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Long 19th Century:  European History from 1789 to 1917

Long 19th Century: European History from 1789 to 1917

Course No.  8190
Course No.  8190
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Course Overview

About This Course

36 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture
History at its most interesting is complex, a fascinating whirl of events, personalities, and forces, and few periods of history offer us such captivating complexity as Europe's 19th "century"—the often-broadly defined period from the French Revolution to World War I that formed the foundation of the modern world. How was that foundation built? And what did that transition to modernity mean for peasants, workers, the middle class, aristocrats, women, and minorities? Why did an era that began with the idealism of the French Revolution and the power of the Industrial Revolution culminate in the chaos of World War I, considered by most historians to be the greatest tragedy of modern European history? Did nationalism and imperialism inevitably lead in such a direction, or were there other factors involved? Even these questions, as important as they are, can only hint at the complexity of this period, just as this course can really only put us on a path toward the answers. Understand a Turbulent Era Dr. Robert I. Weiner assumes no prior knowledge of this era and no professional vocabulary, "just interest, curiosity, and hopefully, passion." Disclaimers notwithstanding, these lectures indeed offer the opportunity for anyone with an interest in history to take an enormous stride toward understanding the whys of this turbulent and important era, and not just the whats. Professor Weiner, a five-time recipient of Lafayette's Student Government Superior Teaching Award during his 35 years of teaching history at Lafayette College, leads you on a spirited journey across an ever-changing European landscape, examining the forces and personalities that reshaped the continent's physical borders, diplomatic relationships, and balance of power. He moves from the impact of both the French and Industrial Revolutions in the period from 1789–1848, into the so-called "unifications" of Italy and Germany in the 1850s and 1860s, followed by the spread of industrialism and nationalism into the furthest reaches of Europe toward the end of the century. By that time, the world had undergone profound changes: In Europe, the dominance of Great Britain and France had been eclipsed by a rapidly modernizing Germany. Austria-Hungary was struggling to survive as a multinational empire. Russia was facing stresses of inadequate modernization as other nations moved ahead. The United States and Japan were beginning to enter into an emerging balance of world power. Almost all of Africa and much of Asia had been gobbled up in a final spasm of imperialist expansions. Moreover, the European great powers, organized in alliances and enmeshed in an arms race, were confronting increasingly dangerous international crises. While more people in Europe were living better than ever before, Europe had become a very dangerous place—soon to erupt in a war more brutal than any the world had ever seen. Enjoy an Ambitious Look at a Much-Pondered Subject In exploring the evolution of the environment that ultimately made World War I possible, Professor Weiner has crafted a very ambitious course, covering a vast range of material. He repeatedly steps back from "on-the-ground" events to clarify historical trends or patterns. For example, he concentrates on political and diplomatic moves of the great powers—Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Italy—while always discussing them in the context of the deeper economic, social, and cultural forces at work. He doesn't merely offer you a chess position from which the next move is made; he lets you know how and why the various pieces have come to be arrayed the way they are, and how they reflect the impact of some of history's most significant names: Napoleon Bonaparte, whose massive legacy, though uneven, includes spreading the ideas of the French Revolution, such as freedom of religion and equality before the law, everywhere his soldiers marched Napoleon III, whose mixed reviews include one historian's recognition that he was "unique among dictators in ending his career with a government that provided his country with more freedom than the government he started with" Klemens von Metternich, the shrewd Austrian foreign minister who spoke for conservative, monarchical Europe during the last three decades of the Age of Revolution Otto von Bismarck, the German chancellor who was architect of both Germany's unification and a system of alliances that ultimately led to her downfall Kaiser Wilhelm II, the brash young kaiser with a "special knack" for political and diplomatic gaffes Alfred Dreyfus, the Jewish French Army captain unjustly accused of espionage and whose ordeal inspired modern Zionism Karl Marx, the German intellectual whose ideas about a radical new philosophy