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Books That Matter: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

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Books That Matter: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Course No. 3450
Professor Leo Damrosch, Ph.D.
Harvard University
Share This Course
4.5 out of 5
15 Reviews
93% of reviewers would recommend this series
Course No. 3450
  • Audio or Video?
  • You should buy audio if you would enjoy the convenience of experiencing this course while driving, exercising, etc. While the video does contain visual elements, the professor presents the material in an engaging and clear manner, so the visuals are not necessary to understand the concepts. Additionally, the audio audience may refer to the accompanying course guidebook for names, works, diagrams, illustrations, and examples that are cited throughout the course.
  • You should buy video if you prefer learning visually and wish to take advantage of the visual elements featured in this course. While the video version can be considered lightly illustrated, it does feature maps of the Roman Empire, images, portraits, characters, and shots of rare versions of the book, as well as on-screen text to help reinforce material for visual learners.
Streaming Included Free

What Will You Learn?

  • Examine Gibbon's use of the periodic style to engage readers.
  • Learn the specific reasons why the Roman Empire collapsed.
  • Probe the Decline and Fall's historical biases and blind spots.
  • Explore how Gibbon built a framework for future historians.
  • Read the Decline and Fall as a warning to Enlightenment Europe.

Course Overview

According to his Memoirs, on October 15, 1764, the Enlightenment historian Edward Gibbon discovered his life’s mission: to chronicle the centuries-long collapse of the Roman Empire. The result of this grand endeavor would become one of the greatest works of history ever written.

For all its renown as a work of style, elegance, wit, and insight, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire can be intimidating for the armchair historian. Published between 1776 and 1781, the six volumes contain 1.5 million words, an estimated 8,000 footnotes, a cast of 10,000 historical figures, and they span a timeline of more than 1,000 years.

Yet, even today, centuries after its original publication, Gibbon’s historical chronicle demands to be read and understood. There are several important reasons for this, according to Dr. Leo Damrosch, Professor of Literature Emeritus at Harvard University:

First, while later historians have brought fresh perspectives to the Roman Empire’s collapse, Gibbon’s book remains profoundly truthful in the events it recounts, bringing what Professor Damrosch calls a “unifying, insight-inspiring perspective to the past.”

Second, a great work of history is just as much about storytelling as it is about events. Gibbon is a masterful storyteller, and his Decline and Fall still has the ability to hook modern-day readers with its style and manner—just like a great novel.

And third, Gibbon was (and remains) a landmark historian who revolutionized the way writers think about and interpret the past. Despite being a product of his time in certain views, his techniques and insights would lay the foundation for generations of future historians.

In Books That Matter: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Professor Damrosch invites you on a riveting, 24-lecture examination of this great work from multiple perspectives; as a vast historical chronicle, as a compelling masterpiece of literature, as a sharp commentary on cultural mores, and as a cautionary tale to Enlightenment Europe. An engaging, chapter-by-chapter guide to the Decline and Fall, Professor Damrosch’s course helps you navigate the book’s themes, structure, philosophies, background, and lasting influence. Whether you’ve read the book before and are looking for new ways to think about it, or whether you’ve always wanted to read it but never knew where to start, Professor Damrosch’s lectures are a fascinating, rewarding, and authoritative guide to the enduring legacy of a once-mighty empire—and the great book that became its eulogy and epitaph.

“I Was Immediately Dominated Both by the Story and the Style”

As a young army officer stationed in India, Winston Churchill discovered Gibbon’s masterpiece and wrote in his memoir, “I was immediately dominated both by the story and the style. All through the long glistening middle hours of the Indian day I devoured Gibbon. I rode triumphantly through it from beginning to end, and enjoyed it all.”

This same spirit of excitement and wonder is at the heart of Professor Damrosch’s lectures. Central to his course is the idea of the Decline and Fall as a masterpiece of the art and craft of history. You’ll approach the book as that: a written work that reflects the styles, techniques, and ideologies of the Enlightenment age in which it was written.

You’ll understand why this book captivated millions of readers who, like Churchill, found Gibbon’s writing to be both authoritative and un-put-downable. You’ll also get a sense of just how revolutionary a work of history this book is.

