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Cycles of American Political Thought

Cycles of American Political Thought

Professor Joseph F. Kobylka Ph.D.
Southern Methodist University

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Cycles of American Political Thought

Cycles of American Political Thought

Professor Joseph F. Kobylka Ph.D.
Southern Methodist University
Course No.  4820
Course No.  4820
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Course Overview

About This Course

36 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture

America is often described as a nation of doers. Its folk heroes are men and women of action, like Daniel Boone and Annie Oakley, who subdued an untamed wilderness on the way to forging a great nation. But is that the whole story? Is American history really just a tale of dynamic movers and shakers who left philosophizing to their European counterparts?

In Cycles of American Political Thought, you'll examine the often neglected philosophical underpinnings of this nation's history. With renowned political scientist Professor Joseph F. Kobylka as your guide, you'll explore how this nation of "doers" has, from its birth, been deeply engaged with the most fundamental questions of political philosophy.

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America is often described as a nation of doers. Its folk heroes are men and women of action, like Daniel Boone and Annie Oakley, who subdued an untamed wilderness on the way to forging a great nation. But is that the whole story? Is American history really just a tale of dynamic movers and shakers who left philosophizing to their European counterparts?

In Cycles of American Political Thought, you'll examine the often neglected philosophical underpinnings of this nation's history. With renowned political scientist Professor Joseph F. Kobylka as your guide, you'll explore how this nation of "doers" has, from its birth, been deeply engaged with the most fundamental questions of political philosophy.

Over the course of 36 engaging lectures, Professor Kobylka weaves a tale of nation-founding and nation-building. You'll learn how, from its earliest days, the nation has borne the imprint of influential thinkers from the European continent, from the Reformation theology of John Calvin to the Enlightenment philosophy of John Locke. You'll examine how these ideas have influenced the greatest Americans as, over the centuries, the nation has cycled between variants of a single revolutionary political theory.

But America's story is not simply one of ideas. From the Civil War to the civil rights movement, the Industrial Revolution to the Great Depression, Professor Kobylka's analysis shows how the actions and events of history have both affected and been influenced by underlying political philosophies.

The Ever-Changing Definition of "America"

Throughout this epic historical journey, you'll explore the many ways this nation has answered the question: "What is an American?" Professor Kobylka traces the many answers that have been offered over the centuries, showing how the idea of "We the People" has changed and expanded far beyond the founding fathers' original conception.

And just as the definition of what it means to be an American expands, so the ideas about governance have changed and grown. We'll navigate this ever-shifting political landscape and see how political trends in American history can be understood as variations on a single theme: the philosophy of liberalism. Derived from the writings of Enlightenment philosopher John Locke, this conception of government is the source of some of our most deeply valued political notions, such as the idea that government is designed to serve the needs of the people. Professor Kobylka shows how the many twists and turns of the nation's history can be seen as a cycling back and forth between competing interpretations of this foundational political theory.

Founding Fathers and Freedom Fighters

You'll also meet the unforgettable men and women who, over the course of American history, have molded political thought and policy. We'll see how our most beloved leaders—Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Teddy Roosevelt, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Ronald Reagan—acted from deeply felt philosophical convictions about government, and how apolitical observers—such as philosopher Henry David Thoreau and essayist J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur—offered insights into the strengths and shortcomings of American liberalism.

Our journey through the American political landscape includes the critics and activists who demanded equal access to the nation's promise of equality and liberty. We'll meet some of the courageous figures who fought to redress deeply rooted inequities, including abolitionist Frederick Douglass and suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Understanding the Past, Understanding the Present

Through Cycles of American Political Thought, you'll gain a deep understanding both of the nation's past and how this rich political history continues to influence us today. Even if you've studied American history before, you'll encounter something new: a unique synthesis of viewpoints, ideas, and events that's enlightening and compelling.

And while the story is epic, you'll never lose your way. Professor Kobylka illuminates both the larger patterns of history and the finer details—the lives, events, and ideas that bring history to life. This course will change the way you think about American history.

