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Early Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages

Professor Philip Daileader Ph.D.
The College of William and Mary

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Early Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages

Professor Philip Daileader Ph.D.
The College of William and Mary
Course No.  8267
Course No.  8267
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Course Overview

About This Course

24 lectures  |  31 minutes per lecture

We often call them the "Dark Ages," the era which spanned the decline and fall of Rome's western empire and lingered for centuries, a time when the Ancient World was ending and Europe had seemingly vanished into ignorance and shadow, its literacy and urban life declining, its isolation$1#$ from the rest of the world increasing.

It was a time of decline, with the empire fighting to defend itself against an endless onslaught of attacks from all directions: the Vikings from the North, the Huns and other Barbarians from the East, the Muslim empire from the south.

It was a time of death and disease, with outbreaks of plague ripping through populations both urban and rural.

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We often call them the "Dark Ages," the era which spanned the decline and fall of Rome's western empire and lingered for centuries, a time when the Ancient World was ending and Europe had seemingly vanished into ignorance and shadow, its literacy and urban life declining, its isolation$1#$ from the rest of the world increasing.

It was a time of decline, with the empire fighting to defend itself against an endless onslaught of attacks from all directions: the Vikings from the North, the Huns and other Barbarians from the East, the Muslim empire from the south.

It was a time of death and disease, with outbreaks of plague ripping through populations both urban and rural.

It was a time of fear, when religious persecution ebbed and flowed with the whims of those in power.

And as Rome's power and population diminished, so, too, did its ability to handle the administrative burdens of an overextended empire. Fewer records were kept, leaving an often-empty legacy to historians attempting to understand the age.

But modern archaeology has begun to unearth an increasing number of clues to this once-lost era. And as historians have joined them to sift through those clues—including evidence of a vast arc of Viking trade reaching from Scandinavia to Asia—new light has begun to fall across those once "dark" ages and their fascinating personalities and events.

"A World Recognizably Becoming Our Own"

In his new course on The Early Middle Ages—which traces a journey from Scandinavia across northern and central Europe to the farthest reaches of the Byzantine and Islamic empires—Professor Philip Daileader shares this new understanding of a world, no matter how far away and strange it may seem, that is "recognizably becoming our own."

"In countless ways, seemingly obscure events and developments from the ‘Dark Ages' impinge on the lives of people today.

"This is true in the realm of religion, because our period saw the triumph of Christianity over paganism. … This is true in the realm of language, because every word that we speak and write—indeed, the handwriting that we use each and every day—is a product of the historical forces that we will study. … And this is true in the realm of family life, because many practices that existed in 300—such as polygyny, marriage within the kin group, and infanticide—are illegal today and were vanishing or completely gone by the year 1000."

Why Study "The Dark Ages"?

As Professor Daileader points out, given the period's dismal reputation and its temporal remoteness from the 21st century, one might wonder why the histories of the later Roman Empire and the Early Middle Ages should command our attention.

First, he suggests, the years from 300 to 1000 present us with some of the most challenging questions historians have ever had to tackle:

  • Why did the Roman Empire fall?
  • Why did the ancient world give way to the medieval world?
  • Why did Christian monotheism become the dominant religion in Europe?

Secondly, this period commands our attention because of some of the people who lived during it.

"Theologians and philosophers such as St. Augustine were going to exert a commanding influence on European thought for well over a millennium after their death," he notes. "To understand later medieval thinkers, to understand Reformation thinkers, such as Martin Luther, one needs to know something about figures such as St. Augustine."

To be sure, the Early Middle Ages were not without figures who still pique our interest today, such as King Arthur and Charlemagne.

As Professor Daileader considers the extent to which the historical realities of Arthur and Charlemagne match up to the legends that have become attached to their names, he repeatedly fascinates with revealing personal insights, such as Charlemagne's love for simply bobbing around in hot baths, or the window offered into his personality by a contemporary biography penned by a friend and confidante named Einhard.

