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King Arthur: History and Legend

King Arthur: History and Legend

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King Arthur: History and Legend

Course No. 2376
Professor Dorsey Armstrong, Ph.D.
Purdue University
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4.8 out of 5
45 Reviews
100% of reviewers would recommend this series
Course No. 2376
  • Audio or Video?
  • You should buy audio if you would enjoy the convenience of experiencing this course while driving, exercising, etc. While the video does contain visual elements, the professor presents the material in an engaging and clear manner, so the visuals are not necessary to understand the concepts. Additionally, the audio audience may refer to the accompanying course guidebook for names, works, and examples that are cited throughout the course.
  • You should buy video if you prefer learning visually and wish to take advantage of the visual elements featured in this course. The video version is not heavily illustrated, featuring a variety of visuals designed to aid in your understanding of the course material. These dynamic visuals include detailed maps that take you back in time and show you how the legends of King Arthur spread across Europe; they also include exquisite examples of illustrations, paintings, and other visual arts inspired by Arthurian legends.
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Course Overview

The saga of King Arthur and his knights and ladies is perhaps the most enduringly popular mythic tradition of Western civilization. For over 1500 years, the Arthurian narrative has enthralled writers, artists, and a limitless audience in countries spanning the Western world and beyond—and its appeal continues unabated in our own times.

With origins in the exploits of a 5th-century Celtic warrior, the legend of a noble king and his knightly cohort caught fire across Europe, spawning a vast literary tradition that reached its height in the Middle Ages, with major contributions from writers both in Britain and throughout the Continent.

But the appeal of the saga far outlived the medieval era. It remained dynamically alive in folk culture and theater through the Renaissance, only to see an epic literary and artistic resurgence in the 19th century, which continues to the present day in multiple forms—from fiction writing and visual arts to film and popular culture. No other heroic figure in literature compares with King Arthur in terms of global popularity and longevity; today, each year sees literally thousands of new versions of the story appear across diverse media.

What does this amazing phenomenon tell us about our culture, our civilization, and ourselves? What is it about this particular story that has so deeply gripped the human imagination for so many centuries, in so many places?

King Arthur: History and Legend speaks deeply to these key questions and many more, revealing the full and astonishing scope of the Arthurian tradition, from its beginnings in post-Roman Britain to its extraordinary trajectory across the centuries and its latest incarnations in our own times. Within 24 content-rich lectures, you’ll encounter all of the most essential portrayals of the Arthurian saga in literature and art, encompassing:

  • the preeminent treatments of the legend in Latin, Welsh, and English texts, including milestone versions from Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain to T.H. White’s The Once and Future King;
  • seminal versions of the narrative and major thematic additions by writers in France, Germany, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and other European countries, including monumental texts such as the Perlesvaus and the Prose Lancelot;
  • iconic representations of Arthurian themes in visual art, from medieval stonework and woodcarving to the flowering of the saga in 19th-century painting and decorative art; and
  • the remarkable transformations of the stories in 20th- and 21st-century literature, art, and film.

Your pathfinder in this world of mythic adventure and romance is Professor Dorsey Armstrong of Purdue University, an expert Arthurian scholar and current editor-in-chief of the academic journal Arthuriana, who brings rare insight and depth to this most unusual and compelling inquiry. Through her incisive commentary, you’ll draw out the core archetypes and cultural values that drive the saga, exploring in depth its elemental themes of kingship, courage, virtue, loyalty, romantic love, and devotion to God.

You’ll also trace how the myth developed across time, clarifying many misunderstood aspects of the narrative, such as the origins of the Round Table and the figure of Merlin, the illicit love between Lancelot and Guenevere, and the varied manifestations of the magical Holy Grail. You’ll discover how the legend was appropriated and assimilated by differing cultures, and how each writer in the tradition reflected and commented, through the Arthurian narrative, on the concerns of their own time and place. The result is an illuminating look at one of the most engaging, entertaining, and impactful legendary traditions the world has ever known.

