensions of the Lincoln-Douglas debates: the same arguments appear in a more fully developed form. This lecture will examine both "Discoveries and Inventions" and Lincoln's Columbus speech. x
  • 18
    The Cooper Union Speech, 1860
    At the close of a New England tour, Lincoln spoke at Cooper Union in New York City—in effect meeting presidential frontrunner William H. Seward on Seward's home ground. He offered evidence that a majority of the Founders believed that Congress had the power to outlaw slavery in the territories and concluded that Congress should exercise that power. A portion of the speech ostensibly is directed to the South although it is likely that the true audience is the North. This lecture will analyze the Cooper Union speech. x
  • 19
    The Campaign of 1860
    Lincoln gave no speeches during the presidential campaign, believing that his views were on the record and that his opponents would distort his positions. This lecture will explore the nature and consequences of Lincoln's "eloquent silence." It also will examine his brief farewell speech to his Springfield neighbors and speeches he made en route to Washington for the presidential inauguration. x
  • 20
    The First Inaugural Address
    Lincoln's First Inaugural is one of his most famous speeches. The new President suggests the impossibility of dividing the Union and appeals to the loyalty and good will of the South. He defines his policy as purely defensive and suggests that, if war breaks out, the South will be the aggressor. Although the speech seeks reconciliation, southerners regarded it as a siren song. This lecture will explore Lincoln's rhetorical moves in the First Inaugural Address. x
  • 21
    Justifying the War
    The Civil War broke out while Congress was not in session, so Lincoln could make decisions unimpeded by legislation—but he needed congressional approval of funds to support the war. He called Congress into special session on July 4, 1861. His message to Congress makes clear his war aims, which are much more limited and defensive than they soon will become. This lecture is devoted to Lincoln's rhetorical choices in his special message to Congress. x
  • 22
    Moving Toward Emancipation
    Having rejected emancipation as a goal of the war, Lincoln now moved toward defending it as a military necessity. In a meeting with a delegation of African Americans, Lincoln urged them to support his policy of colonization—returning free blacks to Africa. In his 1862 Annual Message, Lincoln again indicated his support for colonization. Meanwhile, the President was preparing to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. This lecture will examine these documents of 1862. x
  • 23
    Lincoln at Gettysburg
    The Gettysburg Address is justifiably regarded as masterful and eloquent. Departing from tradition, it did not depict the battle itself, as had the major address of the day by Edward Everett, but abstracted from the particulars to the larger meaning of the war. By removing the war from its immediate context, Lincoln could articulate principles that would endure long after the guns were stilled, thereby denying his own claim that the world would "little note nor long remember" what he said. This lecture will examine Lincoln's most well-known speech. x
  • 24
    Lincoln's Last Speeches
    As he had done at Gettysburg, Lincoln in his Second Inaugural Address focuses on the larger meaning of the war. Lincoln here interprets the carnage and destruction by reference to Biblical precept and divine purpose. This is a speech of reconciliation, but it does not assign responsibility. This final lecture will examine Lincoln's Second Inaugural as his most mature assessment of the war. It also will comment on his final public address, a response to a serenade two days after Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox. x

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David Zarefsky
Ph.D. David Zarefsky
Northwestern University

Dr. David Zarefsky is the Owen L. Coon Professor of Communication Studies at Northwestern University, where he has taught for over 30 years. He earned his B.S., master's degree, and Ph.D. from Northwestern University. From 1988 through 2000, he served as the Dean of the School of Speech.

A nationally recognized authority on rhetoric and forensics, he is a past president of the National Communication Association (NCA) and recipient of the Distinguished Scholar Award in 1994 and the Distinguished Service Award in 2001. On no fewer than 13 occasions, his outstanding lecturing skills have been recognized by the inclusion of his name on Northwestern’s Associated Student Government Honor Roll for Teaching.

Dr. Zarefsky has authored five books, edited three more, and published over 50 scholarly articles and reviews. He received the 1986 National Communication Association’s Winans-Wichelns Award for Distinguished Scholarship in Rhetoric and Public Address for his book President Johnson’s War on Poverty: Rhetoric and History and the same award again in 1991 for Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery: In the Crucible of Public Debate.