  • Footnotes: “We’re so accustomed to footnotes today,” says Professor Damrosch, “that we may not suspect how original Gibbon was in providing them.” Taken together, the footnotes in Decline and Fall occupy fully one fourth of the entire book. Not only did these copious footnotes register sources (uncommon in other texts of the time), they allowed Gibbon to engage in an intimate conversation with the reader that would have seemed inappropriate in the body of the text itself.
  • Periodic Style: The Decline and Fall‘s renown as a work of literary genius owes much to Gibbon’s employment of the periodic style throughout its pages. For example, about a Byzantine emperor, he writes, “In every deed of mischief, he had a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute.” By bringing out parallels, or setting ideas against each other, Gibbon gives the reader a coherent structure for stories that might otherwise be extremely confusing. It also makes the book compulsively readable.
  • Room for Reflection: In many respects, Gibbon’s Decline and Fall offered a new way to write about the past. While Gibbon admired Enlightenment theorizing, he believed historiography should always be grounded in “knowledge and reflection.” The best historians, according to Gibbon, take readers behind the scenes and allow them to ponder evidence alongside the author. The Decline and Fall wasn’t written from a place of complete understanding; rather, it was written to help readers better evaluate the past.

But the Decline and Fall isn’t a perfect work of history. As Professor Damrosch also notes, for all its historical insight, Gibbon’s masterpiece was nevertheless a victim of blind spots in Enlightenment thinking. One such failing you’ll come back to repeatedly is Gibbon’s treatment of religion (including Christianity and Islam) as a purely social phenomenon. All too often in these pages, he neglects its importance as an interior, spiritual experience.

“The Events Most Interesting in Human Annals”

For those intimidated by the Decline and Fall‘s thousands of pages, or for those who feel they may lack the time to fully appreciate the entirety of Gibbon’s narrative of how Rome fell to “barbarism and religion,” this course is an excellent and richly detailed overview of what Gibbon called “many of the events most interesting in human annals.”

There are many pivotal moments in the grand story of the Roman Empire’s collapse that you’ll see through Gibbon’s unique lens.

  • One last golden age (Chapters 1 to 3): Gibbon begins the Decline and Fall with a look at the Antonines (whom Machiavelli called the “Five Good Emperors” of Rome). The image Gibbon creates is of an empire that saw an undogmatic attitude toward religion, magnificent public structures like the Pantheon—and the slavery that made it all possible. Some examples:
  • A new world faith emerges (Chapters 15 and 16): Before the 18th century, historians attributed the rise of Christianity to divine providence. Gibbon, however, outlines the human causes behind the faith’s emergence as the dominant ideology of the Roman world, including the early Christians’ proselytizing zeal, ”pure” morals, and organizational ability.
  • Building a legal foundation (Chapter 44): Gibbon devotes an entire chapter to a historical event he wholeheartedly admired, which was the revision and codification of Roman law. Established beginning in 529 A.D. by the emperor Justinian, this code covered everything from marriage and divorce to property and contracts.
  • Another world faith emerges (Chapters 50 to 52): Seen by Gibbon as an amazing historical intervention, Islam emerged just when the Roman Empire in the West was collapsing. As the faith quickly spread under Muhammad and his successors, conditions arose that would set the stage for the Crusades, explored in subsequent chapters.
  • The last breath of an empire (Chapter 71): How did Gibbon decide to end this massive chronicle? His answer was to make “some inquiry into the state of the city of Rome during the darkness and confusion of the Middle Ages.” (It is worth noting that later historians and archaeologists would revise what they saw as his somewhat oversimplified summation of medieval Europe.)

“A Revolution Which Will Ever Be Remembered…”

A grand historical work such as this demands a professor with an incomparable command of the written word. These lectures are your chance to learn from an award-winning professor and noted author, whose books have been finalists for prestigious prizes including the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize.

With his storytelling prowess and wit, Professor Damrosch reveals the literary brilliance of Gibbon’s work, unearths hidden pockets of humor (and controversy), and brings forth insights you’d otherwise miss on a solitary reading of the Decline and Fall. His immersion in and unparalleled understanding of Gibbon’s unique style and intellectual world make many of his lectures feel like dynamic conversations occurring across the centuries with the author himself. Equally helpful for visual learners, his lectures include:

  • historical portraits that add humanity to larger-than-life individuals, and
  • detailed maps that put the empire’s gradual collapse in geographical context, with extensive attention to the Byzantine Empire in the East, which outlived the original Roman Empire by a thousand years.

