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Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War

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Peloponnesian War

Course No. 3372
Professor Kenneth W. Harl, Ph.D.
Tulane University
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Course No. 3372
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  • You should buy audio if you would enjoy the convenience of experiencing this course while driving, exercising, etc. While the video does contain visual elements, the professor presents the material in an engaging and clear manner, so the visuals are not necessary to understand the concepts. Additionally, the audio audience may refer to the accompanying course guidebook for names, works, and examples that are cited throughout the course.
  • You should buy video if you prefer learning visually and wish to take advantage of the visual elements featured in this course. The video version is well illustrated and features more than 200 maps, 3-D animations, and illustrations. There are original maps that provide a shocking comparison between the scope of the Persian Empire and the city-states of Greece; there are illustrations that offer looks at everything from the Athenian navy to the architectural glories of the age of Pericles; and there are 3-D renditions of battles at Salamis, Pylos, and more. While we recommend the video version and believe that the included visuals greatly enhance Professor Harl's presentation, audio customers report being highly satisfied with their experience as well.
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Course Overview

The ancient Greek historian Thucydides called it "a war like no other"—arguably the greatest in the history of the world up to that time. The Peloponnesian War pitted Athens and her allies against a league of city-states headed by Sparta. Thucydides himself was an Athenian general in the fighting, sentenced to exile partway through the 27-year struggle, after losing a key battle to one of Sparta's leading commanders.

Although Thucydides lived to see the end of the war, his history breaks off in its 21st year. Other ancient writers completed the record but without Thucydides's sense of drama and matchless insight—for he is the first historian to seek the true causes of events. His eyewitness account of the war has been a classic for 24 centuries and is still studied for its profound truths about the nature of human strife.

In this course, Professor Kenneth W. Harl draws on this masterpiece as well as other ancient sources to give you a full picture of the Greek world in uneasy peace and then all-out war in the late 5th century B.C.

Into the Thick of Action

Professor Harl is well known to many Teaching Company customers for his compelling courses Rome and the Barbarians, The Vikings, The Era of the Crusades, The World of Byzantium, and others. A connoisseur of detail, he plunges you into the thick of politics, military strategy, economics, personalities, culture, and technology. In these 36 half-hour lectures, you will feel the ancient Greek world come alive as you explore such scenes as:

  • War debate at Athens and Sparta: Thucydides records speeches that took place in citizen assemblies as war fever took hold—and cooler heads were ignored. These make a gripping narrative, comparable to the drama that led to the outbreak of World War I.
  • Plague of Athens: Severe overcrowding in Athens probably touched off the devastating plagues that swept through the city beginning in 430 B.C. Thucydides himself contracted the disease and survived. The great Athenian statesman Pericles was not so lucky.
  • Revolt of Mytilene: In deciding the fate of an ally that tried to change sides, one Athenian demagogue argued that all adult males should be executed and the women and children enslaved. This policy was adopted, but rescinded at the last moment.
  • Battle of Pylos: The unthinkable happened to the proud Spartan army when a contingent of its troops was outmaneuvered by Athenians and captured, eventually leading to a peace treaty that ended the war after 10 years. But the fighting soon flared up again.
  • Sicilian expedition: The climax of Thucydides's account is a massive expedition mounted by Athens against cities allied with Sparta on the rich island of Sicily. Well manned and well equipped, the expedition was ineptly led and would end in disaster.

New Look at an Old Conflict

One of the surprising aspects of the Peloponnesian War is that it sparks lively scholarly debate even today, and Professor Harl introduces you to some of the key controversies. For example, what was the true nature of Sparta's notoriously closed society? Was it, at bottom, alien to our Western values—as some historians now believe? Or did Sparta partake of a common Greek culture that made it more similar than dissimilar to Athens? Professor Harl takes the latter view and argues that this position is crucial to understanding why Sparta achieved something that confounds traditional interpretations: Sparta won the war.

