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How the Crusades Changed History

How the Crusades Changed History

Professor Philip Daileader
The College of William and Mary

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How the Crusades Changed History

How the Crusades Changed History

Professor Philip Daileader, Ph.D.
The College of William and Mary
Course No.  3931
Course No.  3931
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Course Overview

About This Course

24 lectures  |  29 minutes per lecture

Hundreds of years have passed since the last crusader knight laid down his sword, but the centuries of medieval warfare we collectively call the Crusades continue to hold powerful sway over our modern world and the tense conflicts between religions and entire civilizations.

Just how powerful was the impact of the Crusades on the spiritual and political landscape of the medieval world?

  • They provided a central rallying point for Christianity, strengthening the power of Christendom and spreading its authority throughout Europe and the Near East.
  • They led to the West’s vast expansion of geographical territory across new parts of Europe, an expansion not seen since the height of the Roman Empire.
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Hundreds of years have passed since the last crusader knight laid down his sword, but the centuries of medieval warfare we collectively call the Crusades continue to hold powerful sway over our modern world and the tense conflicts between religions and entire civilizations.

Just how powerful was the impact of the Crusades on the spiritual and political landscape of the medieval world?

  • They provided a central rallying point for Christianity, strengthening the power of Christendom and spreading its authority throughout Europe and the Near East.
  • They led to the West’s vast expansion of geographical territory across new parts of Europe, an expansion not seen since the height of the Roman Empire.
  • They represented a paradigm shift that fused religion and warfare in a new way.
  • They contributed to a cultural and intellectual awakening that brought about a deeper Western interest in and knowledge of Islam.

And this impact has resonated through the centuries, contributing to everything from the rise of the Ottoman Empire to the Protestant Reformation and infiltrating other aspects of life, including

  • military strategies,
  • political ideologies,
  • theological issues, and
  • international trade and commerce.

Because the Crusades were so consequential to history—both then and now—it’s essential that we understand the context, motivations, and preconditions of these military campaigns. And in doing so, you’ll get a fresher understanding of an era in history with which we’re still trying to come to terms.

How the Crusades Changed History plunges you into the series of Crusades to the Holy Land (and elsewhere), from the calling of the First Crusade in November 1095 until the collapse of the last crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, in 1291. Delivered by master medieval historian and award-winning professor Philip Daileader of The College of William & Mary, these 24 lectures are more than just an enriching recount of captivating historical events. They’re an intellectually rewarding exploration of the ways in which the Crusades shaped the history of the medieval world—and laid the seeds for our own.

Dispel Misconceptions about the Crusades

The Crusades remain lively topics of debate among historians and scholars, and they’re rife with contradictions and misconceptions that require us to peel back layers of history and confront some startling truths that go against what we traditionally think about medieval crusading.

Take, for example, these points:

  • Most Christians weren’t motivated to join the Crusades out of economic considerations but in hopes of gaining indulgences from the Catholic Church to decrease or eliminate time in purgatory.
  • Crusading campaigns reached far beyond Jerusalem and the surrounding Holy Land, extending all along the Mediterranean and throughout much of northern Europe.
  • The Crusades were not universally supported; rather, the period saw critics who questioned particular campaigns—many of which were disastrous failures.

As you’ll learn with this course, these and other truths about the Crusades demonstrate that, rather than being grand wars, many of these military campaigns were tangled misadventures. And yet you’ll see that, for all their messiness, the Crusades made an indelible impact on the identity of Western civilization.

A Fascinating, In-Depth History

Professor Daileader spends the first 17 lectures of the course delivering a riveting in-depth narrative history of the Crusades that takes you in and around the medieval world and sweeps you up in the crusading fervor that led to some of the era’s most intriguing—and disastrous—campaigns. You’ll immerse yourself in the causes, battles, and consequences of the period’s major crusades—as well as some campaigns often overlooked.