found fertile ground on a continent where industrial modernization was creating new disruptions and resentments Count Camillo di Cavour, the brilliant Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia whose tragic early death left imperfect the unified Italy he helped to create William Gladstone, the moralist humanitarian and Prime Minister who helped democratize Great Britain. An Unflinching Look at Some of History's Major Players These historical figures join with many others in a presentation that is unfailingly interesting and provocative, with Professor Weiner often quite frank, although fair, in his assessment of individuals and their decisions. This course can easily be divided into four major teaching segments. After a short orientation to the Ancien Regime which offers a basis of comparison to the dramatically different world that was to come, Dr. Weiner's organizational plan begins with the period from 1789 to 1848 that has come to be known as the Age of Revolution. Professor Weiner's second major section covers the period from the repression of the 1848 Revolutions until the unification of Germany in 1870–71. Professor Weiner begins the third section with a look at the time European power was at its zenith, from 1870–1914. This power was felt on economic, military, political, and diplomatic levels throughout the world. The final segment of the course covers the developments in European diplomacy that led to World War I, as well as the war's dramatic impact. As the course—and Europe—move closer to the catastrophe of World War I, Professor Weiner narrows the focus again. He presents several case studies of the great powers in the decades leading up to the conflict, including Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and, as he describes it, "the cauldron that was Russia, Turkey, and the Balkans." The Devastating Impact World War I was punctuated by a series of battles of industrial slaughter, such as Verdun, the Somme, the Nivelle Offensive, and the final German thrusts in the West in the spring of 1918. More than nine million combatants perished, including more than half of the French men who were between the ages of 20 and 32 when the war began in 1914. Concluding lectures examine not only the major events of the war but also the its impact on contemporaries and the following generation, and how it set the stage for World War II. Although Lenin, Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler were neither inevitable nor likely candidates for national leadership in prewar Europe, they were rooted in their national cultures, children of their age, and Dr. Weiner attempts to answer the question: What had gone wrong?
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History at its most interesting is complex, a fascinating whirl of events, personalities, and forces, and few periods of history offer us such captivating complexity as Europe's 19th "century"—the often-broadly defined period from the French Revolution to World War I that formed the foundation of the modern world. How was that foundation built? And what did that transition to modernity mean for peasants, workers, the middle class, aristocrats, women, and minorities? Why did an era that began with the idealism of the French Revolution and the power of the Industrial Revolution culminate in the chaos of World War I, considered by most historians to be the greatest tragedy of modern European history? Did nationalism and imperialism inevitably lead in such a direction, or were there other factors involved? Even these questions, as important as they are, can only hint at the complexity of this period, just as this course can really only put us on a path toward the answers. Understand a Turbulent Era Dr. Robert I. Weiner assumes no prior knowledge of this era and no professional vocabulary, "just interest, curiosity, and hopefully, passion." Disclaimers notwithstanding, these lectures indeed offer the opportunity for anyone with an interest in history to take an enormous stride toward understanding the whys of this turbulent and important era, and not just the whats. Professor Weiner, a five-time recipient of Lafayette's Student Government Superior Teaching Award during his 35 years of teaching history at Lafayette College, leads you on a spirited journey across an ever-changing European landscape, examining the forces and personalities that reshaped the continent's physical borders, diplomatic relationships, and balance of power. He moves from the impact of both the French and Industrial Revolutions in the period from 1789–1848, into the so-called "unifications" of Italy and Germany in the 1850s and 1860s, followed by the spread of industrialism and nationalism into the furthest reaches of Europe toward the end of the century. By that time, the world had undergone profound changes: In Europe, the dominance of Great Britain and France had been eclipsed by a rapidly modernizing Germany. Austria-Hungary was struggling to survive as a multinational empire. Russia was facing stresses of inadequate modernization as