Throughout these lectures, you will focus on the major figures behind events: men like Pericles, who gave Athens her greatest monuments but also did more than anyone to bring on the war; Alcibiades, the gifted and unscrupulous Athenian aristocrat, who first led Athens—then switched sides—then switched back again; and Lysander, the Spartan general who finally won the war but ended his days as a meat carver at the table of the king of Sparta.

Citizens Deciding Their Own Fates

Unlike earlier great wars, the Peloponnesian War was not a conflict between kings but between citizens from different city-states, who shared the same language, gods, oracles, and festivals such as the Olympic Games. Citizen assemblies decided questions of war and peace—literally voting on their own fates, since they were the ones who had to do the fighting.

One of the major themes of the course is that as the war progressed, stasis erupted in city after city. The term stasis comes from the Greek word for standing and means faction-driven sedition or civil war. In the murderous stasis that overtook the island of Corcyra, Thucydides noted, "To fit in with the change of events, words, too, had to change their usual meanings. What used to be described as a thoughtless act of aggression was now regarded as the courage one would expect to find in a party member."

You will also learn other Greek terms. For example, the traditional heavily armed Greek infantryman is called a hoplite, after his massive circular shield, the hoplon, which was designed to cover the soldier while also protecting the man to his immediate left in the fighting line—an innovation that heightened unit cohesion and the sense of comradeship of citizen soldiers in combat.

Culture amid War

Ironically, the Peloponnesian War was fought against the backdrop of Greece's Golden Age, epitomized by Athens and its astonishing innovations in government, architecture, oratory, philosophy, and the dramatic arts. One of the most remarkable aspects of this era is that culture flourished side-by-side with the politics of war—that even as Athenian citizens were honoring Aristophanes's mocking antiwar play The Acharnians by giving it first prize in a drama competition, they were debating with equal ardor whether to continue the war, and deciding overwhelmingly to do so.