Einhard's writing is detailed, but the lectures point out that some of those details—including those about the ruler's difficulty in writing his name and chanting Latin liturgy—suggest that his largely complimentary account of Charlemagne's intellectual achievements is exaggerated.

Finally, Professor Daileader emphasizes the importance of understanding the Early Middle Ages as a vital underpinning for what was to come. Even if its accomplishments pale somewhat in comparison to those of the Late Middle Ages or the Italian Renaissance, those later developments are nonetheless built upon foundations established during the Early Middle Ages.

"Without some important transformations that occurred during this period, the rest would not have been possible. To understand fully the High Middle Ages or the Italian Renaissance, it is necessary to understand the Early Middle Ages," he states.

Great Historians View the Dark Ages

A four-time winner of Harvard University's Certificate of Distinction in Teaching, Professor Daileader creates a framework for that understanding by using the contrasting historical theories offered by two extremely influential historians:

  • Edward Gibbon, the English author of the monumental Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, whose explanations closely followed those of the Roman moralists of the 4th and 5th centuries, and
  • Henri Pirenne, the Belgian thinker who injected a newfound emphasis on social and especially economic factors into the analysis of history.

Beginning with their two contrasting viewpoints, Professor Daileader offers a fast-moving portrait of a period of history that consistently belies its reputation as dark or dismal.

You learn, for example, the role of Gibbon's massive ego in his choice of the subject matter that would make him famous, as well as the intensity of his animosity toward Christianity and willingness to express in his writings startling accusations against it.

You study, in depth, the possible reasons for the decline of Rome's vast eastern and western empires, and whether and how Rome actually "fell."

Christianity, as you might expect, plays a tremendously important role in the period covered by this course, but always in unexpected ways.

Professor Daileader explains, for example, how the increasing difficulty of achieving martyrdom—a chore even in a pre-Christian Roman empire and a near impossibility under Constantine—created a need for new paths toward "Christian heroicism."

Those paths might be as expected as monasticism or as outlandish as the pole-sitting Stylites, whose demonstrations of devotion might last for decades and offer Professor Daileader an opportunity to demonstrate his delightful sense of classroom wit.

Hear the Arrest of Jesus … Rewritten as a Norse Saga

You'll also encounter a style of Christian writing you may well never have seen before, as Professor Daileader explores the strategies the Carolingians used to convert Saxons to Christianity and reads a passage describing the arrest of Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane as rendered in one of the most unusual of these writings—The Heliand, a Carolingian translation of the Gospels dramatically rewritten as a Norse saga.

And you'll learn the strange fear that drove Charlemagne to restore Latin literacy during the "Carolingian Renaissance"—including some samples from the standardized tests given prospective priests that offer a hint as to the immense task the Carolingians were up against.

The tests put forth, for example, by Louis the Pious, the son of Charlemagne, included questions on such basic elements of Christian theology as, "Do you believe in the resurrection of the dead?"

"Even more amazing," notes Professor Daileader, "answer sheets were provided for the examiners … because it was by no means certain that the person grading the test was going to know whether this was a ‘true' or a ‘false.' "

You encounter extraordinary successes as well, learning how the often incomprehensible copied texts left behind by the Romans and Barbarians led the Carolingians to develop basics that we now take for granted, including spaces between words, punctuation, and even the form of handwriting we still use today.

You discover the curious reason why Irish and Anglo-Saxon monks worked harder than their counterparts on the continent, and how this contributed to their monasteries becoming the intellectual centers of their day during the 6th-century re-Christianization of Anglo-Saxon England.

The Profound Impact of the Viking and Islamic Cultures

The Early Middle Ages were marked by startling contributions from many cultures.

Though the Vikings, for example, are often presented to us only as warlike invaders, Professor Daileader reveals how they were, in fact, far more complex than that one-dimensional picture indicates.

