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Comparative Religion

Comparative Religion

Professor Charles Kimball, Th.D.
University of Oklahoma

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Comparative Religion

Course No. 6172
Professor Charles Kimball, Th.D.
University of Oklahoma
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Course No. 6172
  • Audio or Video?
  • You should buy audio if you would enjoy the convenience of experiencing this course while driving, exercising, etc. While the video does contain visual elements, the professor presents the material in an engaging and clear manner, so the visuals are not necessary to understand the concepts. Additionally, the audio audience may refer to the accompanying course guidebook for names, works, and examples that are cited throughout the course.
  • You should buy video if you prefer learning visually and wish to take advantage of the visual elements featured in this course. The video version is well illustrated and features more than 350 portraits, illustrations, and photographs. Portraits include those of religious scholars like Mircea Eliade and Rudolf Otto, as well as prophets and sages including Buddha, Jesus, and Krishna; and illustrations and photographs highlight religious practices from around the world, including bar mitzvahs, Muslim prayers, Buddhist ordination ceremonies, Christmas celebrations, and ritual sacrifices. There is also a video clip depicting the recitation of Hindu Vedas. There are on-screen spellings and definitions to help reinforce material for visual learners.
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Course Overview

What, exactly, is religion? And why does one religious tradition often differ so markedly from another, even when you might not expect it to? Why, for example, are the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—despite their common source—often so different? And what kinds of factors separate the beliefs of a Hindu or Buddhist not only from those held by Jews, Christians, or Muslims, or by each other, but also from many who identify themselves as fellow Hindus or Buddhists?

A Powerful Force

Every day, religion affects your life, whether directly or indirectly.

  • It forms the foundation for a wide range of moral codes.
  • It is the driving force behind the conduct of many individuals.
  • It can influence the actions of nations on the world stage.
  • It can affect the public and private lives of citizens through religiously based acts of governance.

At a time when religion and religiously grounded issues are so prevalent in public and private life, it's difficult to overstate the importance of augmenting your understanding of this powerful force and its impact on so many. It's also difficult to get a solid working knowledge of the beliefs that unite and divide us—as well as the perspective from the other side of these divisions.

The 24 lectures of Comparative Religion offer you an opportunity to gain a solid grasp of the key ideas of religion itself—the issues that repeatedly surface when you look at any faith's beliefs, practices, and organization. Using five major religions—Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism—as illustrations of how religions can address the same core issues in parallel and different ways, award-winning Professor Charles Kimball of the University of Oklahoma leads you on an exploration of religion's complex and multidimensional nature.

It's an exploration that can strengthen the interpersonal understanding that underlies your daily relationships, enhance your perception of events in a diverse world, and deepen your appreciation of your own beliefs and the traditions followed by others.

Learn the Key Components on Which Every Religion Is Built

Using the basics of these five major religions as a starting point—and explaining those basics so that no prior knowledge is needed—Professor Kimball plunges deeply into each to reveal and clarify the essential structural components shared by all faiths:

  • Creation myths and sacred stories
  • Concepts of the divine
  • Lifecycle- and calendar-based rituals
  • Various types of sacred people, texts, objects, and spaces
  • Religion's ultimate goals—the reasons its adherents give them such importance

You learn, for instance, how different religions conceive of a God, or gods, or even no god, and how some emphasize the idea of an afterlife and the beliefs required and rules for conducting your life in preparation for it.

At the same time, you also see how religions offer distinct perspectives, such as the cyclical concepts of life and rebirth held by Hindus or Buddhists, which differ so markedly from the linear understanding of life and its purpose seen in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. And you see how even an idea so apparently fundamental as the human predicament can vary dramatically from one religion to another.

In Judaism and Christianity, for example, sin lies at the heart of that predicament. But where the Judaic tradition saw people born in innocence, the early Christian tradition came to see sin as "original," with reconciliation with God occurring not through observance of personal sacrificial traditions, as was the belief in Judaism, but by the sacrifice of Jesus on behalf of humankind.

And while the Islamic tradition also considers humans to be sinful, its view of the fundamental problem is one of forgetfulness, with people easily distracted from a knowledge of God they already possess. It is this failing that the ritual devotional duties known as the "Five Pillars of Islam" are designed to guard against through constant reminders of God, such as the five-times-daily prayers with which non-Muslims might be most familiar.