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36 lectures
 |  30 minutes each
Year Released: 2007
  • 1
    Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War
    In his eyewitness account of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides set a standard for writing history that endures to this day. We explore his influence on modern historians and the enduring value of studying this war. x
  • 2
    The Greek Way of War
    This lecture examines the Greek approach to land battles, showing how the institution of the polis led to the use of citizen soldiers called hoplites—a style of fighting that underwent major changes during the Peloponnesian War. x
  • 3
    Sparta—Perceptions and Prejudices
    The disciplined city-state of Sparta headed one side in the war. Ancient sources have created the modern impression of Sparta as an authoritarian and soulless society. This lecture offers a more balanced view. x
  • 4
    Sparta and Her Allies
    We continue our background exploration of Sparta with a look at the Peloponnesian League, a powerful alliance headed by Sparta that extended even beyond the peninsula of the Peloponnesus. x
  • 5
    The Athenian Democracy
    Sparta's rival was Athens, whose most distinctive political institution was democracy. Remarkably for that era, all male citizens over 18 had the right to vote, without property qualifications. x
  • 6
    Athens and the Navy
    From 505 to 480 B.C., Athens built the greatest fleet in the Greek world, an effort that bolstered its democratic institutions: Thousands of citizens of the lower classes, vital to the city's defense because they rowed the ships, were rewarded for naval service with enhanced legal and social privileges. x
  • 7
    Victory over Persia, 490–479 B.C.
    Sparta and Athens were reluctant allies against Persia, which sought to conquer the Greek homeland in 490 B.C. and again in 480 B.C. Athens won glory at the battles of Marathon and Salamis, as did Sparta at Thermopylae. x
  • 8
    Athens or Sparta—A Question of Leadership
    As Persian power waned, Greek cities under Persian control revolted, looking to Sparta for leadership. Rebuffed, they turned to Athens. The resulting alliance led to the foundation of the Delian League. x
  • 9
    Cimonian Imperialism
    Fresh from victories over Persia, the Athenian general Cimon converted the naval alliance of the Delian League into the Athenian Empire. x
  • 10
    Sparta after the Persian Wars
    Thucydides is surprisingly silent about events in Sparta in the 50 years between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars. We weigh the view that Sparta preferred isolation, lest its citizens be morally corrupted by overseas service. x
  • 11
    The First Peloponnesian War
    In 461 B.C., Spartans and Athenians clashed in what has sometimes been called the First Peloponnesian War, which lasted until 446 B.C. x
  • 12
    The Thirty Years' Peace
    This lecture examines the Thirty Years' Peace that ended the First Peloponnesian War. Despite differences in how each party understood the treaty, there were reasons to believe peace would last. x
  • 13
    Triumph of the Radical Democracy
    We investigate the reforms sponsored by Pericles that transformed Athens into a full participatory democracy. Pericles established a standard of democratic leadership that later Athenian political figures failed to attain. x
  • 14
    From Delian League to Athenian Empire
    The emergence of Athenian power in the Aegean and the creation of its naval empire completely changed the political dynamics of Greece. x
  • 15
    Economy and Society of Imperial Athens
    Athens was the first state to monetize its markets and base its wealth on seaborne commerce. How did the economies of Sparta and its allies compare? x
  • 16
    Athens, School of Greece
    From the Persian to Peloponnesian Wars, Pericles presided over a golden age in architecture, visual arts, and literature, making Athens the school of Greece and defining Classical civilization for ages to come. x
  • 17
    Crisis in Corcyra, 435–432 B.C.
    General war loomed after a revolt broke out at a remote colony in northwest Greece, inciting a clash between the two rivals Corcyra and Corinth. Athens sided with Corcyra, enraging Corinth, which was allied with Sparta. x
  • 18
    Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War