  • The First Crusade: Rather than a single expedition, the First Crusade was a series of loosely coordinated waves that left Europe over the space of several years after Pope Urban II’s initial call in 1095. More than 90% of those who were part of the First Crusade were not professional knights; rather, they were the populous, peasants and craftsmen led by a smattering of minor nobles and a popular preacher named Peter the Hermit.
  • The Northern Crusades: Crusading was not just relegated to the Holy Land. Crusading campaigns also took place in parts of Europe. The Northern Crusades facilitated German and Christian expansion into eastern Europe and opened up a theater of war that was easier for crusaders to access than Syria and Palestine, but they siphoned off crusaders who might otherwise have worked to reclaim Jerusalem from the Ottoman Turks.
  • The Children’s Crusade: One of the period’s oddest crusades, the Children’s Crusade of 1212 consisted primarily of processions of French youths—many between the ages of 6 and 14—carrying religious symbols toward Jerusalem to reclaim it for Christendom. More peaceful than other crusades, the Children’s Crusade lacked the militaristic overtones of other campaigns; medieval chroniclers make no mention of its participants bearing arms.

View the Era with a More Inquisitive Eye

Once you reach the end of the major crusading period in the late 13th century, you take a step back in a series of thematic lectures that treat a host of topics with an inquisitive eye. Professor Daileader’s goal with this section of the course: to clarify your picture of the Crusades and to provide you with a stronger grasp of their broader historical consequences.

You’ll get a chance to probe issues and questions that have intrigued historians for centuries:

  • What did contemporary religious thinkers and critics say about the Crusades? What effects did their views have?
  • What was the experience like for individuals who took up the crusader’s call? Why did they go? What did they take with them? How did they live day to day?
  • How did everyday life in western Europe compare with that in the vulnerable crusader states?
  • How did medieval Islam respond to the Crusades?

By taking this approach, you’ll come to see how this frenetic period of warfare paved the way for subsequent historical movements and moments, including the centuries-long dominance of the Ottoman Empire, the Protestant Reformation, the prevalence of missionary campaigns around the world, and more.

Learn from One of America’s Best Professors

How the Crusades Changed History places you in the hands of a historian and teacher named one of the best professors in the United States by The Princeton Review and a four-time winner of Harvard University’s Certificate of Distinction in Teaching.

Just minutes into the first lecture of this engaging course, you’ll find out why Professor Daileader’s lecturing style—filled with eye-opening insights, clear-cut explanations, gripping stories, and touches of ironic humor—has been praised by so many of our customers around the world.

“Whether the Crusades deserve admiration, opprobrium, or something else entirely is a matter for individuals to decide for themselves,” notes Professor Daileader at the start of his engrossing lecture series. “Our goals are to understand the Crusades and to assess their consequences.”

And by doing so with this course, you’ll have the knowledge necessary to come to your own conclusions about just how important and consequential these centuries of warfare were to Western civilization.