In contrast, Hinduism and Buddhism see the major human problem as what Professor Kimball characterizes as the "illusion of reality in this world." His presentation of some of the basic ways these two linked and complex religions endeavor to penetrate that illusion through cycles of death and rebirth underscores how different religions address the many questions with which all faiths must contend.

Learn How a Startling Range of Practices Can Exist Even within the Same Faith

Such variation need not be confined to different faiths. Even within the same broad religion, the range of practices reflected in faithful observances can be startling. For some Catholics, for example, the 40-day period of Lent might involve a small symbolic sacrifice such as giving up dessert; in some parts of the Philippines, however, a few Catholic faithful allow themselves to be briefly nailed to crosses to show identification with Christ's suffering.

But religious rituals encompass far more than sacrifice and can indicate commonality as well as divergence. Throughout this course's fascinating exploration of sacred rituals, you see how those associated with one tradition so often parallel those of another, even when the tenets of the faiths cause them to differ.

Birth rituals are a typical example. In Judaism, a circumcision ceremony is used to welcome a male child into the community. In many Christian churches, a baptism serves a similar purpose for infants, although other Christians, such as the Baptists, have a dedication ceremony instead, reserving actual baptism for later in life, when a mature profession of faith can be made. This is a distinction mirrored by many of the churches that do practice infant baptism, which also offer a later-in-life confirmation ceremony where believers can affirm their desire to be full members of the faith.

Above all, as Professor Kimball makes clear, sacred rituals are more than just requirements; they are meant to accomplish something, a point underscored by his example of the rehearsal that often occurs before a traditional Christian wedding. During those rehearsals, the performative element of the ritual—the vows—are not themselves rehearsed, preserving the specific purpose of the ritual for the wedding to come.

A Professor Whose Own Diverse Background Energizes His Teaching Skills

A course like this can't help but remind you of the remarkably diverse world in which we live, and it's a diversity reflected by Professor Kimball's own unusual combination of professional, academic, and personal credentials: a doctorate of theology in comparative religion from Harvard with an emphasis on Islam; a great deal of personal experience in the Middle East; ordination as a Baptist minister; and an extended family whose members practice not only his own Christian faith, but Judaism and Buddhism as well.

By combining this background with a relaxed, likeable style, personal and humorous anecdotes, and skillful use of multiple perspectives to revisit key issues, he's created a course as enjoyable as it is provocative. After completing these lectures, you are able to "see with a native eye," as Professor Kimball puts it, when you wonder why followers of a given religion believe or act as they do.

Professor Kimball often asks his first-day students to answer the same question posed at the beginning of this article—What, exactly, is religion?—and he is struck by the difficulty they have in answering it.

He is not, however, surprised. Religion's many layers make that a hard question. But it's also a question you are much better equipped to answer after hearing these lectures and learning to see with the "native eye"—and that may be this course's greatest gift.