    The Corcyra crisis put Athens on a collision course with Sparta. We explore whether the chain of events leading to war could have been halted. x
  • 19
    Strategies and Stalemate, 431–429 B.C.
    Pericles aimed to avoid a land battle with Sparta, while harassing Spartan interests by sea to force a negotiated peace. By the third year of the war, a stalemate had developed and Pericles was dead from plague. x
  • 20
    Athenian Victory in Northwest Greece
    In a change of strategy, Athens escalated operations in northwest Greece—a region dominated by Corinth and vital to the Peloponnesians. By 426 B.C., Athens had won an important victory there. x
  • 21
    Imperial Crisis—The Chalcidice and Mytilene
    This lecture looks at fighting in northern Greece, a strategically vital area for Athens. When unrest spread to the island of Lesbos, Athens put down the rebellion and was on the verge of brutal reprisals, but relented. x
  • 22
    Plague, Fiscal Crisis, and War
    We investigate how the war changed the population and prosperity of the Greek world. Athens suffered most, from plague and the despoiling of agricultural land. x
  • 23
    Demagogues and Stasis
    The war transformed the democratic institutions of Athens and ignited stasis (civil war) in city-states on both sides. In Athens, demagogues such as Cleon wielded the power once held by the democratic leader Pericles. x
  • 24
    Pylos, 425 B.C.—A Test of Leadership
    By 425 B.C., Sparta and Athens were locked in a deadly struggle, without prospects of either victory or negotiation. Then Athens achieved a breakthrough at Pylos, trapping Spartan troops and forcing their surrender. x
  • 25
    New Leaders and New Strategies
    The deaths in 422 B.C. of the Athenian Cleon and the Spartan Brasidas removed the two most senior commanders in favor of continuing the war. x
  • 26
    The Peace of Nicias
    During the winter of 422–421 B.C., the Athenian statesman Nicias negotiated what was to have been a 50-year peace treaty with Sparta. But peace would not last. x
  • 27
    Collapse of the Peace of Nicias
    The period from 421 to 418 B.C. saw the disintegration of the Peace of Nicias and the emergence of Spartan and Athenian leaders who were eager to renew the conflict. x
  • 28
    From Mantinea to Sicily, 418–415 B.C.
    This lecture analyzes events surrounding the Battle of Mantinea, which involved shifting alliances aimed at isolating Sparta. x
  • 29
    Sparta, Athens, and the Western Greeks
    Athens had good strategic reasons for trying to outflank Sparta in this theater. We explore the importance of Sicily and southern Italy in the wider Greek world. x
  • 30
    The Athenian Expedition to Sicily
    An ill omen preceded the sailing of the Athenian expedition to Sicily in 415 B.C. Thucydides's account of the unfolding disaster is the most dramatic and tragic episode of his history, culminating in the campaign at Syracuse. x
  • 31
    Alcibiades and Sparta, 414–412 B.C.
    After the Athenian attack on Syracuse, Sparta declared that the Peace of Nicias had been violated, and renewed war. Sparta now had the invaluable advice of Alcibiades, an exiled Athenian leader. x
  • 32
    Conspiracy and Revolution, 411 B.C.
    In 411 B.C., Athenian aristocrats staged a coup, suspending the democracy and setting up a council of 400 to draw up a new constitution. Their secret plan to turn over the city to Sparta was thwarted when the coup collapsed. x
  • 33
    Alcibiades and Athens, 411–406 B.C.
    Under the generalship of the returned exile Alcibiades, Athens enjoyed a string of victories against Sparta. But the strategic situation changed with the arrival of a new Spartan ally: the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger. x
  • 34
    The Defeat of Athens, 406–404 B.C.
    The years 406–404 B.C. saw a dramatic turn of events leading to the decisive sea battle at Aegospotami, where the Spartan commander Lysander surprised and captured the entire Athenian fleet, ending the war. x
  • 35
    Sparta's Bitter Victory
    We review the immediate aftermath of the war and explore what Spartan victory meant for Greece. In a surprisingly short time, Athenian democracy was restored and the city regained much of its former economic position. x
  • 36
    Lessons of the Peloponnesian War
    What is the historical significance of the Peloponnesian War? How has it been studied by both scholars and popular historians? And what are the real lessons to be learned from this epic conflict of 24 centuries ago? x