In the opening paragraph of the Decline and Fall, Gibbon describes the centuries-long end of the Roman Empire as “a revolution which will ever be remembered, and is still felt by the nations of the Earth.”

The succeeding chapters and volumes, rich in detail and epic in scope, are a pinnacle of history writing. And in 24 lectures, you can finally appreciate why this book matters so much to our understanding of this great “revolution”—and why it still matters to readers (and empires) today.

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24 lectures
 |  30 minutes each
  • 1
    The Greatness of Gibbon's Decline and Fall
    Ground your understanding of Gibbon's masterpiece with this helpful introductory lecture. Why was Rome so important to Gibbon and his readers? What makes the periodic style so essential to the Decline and Fall's accessibility? Why should we want to read it today in the 21st century? x
  • 2
    The Making of Gibbon the Historian
    Follow Edward Gibbon's intellectual development: his childhood obsession with reading, his military service, his disappointed love, his social circles, his personal politics, and his life as a gentleman "scholar of leisure." Your primary source for this biographical study: fragments from Gibbon's posthumously published Memoirs. x
  • 3
    The Empire at Its Beginning
    Before plunging into the Decline and Fall, which starts in the second century A.D., you need a little background in early Roman history. Professor Damrosch reviews the Empire's important provinces (including their strange names), the excessive influence of the Roman military, the emergence of imperial dictatorship, and other facts Gibbon's original readers took for granted. x
  • 4
    The Theory and Practice of History
    It's no accident that the Decline and Fall survives as a great work of history. Here, explore how Gibbon understood the role of the historian; consider what he thought of Hume, Voltaire, and other Enlightenment writers; and discover how he revolutionized the use of extensive documentation in his work. x
  • 5
    The Golden Age of the Antonines
    Meet the Antonines: the subject of the first three chapters of the Decline and Fall. From Nerva to Hadrian to Marcus Aurelius, these "five good emperors" ruled the only period of history in which the happiness of a great people was the sole object of government. x
  • 6
    The Hidden Poison Begins to Work
    After the peace of the Antonines, things quickly began to fall apart. Describing the horrific reigns of emperors like Commodus, Caracalla, and Elagabalus, Gibbon illustrates the "hidden poison" by which one-man rule produced a vicious cycle of incompetent, power-corrupt emperors. x
  • 7
    Diocletian and the Triumph of Constantine
    Get a close reading of Chapters 8 to 14 of Gibbon's masterpiece. In these pages, follow the first assaults of the barbarians who would eventually bring the Empire to its knees: the Goths. Also, meet two emperors who would radically reshape the structure of the Roman Empire: Diocletian and Constantine. x
  • 8
    Enlightenment Skepticism
    Consider just how dangerous Gibbon's sociological treatment of Christianity in Chapters 14 and 15 (while grounding the faith in extremely detailed historical analysis) seemed to most of his readers. Rather than focusing on divine providence, the Decline and Fall documents the human causes behind Christianity's evolution into the dominant ideology of the ancient world. x
  • 9
    The Rise of Christianity
    Continue your look at Chapters 14 and 15 of the Decline and Fall. In these pages, Gibbon takes up five causes for Christianity's success, including proselytizing zeal the promise of a future life in heaven, but also unprecedented organizational ability. What Gibbon leaves out, however: any imaginative empathy with religion. x
  • 10
    Constantine and Athanasius
    Chapter 17 is the major turning point in the Decline and Fall. What are Gibbon's thoughts on the transferring of the capital to Constantinople, and on Constantine's famous vision of the cross? Why does he give so much attention to theological controversies, and why was he so impressed by Athanasius, the archbishop of Alexandria? x
  • 11
    Julian and the Return to Paganism
    Paganism in the Empire didn't go down without a fight. Enter Julian the Apostate, who tried to reinstate the Olympian gods. Here, study Chapters 22 to 24, which are devoted to this last dying gasp of paganism-struck down by Julian's death during an ill-advised military campaign, and afterward by pushback from the Christians. x
  • 12
    Barbarian Advances and Theodosius