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24 Lectures
  • 1
    What Were the Crusades?
    Why do the Crusades still matter, more than 900 years after they began? Here, take a close look at the word “crusade” itself, and some of the many ways it is invoked today. Then, explore some religious ideas that paved the way for the crusading environment and discover who “invented” this fusion of pilgrimage and holy war. x
  • 2
    Before the Crusades—Deep Background
    Examine the long-term historical developments (led by Pope Urban II) that launched the First Crusade in 1095. Make sense of the fragmented politics of the Byzantine Empire and medieval Europe; chart the remarkable expansion and conquests of the Islamic Empire; ponder Islamic and Christian conceptions of holy war; and more. x
  • 3
    Before the Crusades—Immediate Circumstances
    Turn to the immediate events that destabilized peace between the Islamic and Byzantine empires and medieval Europe. Focus on the uncontrolled Turkish migration and Byzantine territorial losses that led to Pope Urban II’s call for a crusade. Also, consider the reasons everyday people responded—and why Jerusalem became the ultimate goal. x
  • 4
    The First Crusade and Conquest of Jerusalem
    The First Crusade was, in a sense, a success—but a messy one. Professor Daileader takes you from the apocalyptic expectations triggered by the expedition and the loosely coordinated waves of Europeans who participated in the critical conquests of Nicaea and Antioch, to the capture of Jerusalem and the massacre of thousands of its inhabitants in 1099. x
  • 5
    The Rise of the Templars
    Encounter a great institutional innovation to arise from the First Crusade: the Templar Order. You’ll learn how the Templars fused the ethics of knighthood and monasticism; how they amassed wealth and property by building churches and acquiring holy relics; and how they came into sometimes vicious conflict with other military orders, including the Hospitallers. x
  • 6
    Defending the Crusader States, 1099–1144
    Jerusalem. Antioch. Edessa. Tripoli. Investigate the early history of these four crusader states (without which there would have been no subsequent crusades). Some states faced Byzantine diplomatic pressure; all faced the threat of an Islamic counterattack. The lecture ends with the Muslim leader Zengi’s fateful capture of Edessa in December 1144. x
  • 7
    The Second Crusade—False Steps and Failure
    The story continues with a look at the tumultuous Second Crusade. Why did this campaign to rescue the crusader states fail? How did Bernard of Clairvaux inspire this next wave of crusaders? How did tangled geopolitics steer where crusading troops traveled? What made the dramatic siege of Damascus such a military debacle? x
  • 8
    Saladin—General and Sultan
    Meet Saladin, the sultan who became one of the most enigmatic figures in the saga of the Crusades. Chart his rise within the ranks of power in Egypt and Syria, witness his conquest of Jerusalem in 1187, and learn how this victory irrevocably changed the geopolitical landscape of the Near East. x
  • 9
    The Third Crusade—We Three Kings
    Go inside the drama of the crusade that pitted two titans of the Middle Ages against one another: Saladin and King Richard the Lionheart of England. As you’ll discover, the aftermath—with Jerusalem still in Saladin’s hands but with surrounding territory restored to Christendom—only escalated tensions even further. x
  • 10
    The Fourth Crusade—Conquest of Constantinople
    Why is the Fourth Crusade considered by historians to be so controversial? How did the expedition get its start? What made the conquest of Constantinople such an unprecedented military success? How did it exacerbate ethnic and religious tensions between Europeans and Byzantines? Find answers to these and other questions here. x
  • 11
    Crusades in Spain
    Travel to the Iberian Peninsula to see the influence of the Crusades in Spain. You’ll learn why the Spanish elevated their wars to the status of “crusades”; how this hurt crusading projects in the Near East; how the crusading attitude shaped the Christian Reconquista of Spain’s Muslims and Jews; and more. x
  • 12
    The Northern Crusades
    Follow the spread of crusading fever to the frontiers of central and northeastern Europe. In what would come to be known as the Northern Crusades, Christian warriors clashed not with Muslims but with the region’s pagan Slavs and Balts in a long, grinding, and brutal affair that would last centuries. x