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36 Lectures
  • 1
    America—The Philosophical Experiment
    Although Americans have a reputation as pragmatists, not philosophers, they've relied from the nation's inception on an ever-evolving framework of political theory grounded in liberalism. This lecture provides an overview of this tradition and establishes a context for exploring and defining American political thought. x
  • 2
    Historical Baggage
    The colonies' first European settlers from Great Britain were shaped by ideas of government developed in their home country. In this lecture, we explore the centuries of British political tradition that influenced the forging of a new notion of governance. x
  • 3
    Theoretical Baggage
    While the historical events of British history helped shaped America's definition of government, the colonists were influenced profoundly by the two dominant theoretical traditions from their time: the Protestantism of Martin Luther and John Calvin, and the theory of liberalism developed by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. x
  • 4
    A Puritan Beginning
    The first European colonists sailed to the new world to gain freedom to practice their religion. In this lecture, we examine how the Calvinist world-view of these settlers dominated early colonial life, as exemplified in the leadership of John Winthrop, governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. x
  • 5
    Expansion and Individualism
    As the colonies grow and expand, cracks begin to appear in the Puritan control of government. New communities and their leaders, such as Roger Williams and John Wise, develop competing views of political governance that replace Winthrop's theocracy with a more democratic notion of governance, paving the way for the advance of liberalism in the colonies. x
  • 6
    The Revolutionary Context
    With the French and Indian War (1754–63), Britain breaks from its policy of benign neglect regarding the colonies and imposes new taxes to support the costs of war. Viewed as unjust, the taxes galvanize the colonists and help forge a sense of their own political identity and inalienable rights. x
  • 7
    The Road to the Declaration of Independence
    In this lecture, we examine the combination of events and ideas that contributed to the development of America's ultimate petition to the British government for its rights: the Declaration of Independence. x
  • 8
    A "Natural" Revolutionary—Thomas Paine
    This lecture explores the life and legacy of Thomas Paine, an influential writer who through his countless pamphlets and other works acted as town crier for the new world order of liberalism. x
  • 9
    The Unconscious Dialectic of Crèvecoeur
    Although not an explicitly political theorist, J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur contributed an informal meditation on political philosophy in his eyewitness account of the early years of the republic. Crèvecoeur extols America as "the new Eden" of liberty, but his work is haunted by the inescapable brutality that persists alongside the tenets of liberalism. x
  • 10
    John Adams—"Constitutionalist"
    Arguably the least heralded member of the revolutionary and constitutional generations, John Adams was also the most theoretically inclined American thinker of his time. In this lecture, we examine Adams's contribution to American political history through his works and writings. x
  • 11
    A Political Constitution
    While the Constitution broke new philosophical ground in establishing ruling principles for a modern democracy, it was also a product of its specific historical and political context. In this lecture, we investigate how this landmark document was shaped by the competing needs and concerns of delegates from all over the 13 colonies. x
  • 12
    A Philosophical Constitution—Faction
    Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison wrote The Federalist Papers, a set of essays designed to defend the Constitution and support its ratification. In this lecture, we trace how these essays contended with majority factions. x
  • 13
    A Philosophical Constitution—Structure
    In applying the "science of politics" to the Constitution, the authors of The Federalist Papers described political structures—including the separation of powers and the system of institutional checks among governmental branches—intended to inhibit faction and stem. x
  • 14
    A Philosophical Constitution—Interpretation
    We take a closer look at The Federalist Papers, examining three modern interpretations: the Pluralist and Republican interpretations, and the Elitist critique. In these, we discover the open texture of interpretation that underlies the signal document of America's political foundation. x
  • 15
    Disorganized Losers—The Anti-Federalists
    Opposing the authors of The Federalist Papers were the Anti-Federalists who argued against adopting the Constitution. Although history has deemed them the losers in this battle, their efforts led to the adoption of the Bill of Rights, and their arguments have recurred throughout American history. x
  • 16
    The "Genius" of Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson is one of the best known and most revered figures of the American founding, due in no small part to his role as author of the Declaration of Independence. We examine the complicated, sometimes contradictory, political views that underpinned his life and writings. x
  • 17
    Jacksonian Democracy—The "People" Extended
    During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the nation expanded westward, and as it did, the definition of "We the People" expanded as well. This expansion introduced into government a wider range of competing demands that helped fuel the debate between two conceptions of the Constitution: Federalist (in favor of a strong central government) and Jacksonian (in favor of preserving states' rights to self-determination). x
  • 18
    Iconoclastic Individualism—Thoreau
    With his championing of the individual and his suspicion of coercive authority, Thoreau served as a liberal critic of a developing liberal society. His iconoclastic individualism would later resurface in movements for civil rights and environmentalism. x
  • 19
    Inclusionist Stirrings—Douglass and Stanton