    In the wake of Julian's death there was great confusion, which occupies Chapters 25 to 28. Topics covered here include increased barbarian threats from in Britain, Germany, the Middle East, the Danube, and North Africa; the "chaste and temperate" rule of Theodosius; and Gibbon's intriguing thoughts on Christian veneration of saints' relics. x
  • 13
    East and West Divided
    With Rome's fracture into eastern and western camps, the story of the empire's decline begins to get complicated. Learn how to navigate the tricky waters of Chapters 29 to 33, which examine cataclysmic events including the sack of Rome in 410 A.D. and the loss of North Africa to the Vandals. x
  • 14
    Huns and Vandals
    Professor Damrosch guides you through successive waves of barbarian invaders, beginning with the assault of the Huns, led by Attila. You'll also get Gibbon's insights on the development of barbarian kingdoms, a sequence of nine Roman emperors in just 20 years, and his biased views on the growth of monasticism. x
  • 15
    Theodoric and Justinian
    The first was a Gothic king; the second Rome's eastern emperor. Theodoric and Justinian (along with his general, Belisarius, and his wife, Theodora) dominate Chapters 39 to 44 of the Decline and Fall, which also examines Constantinople's massive building program (including the Hagia Sophia) and the codification of Roman Law. x
  • 16
    The Breakup of the Empire
    After the fall of the empire in the West, how did Byzantium in the East persist for another nine centuries? Start with this look at Chapters 45 to 47, which cover the consolidation of France under Clovis, the establishment of the papacy as the center of Christendom, and a new swarm of religious heresies. x
  • 17
    The Byzantine Empire and Charlemagne
    Turn now to the fifth volume (of the original six) of the Decline and Fall, where the narrative starts to speed up. In addition to covering historical moments like the reign of Charlemagne and the Comnenian dynasty, you'll also consider the implications of Gibbon's "great man" approach to history from the 7th to 11th centuries. x
  • 18
    The Rise of Islam
    Step back in time to get Gibbon's account of the rise of Islam. Occupying Chapters 50 to 52, this narrative emphasizes how, in Gibbon's view, Islam arrived at a fortunate historical moment when it faced only weak opposition from surrounding powers; he also pays warm tribute to Muhammad's qualities of character. x
  • 19
    The Byzantine Empire in the 10th Century
    At the end of the Decline and Fall's fifth volume, you'll survey the ever-shrinking form of the Byzantine Empire (Chapter 53), early Russians (Chapter 55), Norman conquests in the Mediterranean (Chapter 56), and the expanding dominion of the Turks (Chapter 57). x
  • 20
    The Crusades
    Gibbon's account of the Crusades focused on the way religion was used to rationalize European military and territorial aggression. Learn what this master historian has to say about the rivalry of Richard the Lionheart and Saladin, the birth of the Crusader States, and military orders like the Knights Templar. x
  • 21
    Genghis Khan and Tamerlane
    Unpack another turning point in the Decline and Fall: Genghis Khan and the dawn of the Ottoman Empire. Central to this lecture is another of Gibbon's charismatic figures: Tamerlane (known as "the scourge of God"). Then, end with Gibbon's account of the discovery of gunpowder-which would forever change history. x
  • 22
    The Fall of Constantinople
    Chapters 66 to 70 chronicle the final defeat of Byzantium. Topics you'll explore in this lecture include the exiled papal court at Avignon, Mahomet the Second's capture of Constantinople, and the Great Schism from 1378 to 1417. x
  • 23
    The End of Gibbon's Work
    How did Gibbon keep the Decline and Fall from simply petering out in its final chapter?What were some of his assumptions about the "darkness and confusion" of medieval Europe? See how his visit to the physical ruins of Rome inspired Gibbon's final thoughts on the collapse of the empire and helped to bring his great work to a close. x
  • 24
    Decline and Fall in Modern Perspective
    Professor Damrosch ends his course with a reflections on the Decline and Fall in the 21st century. You'll consider why some historians reject the term "fall" in favor of "transformation," together with insistence by recent specialists that there truly was a fall; and also three major blind spots Gibbon exhibits in his history: toward religion, toward Byzantine civilization, and toward the persistence of deep cultural rhythms as contrasted with political and military events. x