Yes, their fierce raids for wealth and slaves did result in the sacking of almost every important town in the Carolingian empire multiple times in the 9th century. In fact, citizens even grew to expect the annual Viking raids.

But they also established a remarkable trading network—the Northern Arc—the routes of which took them not only across Europe, but to northern Africa, the Middle East and the Far East. Archaeologists, in fact, have even unearthed a Viking-age statue of Buddha in a Scandinavian bog.

The Vikings' reputation in matters of invasion does not go unexamined, however, and these lectures also explain why the raiders from the north enjoyed such success.

Professor Daileader explains the technological advantage provided by their longboats—the European network of rivers that allowed them to exploit this advantage to the fullest, their ability to carry those longboats across land when they needed to reach new rivers, and the desperate payment of Carolingian protection money—danegeld—that really offered little protection at all; after taking their payout, the Vikings would often simply move on to raid neighboring territories.

Professor Daileader also offers a fascinating glimpse into Islamic culture during this crucial period. You'll see the birth of Islam in the land where, before Muhammad, most of the people were actually pagan polytheists whose worship included several gods in addition to Allah, and the countless ways in which the Arabs transformed Spain—or al-Andalus—during the golden age of Islamic rule.

During this golden age, Islamic rulers brought great technological advances in agriculture to al-Andalus, making the nation a center of complex religious and ethnic diversity and a great seat of scholarship whose ruler was himself rumored to possess a library of more than 400,000 volumes.

You'll also enjoy a remarkable glimpse into the court of al-Andalus's 10th-century ruler, Emir Abd al-Rahman III, who used dazzling tricks including "light shows"—using a bowl of mercury and the architecture of his reception hall—to impress his visitors.

If the demonstration wasn't forceful enough, of course, his visitors could also dwell upon the reputation this ruler had gained for forcefully defending his power, for Abd al-Rahman III had once disinterred and crucified the 11-years-dead corpse of an enemy's father to prove a point that even death held no shelter from his wrath!

One of the most interesting subjects covered by Professor Daileader during his lectures on Islam's role in this period is the origin of the idea of jihad, which had a very different meaning in the time of Muhammad than many of us associate it with today.

Professor Daileader concludes this enlightening look at the Dark Ages with a discussion on how Gibbon and Pirenne have fared through the lens of historical hindsight, and how today's historians will one day face the same judgment.