    The original framers of the Constitution outlined the rights of "the people" but only the people who counted: propertied white men. In this lecture, we begin to consider those who lived on the fringes of the body politic—slaves and women—through an examination of the lives and works of freed slave Frederick Douglass and proto-feminist Elizabeth Cady Stanton. x
  • 20
    The Organic Socialism of Brownson
    In response to the explosion of industrialization in the North, the new nation experienced a widening gap between rich and poor, owner and worker. In a response that anticipates Karl Marx, Orestes Brownson offered a socialist critique of America's burgeoning capitalism that later influenced activist strains of liberalism. x
  • 21
    American Feudalism—The Vision of Fitzhugh
    Like Brownson, George Fitzhugh offers a perspective from outside liberalism, but from a completely different point of view. An unapologetic son of the South, Fitzhugh constructs a neofeudalist solution to society's woes, in which the "master race" will ensure the flourishing of a stable society. x
  • 22
    Constitutionalizing the Slave Class
    Another son of the South, John Calhoun reframes the question of abolition as one of protecting the rights of a special interest (slaveholders) against a tyrannical majority (abolitionists). But his argument ranges beyond the racism of the day, and Calhoun can be seen as the father of pluralistic theory in America. x
  • 23
    Lincoln's Reconstitution of America
    By applying the Declaration of Independence, not the Constitution, as the cornerstone of American governance, Abraham Lincoln reshapes the nation's definition of liberalism, ushering in a new justification for activist government. x
  • 24
    Equality in the Law and in Practice
    In the aftermath of the Civil War, another battle heats up between two opposing strains of the American political tradition—active state liberalism and minimal state liberalism. Congress's Reconstruction Acts represent the actions of a strong federal government advance a new egalitarianism, but they are gutted by a Supreme Court favoring states' rights. x
  • 25
    Social Darwinism and Economic Laissez-Faire
    Variance and diversity have very different meanings in the world of complexity theory. Grasping that difference puts you on the way to understanding how complex systems achieve diversity and why diversity enables them to be both innovative and robust, mai x
  • 26
    Looking Backward, Looking Forward
    Countering Sumner, Edward Bellamy offered a socialist solution to the economic disparities and social unrest resulting from the Industrial Revolution in his popular utopian novel Looking Backward. x
  • 27
    Teddy Roosevelt and Progressivism
    Following in the footsteps of Lincoln, Roosevelt saw government as an engine to advance liberal values through active involvement in social and economic policy. Through trust busting and economic oversight, he enacted his belief that government should regulate large corporations in the interest of the public good. x
  • 28
    Supreme Court and Laissez-Faire
    Populated largely by pro-business Republicans, the Supreme Court of the early 20th century embraced Sumner's Darwinian understanding of governmental power, striking down legislation regulating wages and work hours. x
  • 29
    The Women's Movement and the 19th Amendment
    Activists such as Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Chapman Catt re-energized the call for the inclusion of women in American political and economic life. Their crowning achievement was the passage of the 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote. x
  • 30
    Eugene V. Debs and Working-Class Socialism
    Influenced by Marx, Eugene Debs offered a critique of mainstream liberalism by emphasizing economic class as the crucial element in American society. As a committed socialist, union organizer, civil rights advocate, and candidate for the U.S. presidency, Debs strove to empower the working class as a means to ensure equality and liberty. x
  • 31
    Hamiltonian Means for Jeffersonian Ends
    Often called the "architect of the welfare state," Herbert Croly argued that to ensure the conditions of liberty, the government must create a level economic playing field for its citizens. His argument provided a theoretical underpinning to the progressive nationalism begun by Lincoln, advanced by Teddy Roosevelt, and opposed by the Supreme Court. x
  • 32
    FDR, the New Deal, and the Supreme Court
    Working to pull the nation out of the Great Depression, Roosevelt found little public resistance to his New Deal legislation, a series of programs that represented an unprecedented expansion of the reach of the federal government. His efforts were initially countered the Supreme Court, but eventually paved the way for a new wave of welfare-state liberalism. x
  • 33
    The Racial Revolution
    Responding to the long history of legislation supporting "separate but equal" treatment of African Americans, Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois proposed alternative paths toward the meaningful inclusion of blacks in American political life. x
  • 34
    The New Egalitarianism and Freedom
    With the 1960s came new struggles for universal freedom and equality, especially in the reinvigorated efforts of the women's movement and the civil rights movement. American youth join the fight, critiquing traditional institutions through organizations such as the Berkeley-based Free Speech Movement and Students for a Democratic Society. x
  • 35
    The Reagan Revolution
    After the tumultuous 1960s, the American political climate swung back to a more conservative notion of limited, decentralized government. The movement reached its peak with the rise of Reaganism of the 1980s, which synthesized strains of minimal state liberalism with a theocratic moralism hearkening back to America's Puritan roots. x
  • 36
    Cycles of American Political Conversations
    A backward glance at the material covered in these lectures reveals a complex and ever-evolving philosophical tradition at the heart of American politics. Cycling between opposing strands of liberalism informed by nonliberal critiques, American political thought has repeatedly accommodated changing realities, giving the nation a philosophical flexibility to meet the challenges of a changing world. x