A Myth for the Ages

In the course’s opening section, you’ll delve into the historical mystery behind the figure of Arthur, finding that the real-life model for the legend bore little resemblance to the noble monarch so many of us imagine. Within the grand legacy of Arthurian literature, you’ll study integral elements of the tradition such as:

  • The History of the Kings of Britain: Take the measure of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 12th-century blockbuster bestseller, perhaps the single most significant Arthurian text. Assess the acutely political nature of the work, and observe how Geoffrey established many core features of the legend as we’ve come to know it.
  • King Arthur and the French: Discover how French writers working between the 12th and 14th centuries expanded the Arthurian narrative in essential ways, fully developing the ethos of courtly love, contributing characters such as the heroic figure of Lancelot, and linking Arthur’s knightly community with spiritual and religious endeavors.
  • The German Arthurian Tradition: Grasp the vital impact of German treatments of the saga. Note how German writers grappled with philosophical questions of the relation of worldly undertakings to devotion to God, and see how they developed important narrative strands such as the Tristan legend and the Grail quest.
  • Le Morte Darthur: Explore Sir Thomas Malory’s definitive 15th-century account of the story, which essentially “set” the legend for all subsequent writers. Observe how Malory brought together the entire Arthurian narrative in a comprehensive retelling, and also introduced the Pentecostal Oath, a knightly code of honor and key thematic element.
  • Idylls of the King: Learn how Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s great poetic cycle—some of the most beautiful, idealized writing in the tradition—almost singlehandedly triggered a huge resurgence in Arthurian expression in the 19th century and deeply influenced Victorian visual art.
  • The Mists of Avalon: Among noteworthy 20th-century treatments of the legend, contemplate Marion Zimmer Bradley’s revolutionary feminist retelling of the saga, portraying Arthur’s rise and fall through the perspectives of Arthur’s half-sister Morgaine and the druidic faith of the Mother Goddess.

A Tradition of Astounding Richness and Diversity

In the course’s final section, you’ll travel into many additional areas of Arthurian expression. Within the realm of visual art, you’ll trace the remarkable contributions of the artists of the 19th-century Pre-Raphaelite movement. Marvel at the Arthurian paintings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones, Edmund Leighton, and others, as well as the decorative art in stained glass and tapestry of William Morris and his circle.

You’ll take account of how Richard Wagner adapted and modified the legend in his two Arthurian operas, Tristan und Isolde and Parsifal, and how Mark Twain lampooned both British and American society in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. Finally, you’ll track the saga into our own times in examples ranging from Mary Stewart’s remarkable Merlin trilogy to the ingenious comic book rendering of Camelot 3000 and noteworthy film treatments such as John Boorman’s Excalibur and Antoine Fuqua’s King Arthur.

Demonstrating both encyclopedic knowledge and an infectious passion for the subject, Professor Armstrong is the perfect guide in this epic quest. The lectures are enriched with striking visual images, including important manuscripts, photos of locations associated with the legend, and Arthurian-related art and architecture from around the world.

King Arthur: History and Legend offers you a comprehensive and detailed overview of the Arthurian phenomenon in all of its extraordinary diversity and enduring impact. These fascinating lectures speak to the essence of what is arguably the Western world’s most beloved and deeply cherished myth.