other nations moved ahead. The United States and Japan were beginning to enter into an emerging balance of world power. Almost all of Africa and much of Asia had been gobbled up in a final spasm of imperialist expansions. Moreover, the European great powers, organized in alliances and enmeshed in an arms race, were confronting increasingly dangerous international crises. While more people in Europe were living better than ever before, Europe had become a very dangerous place—soon to erupt in a war more brutal than any the world had ever seen. Enjoy an Ambitious Look at a Much-Pondered Subject In exploring the evolution of the environment that ultimately made World War I possible, Professor Weiner has crafted a very ambitious course, covering a vast range of material. He repeatedly steps back from "on-the-ground" events to clarify historical trends or patterns. For example, he concentrates on political and diplomatic moves of the great powers—Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Italy—while always discussing them in the context of the deeper economic, social, and cultural forces at work. He doesn't merely offer you a chess position from which the next move is made; he lets you know how and why the various pieces have come to be arrayed the way they are, and how they reflect the impact of some of history's most significant names: Napoleon Bonaparte, whose massive legacy, though uneven, includes spreading the ideas of the French Revolution, such as freedom of religion and equality before the law, everywhere his soldiers marched Napoleon III, whose mixed reviews include one historian's recognition that he was "unique among dictators in ending his career with a government that provided his country with more freedom than the government he started with" Klemens von Metternich, the shrewd Austrian foreign minister who spoke for conservative, monarchical Europe during the last three decades of the Age of Revolution Otto von Bismarck, the German chancellor who was architect of both Germany's unification and a system of alliances that ultimately led to her downfall Kaiser Wilhelm II, the brash young kaiser with a "special knack" for political and diplomatic gaffes Alfred Dreyfus, the Jewish French Army captain unjustly accused of espionage and whose ordeal inspired modern Zionism Karl Marx, the German intellectual whose ideas about a radical new philosophy found fertile ground on a continent where industrial modernization was creating new disruptions and resentments Count Camillo di Cavour, the brilliant Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia whose tragic early death left imperfect the unified Italy he helped to create William Gladstone, the moralist humanitarian and Prime Minister who helped democratize Great Britain. An Unflinching Look at Some of History's Major Players These historical figures join with many others in a presentation that is unfailingly interesting and provocative, with Professor Weiner often quite frank, although fair, in his assessment of individuals and their decisions. This course can easily be divided into four major teaching segments. After a short orientation to the Ancien Regime which offers a basis of comparison to the dramatically different world that was to come, Dr. Weiner's organizational plan begins with the period from 1789 to 1848 that has come to be known as the Age of Revolution. Professor Weiner's second major section covers the period from the repression of the 1848 Revolutions until the unification of Germany in 1870–71. Professor Weiner begins the third section with a look at the time European power was at its zenith, from 1870–1914. This power was felt on economic, military, political, and diplomatic levels throughout the world. The final segment of the course covers the developments in European diplomacy that led to World War I, as well as the war's dramatic impact. As the course—and Europe—move closer to the catastrophe of World War I, Professor Weiner narrows the focus again. He presents several case studies of the great powers in the decades leading up to the conflict, including Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and, as he describes it, "the cauldron that was Russia, Turkey, and the Balkans." The Devastating Impact World War I was punctuated by a series of battles of industrial slaughter, such as Verdun, the Somme, the Nivelle Offensive, and the final German thrusts in the West in the spring of 1918. More than nine million combatants perished, including more than half of the French men who were between the ages of 20 and 32 when the war began in 1914. Concluding lectures examine not only the major events of the war but also the its impact on contemporaries and the following generation, and how it set the stage for World War II. Although Lenin, Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler were neither inevitable nor likely candidates for national leadership in prewar Europe, they were rooted in their national cultures, children of their age, and Dr. Weiner attempts to answer the question: What had gone wrong?