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Your professor

Kenneth W. Harl

About Your Professor

Kenneth W. Harl, Ph.D.
Tulane University
Dr. Kenneth W. Harl is Professor of Classical and Byzantine History at Tulane University in New Orleans, where he teaches courses in Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Crusader history. He earned his B.A. from Trinity College and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University. Recognized as an outstanding lecturer, Professor Harl has received numerous teaching awards at Tulane, including the coveted Sheldon H. Hackney Award. He has...
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Reviews

Rated 4.8 out of 5 by 57 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by Captivating, fascinating, detailed, and humorous Without doubt it is the level of detail, both militarily and politically, that makes this course one of Prof Harl's best. By the time you reach the last six lectures Harl has much moisture on his lips, so animated and enthusiastic has his delivery become. In fact, the level of detail here, especially in the period between the two main battle periods, is vital to understanding how these city states interacted. it also gives insights into why the wars started in the first place (much due to Athens' growing ascendency in the Aegean as a result of the Greek repulsion of the Persians in 479BC), Who won, and should they have done so? I'll leave Prof Harl to help you consider the surprising answer to that question. Given the extent of Greek colonisation within the Aegean and as far afield as Sicily and the toe of Italy, this course brilliantly illuminates the problems faced by the individual city states. Emphasis on 'individual'. After finishing this course, I immediately moved on to Prof Lee's course on 'The Persian Empire', emphasis here, deliberately, on 'empire'. An incredibly good move, because it puts into sharp relief the differences between the two, and goes a long way to understanding why Greek values rather than Persian values have affected the following two and a half successive millenia so greatly. This last observation is also supported by the decade of conquests by the Macedonian (?Greek?) Alexander. See Prof Harl's course (also a detailed and absorbing 36 lectures) on Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Empire. To round out this period, try Prof Mcinerney's course on 'Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age'. I can guarantee you that all this effort will be duly rewarded by a deep and abiding understanding of how the so-called 'Western Tradition' has evolved, and why we, today, owe so much to these peoples; a tradition later cemented by our dear friends, the Romans... February 11, 2016
Rated 5 out of 5 by Prof. Harl's Masterpiece Prof. Harl is among the most esteemed and respected of TGC lecturers, and this course is the quintessential example of why that is. The Peloponnesian War is the most significant event in ancient Greek history, with an enduring influence on military and political strategic thought that continues down to this day. This course is essentially divided into two parts. The first half of the course describes in detail the structures and institutions of Athens and Sparta (along with their major respective allies), and relates the essential history of the century that preceded the War. Topics covered include: the ancient way of war, including naval conflict; the respective organization of Athenian and Spartan societies; the victories over Persia; the reforms and great public works projects enacted by Pericles; and the evolution of each city-state into a mini-empire. This first half of the course alone is worth the price of admission, and provides one of the most complete analyses of Classical Greece's political landscape you're likely to find anywhere. Prof. Harl turns to, and appraises, a wealth of resources here, including archaeological discoveries, Thucydides, and Herodotus. The second half of the course covers the events of the War itself, and shines almost as brightly. Although it can be very hard to follow events of the war without a map handy, Prof. Harl weaves together an impressive narrative, drawing on a variety of sources beyond Thucydides, in particular Plutarch. The course concludes with an excellent lecture on the legacy of the Peloponnesian War, putting it in the proper context of Classical and world history, yet still giving a feel for why Thucydides resonates so strongly to the present time. This course is quite unlike other popular courses on the Classical world. There is not much of the storytelling charm of Prof. Hale, that makes the listener feel like they're sitting around a campfire, nor is there the (some might say excessive) exalting of Plutarch or moralizing of the late Prof. Fears. Conversely, the lectures are more casual, but not less organized, than the highly scholarly offerings by Prof. Vandiver. Rather, Dr. Harl treats the subject matter, as another reviewer has described, as a journalist or documentarist. The sources are weighed and put into their proper context, which is more than can be said for a lot of historical works out there. However, this course does have a genuine narrative, and that's what makes it a joy. The major players, such as Nicias, Pericles, and Alcibiades come across as three-dimensional people, eerily similar to politicians we might think of today. The battles are described in sometimes brutal detail. At the end of the day, this is a war that ended nearly 2500 years ago, that still yields very real lessons for the present day. October 3, 2013
Rated 3 out of 5 by somewhat tedious Like some other reviewers I have taken other course by Prof. Harl and thoroughly enjoyed them. Unlike most others, I found this one struggling to keep my attention. Don't get me wrong, the information was thorough and insightful; just at times there was so much background information as to make it difficult for me to stay interested. If you are looking for all the details and looking to learn as much as absolutely possible this course is for you. If you are looking to learn and be entertained, maybe not. To me, it was like PhD level detail when I was looking for undergraduate or masters level. December 3, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Tremendous Course I have purchased many Great Courses, and this is one of the best. I knew a lot about the Peloponnesian War before I took this course, but Professor Harl added different perspectives which I had not considered. As he does with other courses, Harl devotes several lectures on the background of the period. He discusses Greek society in general as well as the Athenian and Spartan city-states in some detail. Most of us look at this war from the Athenian point of view, which Harl also does, but he is also able to look at the war from the Spartan perspective. Harl adds perspectives that many people have not considered. For example, Harl is able to show how Demosthenes was successful by introducing new tactics that moved beyond the confines of simple hoplite warfare. He is also able to show how incompetent generals, such as Nicias hurt their own cause. Harl shows that the Sicilian expedition was a continuation of earlier successful Athenian interventions into the west. These earlier interventions were limited; Nicias's proposal to increase the size of the expedition raised the stakes. I could go on and on saying how wonderful this course is, but I will stop here. October 10, 2015
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