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24 lectures
 |  30 minutes each
  • 1
    The Origins of King Arthur
    First, consider images of the Arthurian legend familiar in Western culture, and their relationship to historical reality. Trace the history of post-Roman Britain, the large-scale invasions of the Anglo-Saxons, and evidence that a single, extraordinary individual rose from the chaos to lead and save his people. x
  • 2
    An Arthur-Like Figure in Cornwall
    Investigate archaeological and historical evidence that support the existence of an Arthur-like figure in early Britain. Learn about the site of Cadbury Castle, the center of operations of a leader of great military and logistical skill who thwarted the Saxon invasion. Learn also about important lore surrounding the supposed tomb of Arthur. x
  • 3
    King Arthur in the Latin Chronicles
    Now explore some of the most significant early witnesses to the Arthurian legend. In Latin texts by the chroniclers Gildas (6th century) and Nennius (9th century) and in the Welsh Annales Cambriae, study accounts of Arthur's exploits and death in battle. Learn how 11th- and 12th-century texts later embellished the legend, elevating Arthur as a godlike hero. x
  • 4
    King Arthur in Wales - The Mabinogion
    Grasp how Arthur became a cultural touchstone early in Welsh history. In texts such as the Black Book of Carmarthen and the Triads of the Island of Britain, uncover key references to the Arthurian saga. In the tales of the Mabinogion, observe the portrayal of Arthur as an exalted royal personage. x
  • 5
    Monmouth, Merlin, and Courtly Love
    Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain is arguably the most important literary artifact of the Arthurian tradition. Learn about the political nature of the text, the important elements and characters that Geoffrey wove into it, and how he established the basics of the Arthurian legend as we know it. x
  • 6
    The Round Table - Arthur in Wace and Layamon
    Discover the contributions of the Anglo-Norman scribe Wace, who translated Geoffrey of Monmouth's text into Old Northern French, and the English cleric Layamon, who created the first comprehensive account of Arthur in English. Compare how Wace advances the notion of courtly chivalry in the saga with Layamon's more brutal portrayal of Arthur's community. x
  • 7
    Chretien de Troyes and Sir Lancelot
    This great Arthurian writer introduced elements of the legend that would become essential. Learn how de Troyes pioneered the genre of the medieval romance, developed the ethos of courtly love in his writings, and introduced the great heroic figure of Lancelot and his adulterous love of Guenevere. x
  • 8
    Arthurian Tales in Brittany and Burgundy
    Here, encounter the works of Marie de France, whose Arthurian writings developed themes of romantic love, the magical, and the noble. Then learn how Robert de Boron linked King Arthur to the spiritual and religious realms and introduced the Holy Grail, which figures prominently in the massive, anonymous text of the Perlesvaus. x
  • 9
    The Lancelot-Grail Cycle
    This lecture explores the remarkable 13th-century work known as the Prose Lancelot. Discover the text's five parts, highlighting the central section, where Lancelot assumes his place as the greatest Arthurian knight. Delve into the Grail Quest narrative and its theological thrust, as well as the Mort Artu, detailing the tragic outcome of the Arthurian saga. x
  • 10
    The Early German Arthurian Tradition
    Study the key Arthurian texts of Hartmann von Aue, which delve deeply into questions of the balance between noble love, knightly endeavor, and devotion to God. Then grasp the brilliance of Wolfram von Eschenbach's portrayal of Parzival's wisdom quest, involving the magical Grail stone and the legendary Fisher King. x
  • 11
    King Arthur's Other German Adaptations
    Numerous other German writers made their marks on the legend of Arthur. Among them, contemplate Gottfried von Strassburg's masterful text on the Tristan legend, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven's elaborate treatment of Lancelot, Wirnt von Grafenburg's story of the adventure quest of Wigalois, and Heinrich von dem Turlin's encyclopedic saga The Crown. x
  • 12
    The Arthurian Sagas of Scandinavia
    Follow the legend of Arthur into the literary traditions of medieval Iceland and Norway. Learn how Norwegian king Hakon Hakonarson commissioned adaptations of Arthurian works into Old Norse, and explore distinct differences in ethos, sensibility, and emphasis between the Continental and Scandinavian versions of the knightly saga. x