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36 Lectures
  • 1
    The Long 19th Century
    This lecture discusses the reasons for extending the "century" to include the points in time when the masses and modern nationalism first presented themselves in Europe's most powerful country to the collapse of the 19th-century Eurocentric world order. x
  • 2
    The Legacy of the Past—The Old Regime
    What was Europe like on the eve of the French Revolution? We discuss how the structures of a changing medieval society were further challenged by economic, social, and cultural forces, even before the more profound agrarian and industrial revolutions to come. x
  • 3
    The Age of Revolution, 1789–1848
    This lecture focuses on the landmark analyses of mid-20th century Marxist historian Eric J. Hobsbawm to explain how the French and Industrial Revolutions served as midwives to modern European history and, via the umbilical cord of European imperialism, modern world history. x
  • 4
    The French Revolution
    Although scholars debate the causes of the French Revolution, all agree that it helped determine the political vocabulary, expectations, and myths of 19th-century Europe as it persisted for at least 10 years in Europe's most powerful state, spreading far and wide "in the knapsacks of French soldiers." x
  • 5
    The Napoleonic Era, 1799–1815
    An adventurer of enormous talents and capacity for work and intrigue, Napoleon Bonaparte dominates Europe's historical imagination like no one until Adolf Hitler, representing much that was best in his era, even though his legacy is marred by his monumental ego and penchant for conquest. x
  • 6
    The First Industrial Revolution, 1760–1850
    The Industrial Revolution becomes the main force propelling Europe's modernization and urbanization, gradually transforming much of Britain's urban landscape over several generations until by 1850 it is the workshop of the world, with a greater productivity than the rest of Europe combined. x
  • 7
    The Era of Metternich, 1815–1848
    We examine an era characterized by tensions between the forces of order and the forces of change. Though the former—represented by Austrian Prince Clemens von Metternich—generally dominates, more liberal, constitutional worlds emerge in Britain and in France, though by far different means. x
  • 8
    The Revolutions of 1848
    Sparked by an "unintended" revolution in Paris, outbreaks involving middle class elements, workers, and artisans erupt in urban areas in the Germanic states, the Austrian Empire, and the Italian states, leading to a temporary collapse of established authority and hasty concessions. x
  • 9
    Europe, 1850–1871—An Overview
    Dashed expectations combine with expanding urban industrial civilization to usher in a new age of realpolitik and a new balance of power. Though an era of remarkable scientific, economic, and urban advancement, it is also marked by nationalist and class-based antagonism, Social Darwinism, and "modern" racist thought. x
  • 10
    The Crimean War, 1853–1856
    This lecture examines what is sometimes considered the most senseless of Europe's 19th-century wars—a conflict that makes possible the structural changes Europe will experience from the late 1850s through the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871. x
  • 11
    From Napoleon to Napoleon—France, 1815–1852
    More than the American Revolution, the French Revolution left a legacy of debris-disputed claims of legitimacy, disputed rights, and grievances. This lecture examines the tumultuous era between the defeat of Napoleon and the rise of his fascinating and enigmatic nephew, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. x
  • 12
    Napoleon III—An Evaluation
    Napoleon III faced the daunting task of establishing legitimacy and creating a liberal, constitutional monarchy in a bitterly divided France and a Europe threatened by his name. Ruling longer than any 19th-century French monarch, Napoleon III's legacy is marred by France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. x
  • 13
    Italy on the Eve—An Overview
    The final structure of the Italian nation, achieved when Italy occupied Rome in 1870, was far from what the major players had anticipated. This lecture paves the way for understanding the disappointing results of "unification" by analyzing the plight of Italy in 1848. x
  • 14
    Cavour and Napoleon III—“Unifying” Italy
    The developments that set "unification" into motion are instigated by Piedmontese minister Count Camillo di Cavour and Napoleon III. But Cavour's death leaves the final process of creating the new nation to lesser talents, with problematic results. x
  • 15
    Germany on the Eve
    This lecture examines the situation before the forging of the German Empire by the powerful Prussian statesman, Otto Von Bismarck—a situation even more complex than that faced by Italy. x
  • 16
    Age of Bismarck—Creating the German Empire