Lecture Titles

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Joseph F. Kobylka
Ph.D. Joseph F. Kobylka
Southern Methodist University

Dr. Joseph F. Kobylka is Associate Professor of Political Science at Southern Methodist University, where he has taught for more than 20 years. He earned his B.A. in Government and History from Beloit College, graduating magna cum laude, and his Ph.D. in Political Sience from the University of Minnesota. Professor Kobylka has received numerous awards for teaching, including the Golden Mustang Award, M Award, Willis M. Tate Award, Bridge Award, and Deschner Award in Women's Studies, and four Rotunda Outstanding Professor awards. He was also the inaugural recipient of SMU's Altshuler Distinguished Teaching Professor Award in 2001, and is a member of the University's Academy of Distinguished Teachers. Professor Kobylka is a leading scholar of political science and is recognized as an expert in American politics, constitutional law, judicial behavior, and American political thought. He is a founding member of the John Goodwin Tower Center for Political Studies at SMU, and he appeared in a four-part PBS series on the history of the U.S. Supreme Court. Professor Kobylka has published more than 20 scholarly articles in political science journals, law reviews, and edited volumes. He also wrote and cowrote three books: The Supreme Court and Legal Change: Abortion and the Death Penalty; Public Interest Law: An Annotated Bibliography; and The Politics of Obscenity: Group Litigation in a Context of Legal Change. He is completing a biography of former U.S. Supreme Court justice Harry A. Blackmun. His work has appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Dallas Morning News, the Houston Chronicle, and The Indianapolis Star.