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24 Lectures
  • 1
    Long Shadows and the Dark Ages
    Though the Early Middle Ages and the world of Late Antiquity that preceded them are often little studied, the questions they raise about why Rome fell and why Christianity replaced paganism as Europe's dominant religion remain important and controversial. x
  • 2
    Diocletian and the Crises of the Third Century
    During the 3rd century, the collapse of a reeling Roman Empire is staved off for a few centuries by the transformative changes introduced by an otherwise conservative emperor named Diocletian. x
  • 3
    Constantine the Great—Christian Emperor
    Constantine's military victories gain him control of the entire Roman Empire and begin the process of transforming Christianity from a minority, illegal religion to the majority, official religion of the Empire. x
  • 4
    Pagans and Christians in the Fourth Century
    The accession of Julian the Apostate causes brief hopes—or fears—of a pagan restoration. But his reign is short-lived, and by 400 A.D. it is clear that the tide has permanently turned toward Christianity within the Roman Empire. x
  • 5
    Athletes of God
    With the conversion of Constantine and the end of imperial persecutions, and with martyrdom no longer readily available, those seeking new ways to excel in their faith turn to new ways of achieving Christian heroism. x
  • 6
    Augustine, Part One
    This is the first of two lectures about perhaps the most influential thinker of the later Roman Empire, whose life and career encapsulate some of the broad changes that were taking place. x
  • 7
    Augustine, Part Two
    In reaction to a theology that argued for the ability of humans to obey God's commands without the assistance of divine grace, Augustine develops a theology that emphasizes human helplessness and the inability to achieve happiness in this world. x
  • 8
    Barbarians at the Gate
    A chain of events set into motion by the Gothic migration of 376 A.D. ultimately leads to the formal end of the western half of the Roman Empire a century later. x
  • 9
    Franks and Goths
    An examination of the Gothic kingdoms and the kingdom of the Franks shows that while the deposing of the last Roman emperor in the west might have been significant from a political standpoint, the administrative, cultural, social, and economic impacts were minimal. x
  • 10
    Arthur’s England
    The Anglo-Saxon settlement of England substantially transforms England's language and the god or gods worshipped there. By the 7th and 8th centuries, Irish and Anglo-Saxon monks have become the leading educators and intellectuals of the day. x
  • 11
    Justinian and the Byzantine Empire
    The eastern half of the Roman Empire—known to historians as the Byzantine Empire—survives the Western Empire by roughly a millennium, managing to preserve classical culture and urban life even as its official language passes from Latin to Greek. x
  • 12
    The House of Islam
    An emerging Arab Empire conquers the Persian Empire, large sections of the Byzantine empire, and even parts of continental Europe, including most of the Iberian peninsula. But an Arab raiding party's insignificant defeat provides the key moment in the ascent of Europe's next great dynasty. x
  • 13
    Rise of the Carolingians
    The Carolingians finally depose the last Merovingian king in 751 A.D., bring all of Francia under their control, and even begin to intervene in Italy, reversing the power balance established during the Roman Empire. x
  • 14
    Charlemagne
    The Carolingian Empire reaches its territorial and military high watermark during the very long reign of Charlemagne, who makes the Empire the most powerful Christian state on the European continent and gains for himself the revived title of emperor. x
  • 15
    Carolingian Christianity
    Carolingian rulers are deeply involved in the affairs of the Christian Church, dictating policy, sponsoring missionaries, and supporting ecclesiastical reform in a number of ways. x
  • 16
    The Carolingian Renaissance
    The fear that educational deficiencies were jeopardizing the salvation of souls and interfering with the ability of people to call on God for help drives a century-long period of educational reform known as the Carolingian Renaissance, the impact of which is felt to this day. x
  • 17
    Fury of the Northmen
    Beginning in the 8th century, Scandinavians fan out from their homeland in a diaspora that stretches from Newfoundland to Russia, involving settlement, the forging of new trading networks, and relentless violence. x
  • 18
    Collapse of the Carolingian Empire
    Discredited by its inability to deal with Viking attacks, the Carolingian dynasty falls prey to battles over succession and its consequent civil wars and ultimately crumbles. x
  • 19
    The Birth of France and Germany
    The collapse of the Carolingian Empire results in the emergence of the Capetians and Ottonians as the new ruling dynasties in West and East Francia, whose differing paths ultimately reshape them as the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Germany. x
  • 20
    England in the Age of Alfred
    Viking attacks on Britain produce very different results from those on the continent, with large sections of England settled. The ultimate result, after the Norman Conquest of 1066, is that a group of Christianized, French-speaking Viking descendents becomes the ruling class in England. x
  • 21
    Al-Andalus—Islamic Spain
    Islamic Spain becomes one of the most dynamic and developed areas of the continent. Despite the brutality of its high politics and religious restrictions on Jews and Christians, its flourishing economy, trade, and intellectual ferment make it an important center of cultural exchange. x
  • 22
    Carolingian Europe—Gateway to the Middle Ages
    This lecture makes the case that, during the Carolingian period, Europe stepped decisively out of its classical past and into its medieval present. x
  • 23
    Family Life—How Then Became Now
    The family underwent a number of structural changes during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, and these changes illustrate how Roman and Germanic culture fused to become the medieval world. x
  • 24
    Long Shadows and the Dark Ages Revisited
    This final lecture examines how historical research has modified the ideas of Gibbon and Pirenne about the transition from the ancient to the medieval world, particularly as they explain the Roman Empire's demise. x