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Leo Damrosch

About Your Professor

Leo Damrosch, Ph.D.
Harvard University
Dr. Leo Damrosch is the Ernest Bernbaum Professor of Literature Emeritus at Harvard University, where he has been teaching since 1989. He earned a B.A. from Yale University, an M.A. from Cambridge University, where he was a Marshall Scholar, and a Ph.D. from Princeton University. At Harvard, Professor Damrosch was named a Harvard College Professor in recognition of distinguished teaching. He has held National Endowment for...
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Reviews

Books That Matter: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 14.
Rated 4 out of 5 by from I have read an abredge version of Gibbons book in the past it was really good but I have not saw DvD course yet to busy.
Date published: 2017-04-09
Rated 1 out of 5 by from I'm always impressed with the instructors--as well as course content..
Date published: 2017-04-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Superb lectures Reading the complete Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a formidable enterprise, with major challenges and rewards: 1) Its length. Most readers would agree, as Samuel Johnson asserted about Paradise Lost, “No one ever wished it longer than it is.” When the Duke of Gloucester received one of Gibbon’s volumes, he remarked, “Another...thick book. Always scribble, scribble, scribble! Eh, Mr. Gibbon.” The 3-volume Modern Library Edition that I am using comprises almost 2800 pages of fine-print words. Most current readers will lack the industry, time, or interest to complete the project. 2) Its erudition. Gibbon’s work encompasses a staggering amount of disparate and detailed information, admirably condensed, but some parts are considerably more engaging than others. The readers’ energy may flag with the weight of this learning, astounding though it is, as the accounts of civil wars, emperors usurped, religious disputes, assassinations, administrative incompetence, barbarian incursions, and a huge number of personages accumulate. The parade of characters bewildered even Coleridge’s prodigious intellect: “When I read a chapter in Gibbon…figures come and go, I know not how or why.” 3) Its footnotes. Gibbon annotates admirably and profusely, but many of the citations are to obscure sources. Unfortunately, no edition winnows these academic barnacles to include only ones of contemporary interest, and none translates those portions written in a foreign language. 4) Its magnificent prose. This work is a masterpiece of English writing. The choice of words, the rhetorical effects, the comparisons and parallels, the irony and wit are superlative. Because of the density of material, however, the pace of reading is necessarily slow in order to understand the content and to appreciate the style. Many sentences require re-reading. 5) The historical information itself. Much of the narrative is a fascinating account of the historical events, often enlivened even more by Gibbon’s use of anecdotes and his peculiar predilection for delineating the violent and salacious. As the 18th Century Cambridge classicist, Richard Porson, said, "His humanity does not slumber unless when women are ravished or the Christians persecuted." I have listened to Damrosch’s lectures three times, and they are splendid. He provides an appropriate and revealing account of Gibbon’s life (his Memoirs are worth reading) and his view of the role and obligations of the historian. Then, Damrosch accomplishes a truly impressive feat: from the vast amount of information that The Decline and Fall contains he chooses the most important and interesting material, which he presents with energy, wit, eloquence, and compelling insight, both literary and historical. His frequent quotations from Gibbon are illuminating and often amusing. He refers the audience to the more enticing footnotes, including translating some that are in Latin or Greek. He has enormous respect for Gibbon’s achievement, but he also recognizes his weaknesses, especially his inability to understand the importance of religion in the lives of many, even if their beliefs seem foolish or irrational. Damrosch clearly states what Chapters he is discussing as he progresses through the book and provides the dates of the events, which are often unclear in the text. I was also very impressed with the course outline, which delineates the most important points of each lecture, provides extra reading (if anyone needs it!), and numerous wonderful photographs. Everyone who takes this course should sample some of Gibbon’s book. I suggest getting the Penguin abridged edition and looking into it intermittently and in short segments. Reading it for hours is likely to lead to intellectual exhaustion and ultimate abandonment. Also, it’s okay to skip some sections and to examine others out of order, for example, the notorious Chapters XV (complete in the abridged edition) and XVI (mostly omitted), in which Gibbon views Christianity with witty irony, skepticism, and derision. Many contemporaries disdainfully regarded Gibbon as an atheist (an “infidel” in James Boswell’s terms), although Damrosch argues that he was more of a Deist. Either way, Gibbon’s writing on religion is powerful and memorable. Those who wish to consult The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire to garner insights and lessons about contemporary historical or political issues, especially as they relate to the United States, are likely to be disappointed. According to Gibbon, numerous, complex elements contributed to Rome’s deterioration, including barbarism, loss of civic and martial virtues, religion, luxurious indolence, and an overextended administrative and military domain, but the conditions throughout the empire’s existence bear little resemblance to our current world order.