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Reviews

Rated 4.7 out of 5 by 45 reviewers.
Rated 4 out of 5 by This course presents a clear picture of much of Lincoln's thinking. The professer has a clear, concise, and well organized presentation manner. I have been through the course once and now I will use it as a compliment to my ongoing study of Lincoln. It is proving to be a valuable asset. November 5, 2014
Rated 2 out of 5 by Surprisingly bland Having listened with great profit to the first and second editions of Zarefsky’s course on argumentation (a five-star product if ever there were one), I found myself unhappy with this course on Lincoln. Zarefsky suffers from an astoundingly thoroughgoing colorlessness as a speaker. Nonetheless, the content and organization of his argumentation course more than compensated for this. That is not the case in this course. I might have misread the course description, but I thought this was supposed to be a course on rhetoric that mined Lincoln’s speeches for examples of rhetorical devices. Instead, the course amounts to 24 VERY dry book reports on Lincoln’s evolution as a politician. The Modern Scholar, a competitor of TTC/TGC, produces a much better course along those lines called “A Way with Words (Part 1).” The lecturer in that course, Michael D.C. Drout, could give Zarefsky a schooling in how to be scholarly AND entertaining. Zarefsky is a brilliant scholar. Perforce, one will profit from listening to each of these 24 lectures (one will simply have to negotiate with Zarefsky’s mind-numbing grayness). On the plus side, Zarefsky spends a considerable amount of time in the first lecture demythologizing Lincoln, something sorely needed. Many treatments of Lincoln amount to little more than hagiography. October 15, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Lincoln from a Different Perspective Professor David Zarefsky presents an excellent course of 24 lectures tracing the development and thought of Abraham Lincoln through the speeches he delivered over the course of his career. This course is an excellent adjunct to any of several Lincoln biographies or to Professor Guelzo’s mainly biographical 12-lecture Teaching Company course - “Mr. Lincoln – The Life of Abraham Lincoln.” In each lecture Professor Zarefsky deals with one or more of Lincoln’s speeches and in a roughly chronological fashion throughout the course he neatly ties together the themes and evolution of Lincoln's thought. Do you think of Abraham Lincoln as a “politician”? Do you think Lincoln used what might be considered “deceptive" tactics in his rhetoric? Do you perceive Lincoln as a lifetime “abolitionist”, single-minded in his desire to free the slaves so that they might enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other American? If so, this course will likely be of great interest to you as it deals with these misconceptions (among others). The lectures allow the listener to see Lincoln as a man attempting to solve great problems, not as an idol to be worshiped from afar. The speeches demonstrate that Lincoln’s ideas developed over a long period of time and had to consider the prevailing thought of the people of the era in which he lived. After a close visit with these speeches of Lincoln I now understand Mr. Lincoln much better than ever before. July 13, 2014
Rated 4 out of 5 by Lincoln Speaks This course guides the student through Lincoln's various speeches as his speaking style gets more crisp, his position on the issue of slavery evolves, and his political acumen is honed. This course is on Lincoln's rhetoric and political skills; it is not, nor is it intended to be, a biographical or complete historical work. Yet, the student gains insight into Lincoln's philosophy and his political thinking directly from his own spoken words. Some surprise learning include: 1)The "House Divided" speech did not forecast the Civil War, 2)The Springfield Farewell Speech did include a reference to the potential for Lincoln's own assassination, and 3)At his first inauguration Lincoln did hint that he would be willing to accept a constitutional amendment allowing slavery to stay in the existing slave states (if it was not extended to any of he territories). It is especially interesting to see Lincoln's views on slavery evolve. Hint: He was not an abolitionist (at least not to well within the Civil War). Prof. Zarefsky is a solid speaker. He does speak with inflection and emphasis with excellent use of the "pause" to make a point. The course guide is very good. Lecture summaries are in outline form. A Glossary, Biographical Notes, a Timeline of Events, and a Bibliography are included. I mostly listened to this course while driving over a protracted time period. Despite this, I had no trouble maintaining continuity as the modularity of the lectures facilitated being able to stop and start frequently. I definitely recommend this course to any student interested in gaining a bit more depth about Lincoln's philosophy and thinking. April 6, 2014
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