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Reviews

Rated 4.6 out of 5 by 45 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by Perspective On Present Discontents AUDIO DOWNLOAD I am very impressed with this course. Professor Kobylka is a great presenter and the content of his lectures is top-notch. This is not a dry discussion of political theory. Professor Kobylka contends that “…ideas (philosophy) and actions (context) exist in a complex relationship…Political thought chases events, and events chase political thought. Ideas (philosophy) and actions (context) exist in a complex relationship… Neither can be understood without the other… Both inform each other.” (Course Guidebook, Page 24). The result is a truly interesting and engaging survey, covering over 400 years, that not only deals with “…self-consciously political theorists, [but also] political actors whose actions were infused with theoretical content, and governmental institutions acting on the basis of theoretical constructions of political concepts” (Page 182-183). For the most part, Professor Kobylka is concerned with two main aspects of American liberalism (more broadly understood than today’s often politically charged designation), which he says is “…a very malleable political philosophy”, that "[a]t its core is the individual…All individuals possess rights that are to be protected from encroachment…”). Those two main aspects of American liberalism he terms minimal state and active state liberalism (also referred to as progressivism). To these dominant approaches “…various libertarian, conservative, anarchic, and socialist theories join the conversation from time to time.” (Page 185). Professor Kobylka locates the development of the minimal state and active state liberalism in the arguments over the ratification of the U.S. Constitution (even noting that 1960s Students for a Democratic Society echo Anti-Federalist ideas of 1788). “The federalists and the anti-federalists set the polar stars of the predominant cycle of American political thought: the role of government in general, and of the national government in particular, in the lives of its citizens.” (Page 183). Matters really take off after the Civil War, however, in the “…conversation between these two liberalisms, with each gaining the upper hand at various junctures” (Page 184). Not too surprisingly, but somewhat disconcerting, is Lincoln as the one who got the active state liberal ball rolling. What I enjoyed most about this latter part of the course is its contrasting of two of the major late 19th/early 20th century theorists, William Graham Sumner and Herbert Croly, respectively minimal and active state proponents, and how their ideas and approaches not only impacted federal administrations, but also were reflected in Supreme Court decisions. The tale is an interesting one that includes the New Deal and the “nationalization of the Bill of Rights” (Audio, Lecture 35) by the Warren Court in the 1950sand 1960s, followed by the cycling back to an emphasis on minimal state liberalism by the Reagan Revolution. There is so much to this course that I do not feel able to do full justice to it. Here, however, are some of the main themes (from Pages 185-187): “A. Liberalism, in general and in America, is a very malleable political philosophy. B. American liberalism is characterized by the expansion of the people. C. Space—the “extent of territory”—has had enormous impact as an element of American political life and thought. D. We view America as a once-constituted country, but it has had many reconstitutions…the malleability of liberalism has allowed these reconstitutions without profound philosophical and institutional dislocation. E. Through it all, America has never lost its sense of ‘specialness,’ exceptionalism.” I came away from this course with a better understanding and appreciation of our country’s past and present. Not only did Professor Kobylka do an excellent job on the sweep of American history, but also painted some vivid portraits of important figures, including John Winthrop, Thomas Paine, the Founding Fathers, Orestes Brownson (whose socialism anticipated Marx) Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Dubois, Theodore Roosevelt, Eugene Debs, Woodrow Wilson, FDR, Martin Luther King (in the liberal tradition, but trending toward socialism at the end), William F. Buckley, Betty Friedan, Barry Goldwater, and Ronald Reagan (who harked back to John Winthrop in some important ways). Just a fantastically good set of lectures! At the end of this course, Professor Kobylka notes that “…people like Ann Coulter and Michael Moore see demons on the other side. Jefferson saw Adams as a Monarchist and Adams feared Jefferson a Jacobin (Audio, Lecture 36)…Our ideologues find cataclysmic faults everywhere they turn. So did those of earlier times. This reflects a human tendency to magnify the present and diminish the past” (Page 182). Professor Kobylka is a thoughtful and fair-minded presenter who will keep your attention through thirty-six excellent lectures. Very highly recommended! December 3, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Very Informative and Fair This was a truly exceptional course on the cycles of American political philosophies, between "minimal state" Liberalism and "active state" Liberalism, with a reasonable smattering of non-Liberal critiques (eg, Socialism and non-Liberal Conservatism). The content delivery was superb, learned and coherent. What I particularly appreciated was Professor Kobylka's very fair-minded treatment of all sides. He does an exemplary job of illuminating the thought he's examining without interposing any discernible bias, which, in our partisan Age, is very refreshing. December 3, 2013
Rated 5 out of 5 by Cyclical and dynamic While the lectures themselves are quite informative, I think it is the course "concept" that won me over. The concept is that (Political) thought is dynamic, not a set of facts and figures. The organic nature of politics provides an opportunity for interpretation and reinterpretation of political document and structures to suit the "tenor of the times." Prof. Kobykla thus focus on political philosophy in the context of the development of the United States through the cycles of history. I believe this perspective is quite useful in gaining an understanding of US politics and the nature of our development as a country. It also show the resiliency involved in government and interpretation of government function for differing generations and socio-political realities. Thanks. January 12, 2009
Rated 4 out of 5 by A new slant on old news. In a lot of ways this covered lots of information that I already knew. However, it presents a focus different from what I've heard before. Professor Kobylka shows how this country is basically a liberal country, contrasting minimal vs. active liberalism. He does show the non-liberal side of our tradition (i.e. socialism). I particularly liked the discussions of the traditions that were first brought to this country from England and Europe. He shows how the history of England, the Protestant Reformation and Puritanism affected the thinking of the '55 white, propertied men' who are considered our 'founding fathers.' This era is not often discussed when we talk about our history. Since we know that 'winners write history' it is not surprising that Professor Kobylka spends 3 lectures on The Federalist Papers and only 1 on the Anti-Federalists. But he does show how the anti-Federalists won a couple of important issues -- the Bill of Rights, and the limiting of national power. Many lectures were spent of the expansion of the original definition of men in "all men are created equal." That ex-slaves counted; that women counted. I didn't give this course a full 5-start rating as I found it slow at times. June 20, 2014
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