    A believer in absolutist power and aristocratic ascendancy, Bismarck masters the forces of the age, using military success, nationalist pride, economic/industrial expansion, and astute political manipulation to create a Prussian-dominated German Empire he would guide until his dismissal in 1890, a victim of the irresponsible structure he had created. x
  • 17
    The British Way
    This lecture examines how Great Britain's political, economic, and social structure allowed it to follow a unique path to political and economic modernization, weathering many of the storms afflicting other great powers—though not always without internal issues. x
  • 18
    The Russian Experience, 1789–1881
    Russia begins the "long 19th century" with little stimuli for modernization. It is oversized and still expanding, overwhelmingly agrarian with primitive transportation and communication systems, and dominated by a divine right absolutist monarchy that is allied with a privileged aristocracy. This lecture examines Russia's transition. x
  • 19
    The Apogee of Europe, 1870–1914
    During an age of massive change and material growth, there are crucial shifts in emphasis: nationalism, Social Darwinism, racism, industrialism, European imperialism, a decline in the "liberal" spirit. We also discuss the rise of modernist philosophies exemplified by such greats as Nietzsche, Freud, Bergson, and Sorel. x
  • 20
    The Industrialization of Europe
    The Second Industrial Revolution brings about greater change than any prior era. New forms of power, technology, and business organization, along with the possibilities brought by revolutions in transportation, communications, and education, make this transformation synonymous with urban civilization. x
  • 21
    The Socialist Response
    Although industrial, urban civilization brings growing democratization and middle-class opportunity, it is also an era of expanding Socialist visions and unionism. The modern urban proletariat is now real, recognized even by Bismarck. This lecture examines the impact of this new reality. x
  • 22
    The Longest Hatred—European Anti-Semitism
    This lecture examines what one historian has called "the longest hatred," a deeply embedded and changing element of Europe's culture, especially at the end of the 19th century, when it developed into new political and racial forms, notably in Central and Western Europe. x
  • 23
    England, 1868–1914—Liberalism to Democracy
    Although England's industrial dominance is eclipsed by Germany and the United States on the eve of World War I, and its extended empire has become a source of strain as well as pride, the English response to industrial society is still more successful than that of the other European powers. x
  • 24
    The Third Republic—France, 1870–1914
    Emerging from the Franco-Prussian War and the trauma of a civil war, the Third Republic struggles to consolidate itself and then cope with a progressively harsher series of crises that culminate in the Dreyfus Affair, an event so profound it is sometimes called simply "The Affair." x
  • 25
    Bismarckian and Wilhelminian Germany
    Bismarck's domestic policies attempt every solution besides sharing real power. When he is fired by the brash new kaiser, the problematic forces Bismarck had been able to monitor—militarism, imperialism, and more extreme and racialist nationalism—begin to spiral out of control. x
  • 26
    Flawed States—Austria-Hungary and Italy
    Although the Austro-Hungarian Empire and flawed Italian state did not have much in common, both were examples of "failed" nation-states at the end of the century. This lecture examines the reasons why, and the conditions in both nations during the formative years of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. x
  • 27
    Russia, Turkey, and the Balkans
    This lecture examines the circumstances that ultimately lead Russia to humiliating defeat and the near-overthrow of the regime during the Russo-Japanese War, and how this, in turn, leads nationalists to focus their attention on the Balkans, where the seeds of disaster are planted. x
  • 28
    Bismarck Dominates Europe, 1870–1890
    This lecture examines Bismarck's dominance of Europe's diplomatic agenda as he constructs a complex system of defensive alliances that prove a dangerous legacy for later German leaders lacking in his genius, sense of proportion, and respect for the balance of power. x
  • 29
    The “New” Imperialism
    European imperialism from the 1880s until about 1905 is remarkable for its intensity, tone, scope, and impact. It is spurred on, sometimes haphazardly, by national pride, Social Darwinian and racial assumptions, the search for economic growth and strategic security, Christian conscience, human adventure, and greed. x
  • 30
    The Diplomacy of Imperialism, 1890–1907
    This lecture examines the eventual unraveling of the Bismarckian system of alliances after his dismissal by Kaiser Wilhelm, culminating in the realization of Bismarck's worst nightmare: Germany surrounded by a number of powerful countries and tightly tied to an unstable Austria-Hungary. x
  • 31
    Europe in Crisis, 1908–1914—Outbreak of War