Lecture Titles

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Philip Daileader
Philip Daileader, Ph.D.
The College of William and Mary
Dr. Philip Daileader is Associate Professor of History at The College of William and Mary. He earned his B.A. in History from Johns Hopkins University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in History from Harvard University. Before taking his position at William and Mary, he taught at the University of Alabama and the State University of New York at New Paltz. Professor Daileader received William and Mary's 2004 Alumni Fellowship Award for excellence in teaching. As a graduate student, he was a four-time winner of the Harvard University Certificate of Distinction in Teaching. Dr. Daileader is the author of True Citizens: Violence, Memory, and Identity in the Medieval Community of Perpignan, 1162ñ1397. His research focuses on the social, cultural, and religious history of Mediterranean Europe.
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Reviews

Rated 4.8 out of 5 by 158 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by Excellent Teacher I just finished watching all of the lectures and I found them to be FANTASTIC! Both the content and the presentation were excellent. Professor Daileader has a great command of his subject area and his style of instruction is brilliantly well-thought-out and clearly delivered. He is extremely comprehensive and I found his personality charming, and helpful for keeping my attention. I learned a tremendous amount about Medieval Europe, and my blank vagueness of the time period has been lifted. All would profit from the information presented. June 17, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Excellent Scholarship Philip Daileader is an excellent professor. He introduces the course by presenting two competing themes, one by Edward Gibbon and one by Henri Pirenne. The class begins with the later stages of the Western Roman Empire and it ends around the year 1000. As he proceeds through the course, Daileader indicates that we are dependent on a limited number of sources, and he shows how new information can change our perceptions and interpretations. His concluding lecture shows how modern theories can often be traced back to the theories of Gibbon or Pirenne. June 13, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Rome’s Transformation: Dawning of the Middle-Ages Two major historical theorists / models dominate the explanations for the rise of the middle ages according to Professor Philip Daileader in his lectures entitled: The Early Middle Ages. Edward Gibbon’s the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and Henri Pirenne’s Mohammed and Charlemagne are discussed and presented as working models in lecture 1 and revisited in lecture 24 for re-evaluation with current historical and archaeological findings. Part I major concern is the ROMAN EMPIRE and Part II major focus is on the CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE which are discussed comprehensively and seen as the major cultural and institutional drivers of the dawning middle ages. Part I begins with the 3rd century crisis of the Roman Empire, the responses and innovations of the Emperors Diocletian and Constantine, and the growing CHRISTIANIZATION of pagan culture. Witness the rise of ascetics, monasteries, Neo-Platonism, etc., culminating in a THEOLOGY OF HISTORY -- The City of God by Augustine, the last classical / the first medieval writer. Discuss the several sacks of Rome that finally ends the Western empire politically in 476 A.D. and sends the purple East to Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Empire. This is not the fall of a civilization but a change in the political ruling elite with the rise of various kingdoms / barbarian kings who style themselves in Roman ways in Visigothic-Spain, Ostrogothic-Italy, and Frankish-Gaul. England is less ROMANIZED since the fall was experienced a hundred years earlier when Rome withdrew its army and re-located them along the Rhine-Danube frontiers. England is sacked by the Anglo-Saxons where Germanic and Norse gods are introduced and the Arthurian legends take root. Not until the 7th – 8th centuries will the monasteries, repositories of learning in England and Ireland during the invasions, come to the continent and advance its culture, Christianity, and law. Looking East, survey BYZANTIUM which survives for another 1000 years, the growing gap between the speaking Latin-West and Greek-East, the Emperor Justinian closing of the Platonic Academy (decline of paganism), the construction of churches (growth of Christianity), and the frontier conflicts with the Lombards, Slavs, Persians, and the Arabs – the rise of ISLAM in the 7th century after Mohammed’s death / (Islam’s final prophet of revelation). In one century Islam will reach from the Spain, through Northern Africa, Egypt, Syria-Palestine, to India and drive the center