Date published: 2017-04-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Moving Experience I first read chunks of Gibbon's Decline and Fall while I was a mathematics undergraduate at Florida State University in the 1950s. However, I let that interest lapse until I saw that the Teaching Company was offering a series of lectures on that work. So, I started out as a listener with an appreciation of Gibbon as a great historian who had written a great book on a great theme. My knowledge and appreciation of Gibbon increased tremendously as I went through these lectures. Damrosch does all the right things: a measured summary of the work; background information concerning the practice of history; frequent connections to other literary works and authors; the reception of the work in Gibbon's time and today; reasonable interpretations of controversial issues connected with the book. I was simply delighted to sit and listen and think about what was being said. I didn't need music, props, stills, etc. but what creeped in what appropriate. (I thought the drum beats introducing each lecture projected just the right mood.) It was especially satisfying that I learned more of the connection between Hume (another "great") and Gibbon.
Date published: 2017-04-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent history of the Roman Empire. I always wanted to learn more about the Roman Empire.
Date published: 2017-03-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from comments from Leo Damrosch I very much appreciate the generous comments that have already appeared for this course, which I greatly enjoyed putting together in cooperation with wonderful colleagues at The Teaching Company. Conferring with them about images, and about the marvelous maps they created, was especially rewarding; when I did a different course years with them ago the equipment and resources were not nearly so sophisticated. As to whether this course is a suitable introduction to the story of the Roman Empire, I entirely agree that there are other courses more specifically focused on the historical events. But as one reviewer has noted, Gibbon’s story actually goes far beyond the limits of the original Empire in time and space, taking in Genghis Khan, Tamerlane, the rise of Islam, etc – not to mention the Byzantine Empire that survived for many centuries after the fall of Rome. In addition, as I have tried to show in the lectures, the Decline and Fall continues to live when other histories from Gibbon's time are forgotten because it really is a historical masterpiece, as well as a great narrative. A number of modern specialists have said that he is unsurpassed at leading us through what might otherwise be incredibly tangled and confused events, and above all, at teaching us to weigh the available evidence along with him. I've compared his method to Henry Fielding's in Tom Jones: Fielding was a lawyer and had a lawyer's understanding that even the most plausible evidence can be misconstrued. Gibbon was way ahead of his time in stressing the difficulty in knowing for sure what happened long ago, which is surely an important aspect of thinking about the history of our culture. As to editions: I recommend the three-volume Penguin edition edited by the leading Gibbon scholar today, David Womersley of Oxford. However, it is available in hardback only, which makes it massive as well as expensive. Simply for reading pleasure, there are plenty of secondhand copies out there of the old Modern Library edition and others; I would urge only that it would be a shame to read an edition without footnotes, since as I often comment in the lectures, Gibbon put a lot of important (and sometimes amusing) material in the notes. Womersley also published an excellent one-volume paperback Penguin abridgment, and that can be warmly recommended for someone not prepared to take on the entire unabridged Decline and Fall.
Date published: 2017-03-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent lecturer with great information!!
Date published: 2017-03-26
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Should be 36-48 Lectures I saw this course the day it was released and immediately bought it. I have only covered 6 lectures. So far I am satisfied, but covering Gibbon's massive history in just 24 lectures is not really sufficient. It took my 4 months in 2009 to read the entire work. It was an incredible experience. Before I read the entire work I believed that Gibbon had wrote the greatest history book in the English language. Now I believe that he wrote the greatest history book of all time. I personally know of only one other person who has read the entire work. Now I am reading it for the second time along with the lectures. I must say it is even better than the first time.
Date published: 2017-03-26
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