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24 lectures
 |  31 minutes each
Year Released: 2008
  • 1
    Comparative Religion—Who, What, Why, How
    Religion can be difficult to define. Most people say, "I know it when I see it." But what is the "it" you see? This lecture introduces an approach to help you answer this question and also addresses both subjectivity and the importance of understanding human religiousness. x
  • 2
    Exploring Similarities and Differences
    You learn 12 common features found in all religions and begin gaining the foundation for broader inquiries about similarities and differences among Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism, including those that occur not only between faiths, but within the same one. x
  • 3
    The Sacred, the Holy, and the Profane
    Following a brief overview of some prominent single-discipline attempts to explain religion's origins, you explore three broader frameworks for understanding: Rudolf Otto's The Idea of the Holy, Mircea Eliade's The Sacred and The Profane, and Wilfred Cantwell Smith's The Meaning and End of Religion. x
  • 4
    Sacred Time, Sacred Space, Sacred Objects
    Eliade's observations about how different religions distinguish between the sacred and the profane (ordinary) and assign sacred meaning to times, places, and objects come alive for you through examples drawn from several of those religions. x
  • 5
    Sacred People—Prophets, Sages, Saviors
    Foundational religious leaders fulfill vital purposes in all religions. In the first of two lectures devoted to such sacred people, you learn the different roles played by figures like Confucius, Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Muhammad, Jesus, and Krishna. x
  • 6
    Sacred People—Clergy, Monastics, Shamans
    You explore some of the more familiar figures charged with carrying out essential functions and rituals in their religious communities and learn how their roles have evolved. You also encounter the shaman, a lesser-known figure found not just in tribal cultures but in the great world religions as well. x
  • 7
    Sacred Signs, Analogues, and Sacraments
    Symbols are how human beings communicate. This lecture reveals to you how different religions employ these essential tools, not only through "representational" symbols whose meanings must be learned, but especially through "presentational" symbols whose meanings are experienced on a deeper level. x
  • 8
    Creation Myths and Sacred Stories
    A religion's sacred stories are profoundly true to those who embrace them. One type—the creation story—is common to all religions, which have given us hundreds of such stories and myths. You learn their categories and the four functions they serve. x
  • 9
    From Sacred Stories and Letters to Doctrine
    What happens when a religion's founding figures and first adherents are gone, and divergent views arise among later generations? By looking at the early history of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, you see how adherents of the three great missionary religions developed frameworks for sustaining their faiths. x
  • 10
    Sacred Texts—The Bible and the Qur'an
    In examining the processes by which authoritative scriptures of the three Abrahamic religions became fixed, you see common approaches and distinctive differences. And you learn that even within the same faith, differences persist over what constitutes authoritative texts and how to interpret them. x
  • 11
    Sacred Texts for Hindus and Buddhists
    The massive body of literature deemed sacred by Hindus and Buddhists can be as bewildering as the number of ways in which they are understood and used. This lecture gives you a demystifying guide to the major types of sacred literature. x
  • 12
    Polytheism, Dualism, Monism, and Monotheism
    Nearly all religions include some concept of divinity, each fitting into one of four distinct categories. But you quickly see that the lines of separation can be fluid, and the question, "What do we mean when we say God?" can be more provocative than you might imagine. x
  • 13
    From Birth to Death—Religious Rituals
    You explore the rituals that mark key stages in life—birth, childhood, coming of age, marriage, and death—and see striking similarity across all religions, as seen in the rituals of baptism, bar mitzvah, Buddhist and Christian ordination, and funerals. x
  • 14
    Daily, Weekly, Annual Religious Rituals
    In a lecture that may forever change your perception of Passover, Christmas, or noon prayers at the mosque, you learn how calendar-based rituals use sacred stories, time, space, and objects to fulfill important pedagogical, sociological, and psychological functions. x
  • 15
    Ritual Sacrifice in the World's Religions
    At first glance, ancient practices involving animal or human sacrifice are shocking to modern sensibilities. An examination of ritual sacrifice reveals common understandings and outcomes and leaves you with new insight into why people—even today—engage in sacrificial rituals. x
  • 16
    The Human Predicament—How to Overcome It
    Every religion is predicated on the notion that the world we experience is not ideal and tries to explain the nature and purpose of existence. This lecture provides a framework for the next five lectures, including a consideration of the universal problems of evil and injustice. x
  • 17
    The Problems of Sin and Forgetfulness
    Although Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share many roots, the three Abrahamic traditions approach the human predicament in different ways. This lecture offers you the chance to observe through a new lens the ways in which the three faiths approach issues like sin, sacrifice, and ultimate accountability. x
  • 18
    Breaking through the Illusion of Reality
    Although Hinduism and Buddhism encompass hundreds of varying traditions, all address the "illusion of reality" as the predicament trapping people in the cycles of death and rebirth. This lecture explains this cyclical perspective and how it differs from the linear viewpoint of the Abrahamic traditions. x
  • 19
    The Goals of Religious Life
    Are the goals of existence only otherworldly? Can any be experienced here and now? You learn that no matter how the different religions conceive of the afterlife, they are united in a shared understanding that ultimate meaning must be found beyond physical existence. x
  • 20
    The Way of Faith and the Way of Devotion
    Religion provides four basic paths by which faithful followers may pursue the ultimate goals: the ways of faith, devotion, disciplined action, and meditation. This lecture explores the first two, using examples drawn from Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism. x
  • 21
    The Way of Action and the Way of Meditation
    Disciplined action is the most widely practiced path, shown to you here in the legal traditions of Islam and biblical Israel and the rigid Hindu caste system. You also examine disciplined meditation, a form of action practiced by Buddhists and Hindus. x
  • 22
    The Way of the Mystics
    Virtually all religions include adherents whose religious practice centers on the mystical path. Here, perhaps more than anywhere else, the lines separating religions become blurred or erased. You explore several key commonalities and differences among Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim mystics. x
  • 23
    The Evolution of Religious Institutions
    As religions begin to grow, structure becomes a requirement, whether for perpetuation, organization, or doctrinal clarification. You see how the first followers of the Buddha, Jesus, and Muhammad attempted to resolve challenges through institutional structures, as often borrowed or adapted as created anew. x
  • 24
    Religious Diversity in the 21st Century
    Your course concludes with a consideration of the ways people in different religions understand their particular experiences and traditions in the context of religious diversity. You see several examples of the positive and inclusive approaches that are now part of the 21st century landscape. x