  • 13
    The Children’s and Albigensian Crusades
    Continue looking at the crusading movement in Europe with a close look at two intriguing campaigns and their aftershocks. The first is the Albigensian Crusade, fought in southern France against heretics. The second is the Children’s Crusade of 1212, a youthful and almost completely peaceful crusade that fizzled after just months. x
  • 14
    Fifth and Sixth Crusades—Tragedy and Oddity
    Turn now to the Fifth and Sixth Crusades in the eastern Mediterranean. You’ll examine why the Fifth Crusade was defeated in a way no Eastern crusade had been before; how the Sixth Crusade gained the (short-lived) recovery of Jerusalem with little fighting; and how both created deep rifts between political and religious leaders. x
  • 15
    Louis IX—The Crusader Saint
    Make sense of the Seventh and Eighth Crusades of King Louis IX of France. As you’ll learn, both Eastern crusades, despite excellent funding and organization, failed; the Seventh Crusade with the capture of the king in Egypt in 1250, and the Eighth Crusade with his death near Tunis in 1270. x
  • 16
    The Hohenstaufen and Shepherds’ Crusades
    Investigate the continued proliferation of crusades to the European interior. Your focus here is the crusade against the Hohenstaufen rulers of Germany (which lasted almost 30 years) and two illicit outbursts of popular crusading enthusiasm against the clergy known as the Shepherds’ Crusades of 1251 and 1320. x
  • 17
    The Fall—1291
    Professor Daileader takes you inside the eventual downfall of each of the crusader states. How did the situation deteriorate so quickly? Why were the Seventh and Eighth Crusades such lackluster failures for crusading troops? Why is 1291 the perfect point at which to assess the consequences and legacy of the Crusades? x
  • 18
    The Crusades and Their Critics
    Almost from their start, the Crusades had their critics. Here, explore contemporary criticism of these military campaigns and the effects (or lack thereof) on the medieval world. You’ll also learn how such criticism helped pave the way for historical events such as the suppression of the Templars. x
  • 19
    War and Travel—The Experience of Crusading
    What was going on a crusade actually like? This lecture reveals what it was like for the average crusader to set out for the Holy Land. You’ll see how crusaders dealt with fear, illness, and financial problems—but also found camaraderie and were changed by their encounters with new places, peoples, and cultures. x
  • 20
    Life in the Crusader East
    Turn now to the experiences of those individuals who lived in the crusader states. You’ll examine the cordial and tense relations between Frankish settlers and local peoples; see how legal distinctions were drawn between Catholic Franks and their descendants; and consider whether the Crusades should be considered a colonial enterprise. x
  • 21
    Cultural Contact and Exchange
    Learn how the Crusades actually worked to promote cultural exchange and exploration between East and West. As you’ll discover, Westerners began to understand the prevalence of Islam throughout the world, which changed previously held notions of geopolitical power. But they also overcame their fear of Islamic culture and embraced aspects of it. x
  • 22
    Crusade and Mission
    Another aspect of the clash between East and West: European missionary efforts among Muslims. Join the contemporary debate over the nature and purpose of missionizing while crusading. Were they a part of the same project or not? Should they be? What was the ultimate decision reached by the Catholic Church? x
  • 23
    The Crusades and the Course of History, Part 1
    In the first of two lectures on the legacy of the Crusades, examine how these controversial campaigns shaped the political, religious, and cultural configuration of southeastern Europe and the Near East—specifically through the emergence of the Ottoman Empire and the final collapse of the Byzantine Empire. x
  • 24
    The Crusades and the Course of History, Part 2
    The spiritual and political influence of indulgences is an often overlooked consequence of the Crusades. Here, see how their corruptive use for personal gain—which skyrocketed in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries—spurred the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent period that historians call the Age of Religious Wars. x