    A complex web of events, alliances, and crises move Europe closer to the brink of war. Eventually all of the powers focus on diplomatic and military preparedness, and patience is in short supply. x
  • 32
    The Origins of World War I
    One of the most meticulously studied topics in all of modern history: the causes of World War I. This lecture examines how a seemingly local conflict could degenerate into the greatest tragedy in modern European history. x
  • 33
    The Great War—A Military Overview
    This lecture looks at the immediate and long-term impact of the war—the prism through which most of the 20th century passed—with emphasis on the critical battles and military decisions that determined its outcome and best represent its nature and impact. x
  • 34
    The Home Front During Total War
    Once the First Battle of the Marne determined that Germany would not win World War I quickly, and combatants realized the war would consume greater quantities of resources than imaginable, the "war behind the war" became as decisive as the one on battlefield, leaving an indelible imprint on the postwar generation. x
  • 35
    The Impact of World War I—New World Disorder
    Gauging the impact of World War I is difficult: It accelerated profound and global changes, many of which are still "in process" today. World War I was to the 20th century what the French and Industrial Revolutions were to the 19th. x
  • 36
    Looking Back, Thinking Ahead
    This lecture summarizes the impact of the "long 19th century." It was, despite its tragedies, a time of progress and change, and brought to fruition many of the promises and hopes of both the French and Industrial Revolutions. x

Lecture Titles

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Robert I. Weiner
Ph.D. Robert I. Weiner
Lafayette College
Dr. Robert I. Weiner is the Thomas Roy and Lura Forrest Jones Professor of History at Lafayette College. He earned his B.A. from Temple University and a Hebrew teaching certificate from Gratz Hebrew College. He earned his M.A. and Ph.D. from Rutgers University. Since joining the faculty of Lafayette College in 1969, Professor Weiner has taught a wide range of courses in the fields of Modern European History and Modern Jewish History. He also serves as a Jewish chaplain and was Director of Contemporary Civilization at the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College for eight years. Dr. Weiner is an award-winning teacher. He received six Student Government Awards for Superior Teaching and several institutional awards for teaching, service, and leadership, including the Lafayette College Marquis Distinguished Teaching Award and the James Lennertz Award for Teaching and Mentoring. Professor Weiner has published a number of articles and commentaries on both Modern European History and Modern Jewish History.
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Reviews

Rated 3.6 out of 5 by 53 reviewers.
Rated 1 out of 5 by too scattered While this professor knows much of European history, he does not know what to tell the listener. His way of roaming around the edges of things tells one little if you are not already familiar with the subject. July 17, 2014
Rated 3 out of 5 by Really poor maps & visuals hurt this course Professor Weiner is a gentleman with a smooth delivery. He makes the case the 19th century was complicated but not really why. The course is presented from the opinionated view of an American 'progressive'. Although he stated in the beginning that he was an American Liberal this reference point left the whole course full of generalities and very superficial. There were many specific and geographical events that helped shape the century and just saying 'the industrial revolution' lead to change without discussing or illustrating any specific inventions, structures, organizations, concepts, or politics left the course rather shallow. The visuals really hurt this course as a DVD. Having spent many years training instructors it is difficult to watch the almost verbatim reading of a slide on the screen. Reminds me of the dreaded 'death by Power Point'. My wife and I jokingly referred to this course as 'the reaaallllly long course/century'. The greatest problem though were the poor maps in both quantity and quality. The entire history of Europe in the 19th century was a constantly changing map which was cause and effect of much of what happened. Good maps and illustrations would help this course and add substance. I cannot recommend it to anyone in its current format. July 3, 2014
Rated 4 out of 5 by the long 19th century dazzling information, confusing presentation at times February 26, 2014
Rated 2 out of 5 by Not very substantive. Lecturer has lots of oddities (as others have noted), including repeatedly referring to lectures as "commentaries", but it is the content that seems most defective. The lectures are littered with generalities and are insufficiently detailed; it does not seem evident that the lecturer has mastered the material. He cites very old scholarship (LCB Seaman and W N Medlicott, for example), leaving impression of dated interpretations. December 23, 2013
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