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Your professor

Charles Kimball

About Your Professor

Charles Kimball, Th.D.
University of Oklahoma
Dr. Charles Kimball is Presidential Professor and Director of the Religious Studies Program at the University of Oklahoma. A graduate of Oklahoma State University, Professor Kimball holds an M.Div. from The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary and a Th.D. from Harvard University in Comparative Religion with a specialization in Islamic studies. Before joining the University of Oklahoma, Professor Kimball taught for 12 years...
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Rated 4 out of 5 by 49 reviewers.
Rated 4 out of 5 by He went to Harvard In case you missed it in the introduction, Prof. Kimball helpfully reminds you once or twice in each lecture that he has a degree from Harvard. He says at the outset that he is a Christian because his parents were Christian, and he realizes that he would have been a Muslim had his parents been Muslim. That statement makes me wonder about his intellectual rigor. He could have tried to be more objective, both in subject matter and presentation. His personal beliefs come through throughout the course. I found it offensive how he chuckles and speaks with a voice of incredulity when telling of the Buddha's miraculous birth or of Mohammad's night flight to Jerusalem, but is very sober and serious when relating some Christian miracle. October 1, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Best as fairly introductory-level religion course I have listened to about half the lectures and I find them only moderately interesting -- but my background in religion is definitely not typical. Over the years I have attended a number of congregations of different RELIGIONS for 12-20 years each (Roman Catholic, Methodist, Messianic and Reform Judaism), I've had something like 50 religion courses, I've studied apologetics for 20 years and I'm the webmaster (including content creation) of about 20 religion-related websites. For people FAMILIAR WITH only 1-2 religions from a participatory perspective, this course would be best either immediately preceding or immediately following the SET of TGC's courses on Great World Religions (GWR). The course does not cover or attempt to cover "all" religions or TYPES of religion, such as Confucianism, Wicca/witchcraft, or shamanism. The course basically covers the same 5 religious groups as the Great World Religions series: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism. For someone who has not listened to MOST of the GWR set, this might be a bit too detailed on rituals and practices and a bit light on beliefs and theology. For someone who HAS listened to most of of the GWR set it will help firm up details on rituals and practices and serve as somewhat of a review on beliefs and theology, although a bit superficial on that. Regarding the limited coverage on beliefs and theology, as many TGC lecturers have pointed out, theology is pretty much a Christian invention combining Jewish scriptures with Greek philosophy and most other religions are MUCH less concerned with DOCTRINE than with PRACTICE. Plus, as a practical matter adding one or two lectures per religion to go more into the theology still really wouldn't provide significantly more useful information regarding COMPARATIVE religion. July 14, 2015
Rated 1 out of 5 by I've had better learning experience at church The presenter sounds like a Baptist minister. Because he is. If I could play the audio sped up to about 150% i might make it though a couple more, but at his presentation pace and speaking style, I can barely listen to 10 minutes of a single episode - and I've tried several chapters. The content doesn't seem to be "comparative religions" as much as "Christianity and some other beliefs." At least it was on sale. May 19, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Excellent Dr. Kimball’s balanced and respectful overview of his topic was presented with as much objectivity as possible, with insightful perspectives. He was able to provide real life examples of the principles he discussed, enabling the listener to easily grasp the concepts discussed with useful clarity. May 2, 2015
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