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Philip Daileader
Philip Daileader, Ph.D.
The College of William and Mary
Dr. Philip Daileader is Associate Professor of History at The College of William and Mary. He earned his B.A. in History from Johns Hopkins University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in History from Harvard University. Before taking his position at William and Mary, he taught at the University of Alabama and the State University of New York at New Paltz. Professor Daileader received William and Mary's 2004 Alumni Fellowship Award for excellence in teaching. As a graduate student, he was a four-time winner of the Harvard University Certificate of Distinction in Teaching. Dr. Daileader is the author of True Citizens: Violence, Memory, and Identity in the Medieval Community of Perpignan, 1162ñ1397. His research focuses on the social, cultural, and religious history of Mediterranean Europe.
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Reviews

Rated 3.9 out of 5 by 18 reviewers.
Rated 4 out of 5 by A good walk through the Crusades I really enjoyed Professor Daileader's courses on the Middle Ages so I looked forward to learning about the Crusades from him. I just finished the course and enjoyed it a lot. It gives a good overview of what happened in the Crusades and in the last few lectures puts the information to discuss the effects of the Crusades on history. I gave this course four stars rather than the five that I would give to the Middle Ages courses just because of the nature of the material. Because the Crusades were a series of events rather than an era, the course is mostly chronological, walking through lots of events. What I likes about the Middle Ages courses was the explanation of how changes in technology and living changed things. There is some of that in the background in the first lecture or so and in the aftermath at the end, but in between you have a lot of crusades and crusaders to go through. Still, I learned a lot and enjoyed the course, getting through it fairly quickly. March 10, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Narrative of the Crusades This is the fourth course I have taken given by Professor Dialeader, the other three being his excellent trilogy on the middle ages which I had enjoyed immensely. This one, as it turned out, was no exception. The course is primarily narrative in nature. The first three lectures present the background to the crusades: professor Daileader presents the three major entities that were to interact during the crusades – the Byzantine Empire, the Muslim world and the emerging Western European culture. Professor Daileader describes in these first lectures the cultural background and immediate political circumstances that made the crusades seem like a good idea to Western Europeans towards the end of the Eleventh century. The next fourteen lectures are a narrative account of all of the crusades that took place – both those to the Mediterranean, and those that were eventually to target other areas unimagined by Urban II (the pope who ordered the first Crusade) such as the Baltic region, Germany, Southern France and the Iberian Peninsula. The first Crusade was ordered to help the Byzantines with their troubles with the Seljuk Turks, who were gaining more and more control of regions in Asia Minor. Pope Urban II was really hoping that this gesture would help patch things up with the Byzantines, but as it happened that was not to be. The Main Crusaders were noblemen, most of which were not firstborns and so did not inherit the estates of their fathers and so – were left to find their own way in the world. The first Crusade was not a Monarch's Crusade. As it happened, the first Crusade was fantastically successful, much beyond what anyone had expected. Four independent Crusading states were conquered and then established: Antioch, Eddesa, Tripoli and Jeruslaem, jointly called Outremer. The Crusades did little to help the Byzantines with the Turks, and in fact the tension in relationship between the West and Byzantium was greatly exacerbated by the Crusades, a key point in the Crusades to follow. The following Crusades to Outremer, were aimed at enabling reinforcements and defending the Crusading states, and after Saladin conquered Jerusalem back from the Crusaders, to gain it back and revive the glory days of the first Crusades. In fact, it turned out that the Crusading states were never as strong as when they were first established – it was all downhill from there. Some of the most famous Western Monarchs would eventually go on Crusade, and some were to die during it. The third Crusade, also called the King's crusade, was to include Wesern Europe's three greatest kings. King Richard Lion-Heart of England was to spend a large part of his Monarchy in Outremer. Phillip II of France also went on this Crusade, but took on a rather minor role unlike Richard Lion-Heart. He proved to be a lesser Crusader, but probably a better Monarch. He went back to France and set up a strong bureaucracy and economic infrastructure that would make France stronger than it had ever been since Charlemagne. The Third Monarch, Frederick Barbarosa of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), drowned on his way to Jerusalem ending his contribution with a huge anti-climax. If the third Crusade did little to help the situation in Outremer, the fourth Crusade was really not much more than a hi-jacking. Since the beginning of the Crusades, the Italian city states took on the important role of transporting the Crusaders to Outremer, thus saving the huge effort of the Crusaders to make the huge land crossing as the first Crusaders had. As a consequence the Italian city states, primarily Venice and Genoa, became extremely rich and over time used their maritime skills not only to transport Crusaders to Outremer, but also to establish strong trade connection with the Muslims. As such they were not as enthusiastic about the Crusades as they had been at the beginning and the fourth Crusade was in a way hi-jacked and turned against Byzantium. Constantinople was sacked by the Crusaders of the fourth Crusade and Byzantium lost forever its place as the rich, direct continuation of the ancient Roman Empire. It would be reestablished some sixty years later but will never rise to the same heights. Other fascinating topics are discussed including the North Crusades, the Children's Crusades and the Albegencian Crusade in Southern France. The final seven lectures shift perspective and are analytical instead of narrative in nature, studying for example who the Crusaders were, who the Western Europeans who settled in Outremer were, and who were those who opposed the Crusades. I found these lectures to be particularly fascinating. Overall this has been a fantastic course. I did not have much knowledge about the crusades before, and being an Israeli it actually shed a lot of light on some of the most important Archaeological sites in Israel primarily in the Galilee, Acre and Jerusalem. I agree with some of the other reviewers that the name is not terribly appropriate: the course did not focus so much on how the Crusades changed history, but simply on what the Crusades were. Still, it was extremely informative for me, and professor Daileader was as delighting to listen to in this course as he was in the previous three courses of his that I have heard. Overall, I feel that I learned a lot and the course was easily worth the time and effort. February 13, 2015
Rated 4 out of 5 by How the Crusades Changed History This is the first course I've taken from the Great Courses where I relied solely on the audio and purchased it on CD rather than my usual DVD's. I've learned that it's best to contact the company to find out the number of illustrations in a course before I make the purchase. Having said that, it is clear that Professor Daileader is very knowledgeable about the subject matter; his course was presented in a chronologic and understandable way. He highlighted important people from the period and this course has added to my understanding of the middle ages and the impact of the Crusades on the politics of the period. In contrast to other professors, I found the lectures themselves not particularly inspiring which is to say the manner of presentation was not as 'intense' -more matter of fact-than many of the other lecturers I have seen in the Great Courses. Overall I was satisfied with the course but I've seen many better - -and some worse. February 10, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by One of the Best Yet This course was one of the best I have purchased. It was detailed, with appropriate authority. It seemed to be sufficiently broad and encompassing, but yet provide the detail I wanted. January 12, 2015
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