of gravity to the Frankish north (Carolingian dynasty) away from the southern Mediterranean (Western Roman Empire). Part II begins with the rise of the Frankish Empire of the Merovingian dynasty, replaced with the rise of the Carolingian dynasty and its connection with the PAPACY which further separates from the Byzantine East over iconoclasm in 717 A.D. The papacy and the Carolingian connections are further strengthened by the coronation of CHARLEMAGNE in 800 A.D. regaining the title of Emperor in the West. But aristocratic rulers still control the papacy. Churches and monasteries are reformed, parishes and tithes are created to administer and fund activities, and educational scholarship is sponsored and recruited from all of Europe in the greatest extent ranging from texts to priests leading to what historians call the Carolingian Renaissance. With Byzantine and Arab conflicts, the rise in VIKING raids of monasteries and towns with the payment of tribute to the Vikings, and the succession problem after Charlemagne’s death and the Treaty of Verdun 843 A.D., the empire fragments into kingdoms, counties, duchies, and castellans with civil wars and rival aristocratic families finally collapsing the Carolingian Empire with only Normandy remaining as a Frankish settlement. This devolution of power signals the FEUDAL revolution is now underway: serfdom and feudalism make their appearance on the historical stage. This becomes the gateway to the middle ages where the new social characters of lord / vassal / serf are planted. Western Francia became France and Eastern Francia became Germany where in 962 A.D. the church-state connection will become the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. England and Normandy will unite against the Viking raids and be successful, but England herself will fall during the Norman Conquest of 1066 A.D. changing her focus from the North Sea and the Scandinavian Empire to the English Channel and continental Europe. The Arabs in the 8th – 10th centuries conquered Visigothic Spain, brought economic, intellectual, and religious practices, but by the 11th century Arab aristocrats eliminated the caliphate, and Al-Andalus / Islamic Spain fragments into many kingdoms, civil wars, and eventually becomes Christian Spain. Returning to the historical genius of GIBBON and PIRENNE, the professor evaluates their theories in light of the historical presentation given and new research from historians and archaeologists. Gibbon argues from a POLITICAL-MORAL FRAME of reference stressing immoderate greatness as internal causes and barbarian attacks and religious superstitions as external causes. The excessive growth of wealth and power changed the social character of Roman inner strength with an effeminate weakness and a rise in consumption of luxuries undermining discipline in civic, military, and political engagements. But this fall was not the end of a civilization but of the political ruling elite since many characteristics of the Roman way will continue after the barbarian invasions as shown by Pirenne from his SOCIO-ECONOMIC FRAME of reference. As for external reasons, the explanation of religious superstition / Christianity in particular with its other worldly orientation is rejected since the Byzantine Empire continues for another 1000 years and was much more Christianized than the West. Pirenne offers the explosive rise of Islam in the 7th century as the cause in the shift from the Mediterranean basin to the north due to the Arab invasions and the advance and dominance over Syria-Palestine, Egypt, Northern Africa, and Spain surrounding the Mediterranean. But new research also shows that the Vikings’ Northern Arc / trade routes where commercial activity was active reaching from Newfoundland to Russia, to Arabia to India with Islam as a source of stimulation to commercial activities. ADDITIONAL FACTORS such as massive depopulation due to epidemiological reasons of plagues and diseases are also increasingly gaining traction. The professor delivers an historical account of the early middle ages beginning with two theorist, gives empirical data and conceptual form to the journey, and concludes with a re-examination of the dawning of the middle ages with a scholarly and humanistic vision. Extremely well done – thanks to the professor and the Teaching Company -- another gem is offered *** highly recommended. *** June 4, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by An Interesting course I have purchased all the courses on the Middle Ages from this professor but it's the first I've watched. I really enjoyed it, the professor has a unique presentation that I enjoyed for the most part. He obviously knows the subject matter well. The DVD contains a lot of maps that are very helpful when viewing the course. Overall, I really enjoyed this course and learned a lot of good information. May 13, 2015
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