  • 13
    Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
    Delve into the fascinating narrative of this highly sophisticated poem, following the great Sir Gawain through elaborate plot twists on his quest to fulfill an astonishing challenge. Investigate the meaning of his journey, and consider the important questions it raises concerning free will, loyalty, shame, and honor. x
  • 14
    The Alliterative Morte Arthure
    In this dramatic culmination of the saga, study the events of Arthur's military victory over Rome, and his ensuing degeneration from noble king to ruthless conqueror. Reflect on the poignant final meeting of Mordred and Gawain, the story's bleak denouement, and the poet's implicit message regarding Arthur's character and the nature of war. x
  • 15
    Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte Darthur
    Thomas Malory's massive retelling of the Arthurian saga became a benchmark for all writers who came after him. Learn how Malory's text introduced the Pentecostal Oath, a sacred code of ethics sworn to by the knights, which Malory "tests" throughout the narrative as a model for noble thought and action. x
  • 16
    Enriching the Legend - Tristan and Isolde
    The Celtic legend of Tristan and Isolde was assimilated as a key element of the Arthurian tradition. Study the narrative of the Tristan story as it emerged in two distinct literary traditions, and grasp how the story's appeal led to Sir Tristan being "co-opted" as a knight of the Round Table. x
  • 17
    The Holy Grail from Chretien to Dan Brown
    No physical object in the Arthurian canon carries more symbolic weight than the Holy Grail. Discover the origins and varied manifestations of the Grail, explore the most celebrated of the literary Grail narratives, and investigate why the Grail has fired the imagination of writers from the medieval world to the modern one. x
  • 18
    Arthuriana in Medieval Art
    Uncover rich depictions of Arthurian scenes in cathedrals and churches across Western Europe, as well as in privately commissioned artworks, and grasp why such scenes proliferated in religious settings. Learn also how a massive table, once believed to be the actual Round Table of King Arthur, was put to symbolic use by British royalty. x
  • 19
    Spenser, Milton, and the Renaissance Arthur
    In a relatively sparse era of Arthurian literary output, trace noteworthy currents of the saga in Spenser, Milton, and the work of Renaissance historians. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, note the rise of Arthur's presence in popular ballads, songs, and poetry, and his remarkable portrayal on the stage in English and Cornish. x
  • 20
    Idylls of the King - The Victorian Arthur
    The 19th century witnessed an explosion of interest in the legend. Learn about the poetry of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, whose Idylls of the King inaugurated a new era of Arthurian writing and scholarship. Discover the extraordinary Arthurian works of the pre-Raphaelite painters, and delight in portrayals of Arthurian themes in stained glass, tapestry, and illustration. x
  • 21
    Wagner and Twain - King Arthur in the Late 1800s
    In his two overtly Arthurian operas, observe how Richard Wagner adapted and modified the Arthurian legend to dramatize social and religious ideals, linking these ideals with Germany itself. On our own shores, grasp how Mark Twain satirized the saga in Connecticut Yankee, critiquing both European aristocracy and American society. x
  • 22
    Once and Future - The 20th-Century Arthur
    Among significant 20th-century treatments of the saga, begin with T.H. White's The Once and Future King and its ruminations on kingship, power, and governance. Also explore Mary Stewart's highly original Merlin Trilogy, Marion Zimmer Bradley's feminist The Mists of Avalon, and the brilliant comic book series Camelot 3000. x
  • 23
    Camelot Comes to Hollywood
    From the wealth of Arthurian cinema, investigate major film portrayals of the legend from recent decades. In particular, learn about the brilliant satire of Monty Python and the Holy Grail, the weighty symbolism of John Boorman's Excalibur, the modern-day Grail narrative of The Fisher King, and the achievements and shortcomings of Antoine Fuqua's King Arthur. x
  • 24
    King Arthur in the 21st Century and Beyond
    Conclude by assessing the roles of the Arthurian legend in modern culture. Consider the associations of the saga in merchandising and the commercialization of historical sites, as well as its uses in pop culture and media. Finally, grasp the remarkable adaptability of King Arthur as a symbol of courage and hope. x

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Dorsey Armstrong

About Your Professor

Dorsey Armstrong, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Dr. Dorsey Armstrong is Associate Professor of English and Medieval Literature at Purdue University, where she has taught since 2002. The holder of an A.B. in English and Creative Writing from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in Medieval Literature from Duke University, she also taught at Centenary College of Louisiana and at California State University, Long Beach. Her research interests include medieval women writers,...
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Reviews

King Arthur: History and Legend is rated 4.8 out of 5 by 45.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fascinating Topi I liked this course so much that I took a trip to Wales, rented a car, and went to locations that are famous of the legend! The professor is no doubt one of the most qualified scholars on the topic. She is expert at medieval languages and history and literature. The course is a thorough examination of the legend -- much more interesting at the beginning of the course in defining the origins of the man than near the end as it covered every piece of literature through the centuries that embellished the stories. The professor was articulate. She told complicated details clearly and ventured her educated opinion on controversial evidence.
Date published: 2017-03-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Extremely interesting! This is the 3rd course I have done with Dorsey Armstrong and I would recommend any of them. She is knowledgable about her subject and is at the same time an engaging teacher with a great sense of humour. She does a great job with the evolution of the legend of Arthur through the ages.
Date published: 2017-03-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Tales of the Tale: Fabulous Professor Armstrong is definitely one the GC's 5-star teaches. Her enthusiasm and wit are infectious. This course hardly needs another high rating; but I will give it another anyway. This is the story of how a legend migrated across Europe, got modified, and interpreted through the centuries. It certainly enlightened me. You may want to quickly review the very early history of what we call the British Isles today before launching into the course. Rating the "value" of this course is a bit different than the many science, philosophy, and religion courses I have taken. There is some history in this course but I think it is mostly for fun. This course is not going to change your mind on how the universe was formed or if God really talked to Moses; but it will enlighten you on how a legend (or legends) can evolve through time, country, and language. My one suggestion for the course is: this course just begs for a 'glossary' of people's names. So many characters show up with different names as the legend migrated through countries and languages it would have been useful for the guidebook to have such a glossary.
Date published: 2017-03-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent professor! The instructor is very engaging and enthusiastic about Arthurian legends and artifacts. I highly recommend this to people interested in the development of medieval stories.
Date published: 2017-02-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Dr. Armstrong is fantastic!! I was thrilled to receive this course as a Christmas gift and have listened to it non-stop ever since Christmas afternoon. Dr. Armstrong is so passionate and knowledgeable about Arthuriana, is a wonderful speaker, and has a delightful presentation. I would sign up for anything she teaches!! I wish she were my everyday friend! Kudos!!
Date published: 2017-02-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Perfect balance - introduction, interest, detail Prof. Armstrong was down-to-earth, exceptionally well-versed in the history and detail and entertaining. I'm in the middle of a long project of "catching up" on all the courses I would have loved to have taken in college/graduate school, and this was high on the list. I found this a wonderfully digestible and informative course.
Date published: 2017-01-03
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great course, but "The British Worthy" is missing! I viewed this lecture series via The Great Courses Signature Collection on Amazon. This is a wonderful course! The presentation is fascinating and comprehensive. Professor Armstrong structured her presentation like a symphony, one episode leading smoothly to another, holding (at least my) interest all the way through to the end -- which came far too soon! I loved the little personal anecdotes she added and the delightful bits of humor thrown in to help make the material more entertaining and relevant to an interested audience. I say "interested audience" pointedly, as a lot of the material is pretty academic and specialized. If you're expecting the Hollywood take on the Arthurian legend, this course will probably not be your cup of tea. If you're willing to stay with it, though, the rewards would hopefully make it worthwhile. So, why four stars and not five? Dr. Armstrong laments the fact that interest in the Arthurian legend reached a nadir in the period from the Renaissance through the Enlightenment, only picking up again in the Romantic movement of the 19th-century. True enough, but there were some important exceptions. Notable among these is the semi-opera “King Arthur, or The British Worthy,” with music by Henry Purcell and libretto by John Dryden. Premiered in 1691, this delightful piece falls well within the “dry spell” of Arthurian works. I feel Dr. Armstrong should have, at the very least, mentioned this popular and important contribution to Arthuriana. That she did not takes away from the overall presentation.
Date published: 2017-01-03
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Generally great... You always ask for a review well before I have had a chance to start a course, as I order new courses before I have finished the last..so here is a general comment: I LOVE the Great Courses. I use them on a one-hour drive and back, weekly, to a volunteer job, and on long solo road trips. With one exception where all myths seemed to be tied to a theory of American exceptionalism, I have found them quite outstanding...BUT, I can do without the trumpet fanfares and the applause!! he lectures themselves are quite wonderful enough.
Date published: 2016-12-12
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