This experience is optimized for Internet Explorer version 9 and above.

Please upgrade your browser

Video title

Priority Code

Cancel
Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Rise of Nations

Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Rise of Nations

Professor Andrew C. Fix Ph.D.
Lafayette College
Course No.  3940
Course No.  3940
Share:
Video or Audio?
While this set works well in both audio and video format, one or more of the courses in this set feature graphics to enhance your learning experience, including illustrations, images of people and event, and on-screen text.
Which Format Should I Choose? Video Download Audio Download DVD CD
Watch or listen immediately with FREE streaming
Available on most courses
Stream using apps on your iPad, iPhone, Android, or Kindle Fire
Available on most courses
Stream to your internet connected PC or laptop
Available on most courses
Download files for offline viewing or listening
Receive DVDs or CDs for your library
Play as many times as you want
Audio formats include Free Streaming
Audio formats include Free Streaming

Course Overview

About This Course

48 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture

In 1347, a merchant ship traveling from Crimea in central Asia docked at Messina in Sicily with a crew of desperately sick sailors. As they were taken ashore, rats also left the vessel, carrying with them fleas infected with the bacterium for bubonic plague. The Black Death had arrived in Europe.

The plague in its several forms would eventually kill up to half the population of Europe, initiating a catastrophic economic depression, peasant revolts, and fierce power struggles among the nobility.

Yet from this near total disaster, a new spirit arose. The exhaustion of medieval society inspired intellectuals in northern Italy to make a new start—to create a new society through a search for revival and rebirth that would come to be called the Renaissance. And this radical break with the past was just the beginning.

View More

In 1347, a merchant ship traveling from Crimea in central Asia docked at Messina in Sicily with a crew of desperately sick sailors. As they were taken ashore, rats also left the vessel, carrying with them fleas infected with the bacterium for bubonic plague. The Black Death had arrived in Europe.

The plague in its several forms would eventually kill up to half the population of Europe, initiating a catastrophic economic depression, peasant revolts, and fierce power struggles among the nobility.

Yet from this near total disaster, a new spirit arose. The exhaustion of medieval society inspired intellectuals in northern Italy to make a new start—to create a new society through a search for revival and rebirth that would come to be called the Renaissance. And this radical break with the past was just the beginning.

In this course, you will explore the political, social, cultural, and economic revolutions that transformed Europe between the arrival of the Black Death in the 14th century and the onset of the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century.

An Award-Winning Teacher Probes the Ideas Behind Events

Your guide in these 48 lectures is Professor Andrew C. Fix, an award-winning teacher and scholar who specializes in the history of ideas in early modern Europe.

Dr. Fix does much more than recount the events of this intriguing era; he consistently puts things into a wider context, discussing the causes, implications, and ultimate effects of the unfolding drama that is taking place on the European stage. For example:

The Renaissance: Why was the Renaissance born in northern Italy in the late 14th century and not, say, in France in the 15th century, or Britain in the 16th century? Professor Fix examines the social and political factors that explain the time and place of this extraordinary explosion of creative energy.

The Protestant Reformation: One of the key trends that prepared the way for the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century was the growth of popular piety. Unsanctioned by the church, this movement had its roots in the preoccupation of the medieval papacy with power politics, which hindered clergy from focusing on the spiritual needs of the people. Martin Luther himself was affected by this need, and his own solution showed the way for millions of others.

The Thirty Years War: Fought from 1618 to 1648, this disastrous conflict had complex causes and far-reaching consequences. It not only pitted Catholics against Protestants, it was a civil war between the emperor and German nobles, and also an international struggle to appropriate German lands. Germany would not recover as a nation until the arrival of Otto von Bismarck, 200 years later.

The Dutch Miracle: Why was the Dutch Republic the most successful commercial nation in 17th-century Europe? "It's almost a miracle how this little country turns out to be such an economic powerhouse," observes Professor Fix, who proposes an explanation based on a clever Dutch innovation in ship design.

What You Will Learn

This course covers a remarkable breadth of subjects relating to European history from 1348 to 1715. While religion, politics, wars, and economics dominate Professor Fix's presentation, you will also learn about art, exploration, science, and technology.

The course is divided into four parts of 12 lectures each:

Part I (Lectures 1–12): Professor Fix begins with the growing series of crises in the 14th century that culminated in the Black Death, which set the stage for the profound changes in society that followed. He then makes an in-depth study of the origins and nature of the Italian Renaissance, focusing on its roots in the Humanist movement, the key role played by the city of Florence, and the remarkable artistic output of the time. Also examined is Europe's overseas expansion during the Age of Discovery, with special reference to the economic and political changes these developments brought to Europe.

Part II (Lectures 13–24): Professor Fix highlights the problems within the Catholic Church and proceeds to an analysis of Martin Luther and the early Reformation, which started as a grassroots movement of ordinary people but was transformed by events into a highly politicized cause dominated by German princes. Next, Professor Fix covers the social, political, and economic contexts of the German Reformation, examining the political structure of the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg conflicts with France and the Ottoman Empire, the Knight's Revolt of 1523, and the Peasant Revolt of 1525. Other branches of the Reformation are also examined, including the Swiss Reformation of Zwingli and Calvin, and the Radical Reformation, whose most notorious event was the creation of Anabaptist Kingdom of Munster.

Part III (Lectures 25–36): Completing his survey of Reformation movements, Professor Fix discusses the English Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. He then surveys the disastrous series of religious wars that struck Germany, France, and The Netherlands in the years 1546–1648. Beginning in Germany with the Schmalkaldic War, these conflicts ripped apart the continent. In France, noble families fought for control of the throne and the dominance of their religion; in The Netherlands, the Calvinist Dutch struggled for independence from Catholic Spain; and the terrible Thirty Years War left Germany devastated. This part of the course ends with a look at the problems in the European economy at the start of the 17th century.

Part IV (Lectures 37–48): Professor Fix begins his study of the 17th-century era of state building with the rise of royal absolutism in France, symbolized by Louis XIV's dictum, "I am the state." The German principalities took a slightly different approach to royal absolutism, while in Spain absolutism was attempted without success, signaling Spain's decline as a leading power. The Dutch revolt against Spanish rule resulted in the first republic in any major nation in Europe, and in England, a protracted conflict between the House of Commons and the king successively led to civil war, regicide, dictatorship, restoration, and finally a constitutional monarchy. The course comes to a close with a look at the epic intellectual change brought by the Scientific Revolution and the early Enlightenment, which ushered in the 18th century.

An Eventful Course: History in Context

Throughout this very eventful course, Professor Fix puts history into a context that makes it more immediate and understandable. For instance, the European discovery of the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries is such a familiar story that it's difficult to appreciate it from the point of view of people living at that time.

"But imagine," says Dr. Fix, "the excitement if, all of a sudden, we discovered another Earth, right next to ours, that hadn't been explored at all." The impact on us would be analogous to that felt by Europeans who awoke to the existence of two previously unknown continents with all their potential riches.

When you listen to these lectures, you'll understand why Professor Fix has been lauded by his students as one of the most influential teachers of their college careers. He is a friendly and knowledgeable guide through a crucial stage of history—a time that is vastly different from our own but also recognizably the same, in which we see ourselves in what historian Barbara Tuchman called "a distant mirror," giving us a glimpse of our own civilization in its nascent, budding phase.

View Less
48 Lectures
  • 1
    Crisis of the 14th Century
    Professor Fix opens the course with a survey of the disasters that shaped Europe in the 14th century. They climaxed with the arrival of the bubonic plague, which killed up to one half of the European population. x
  • 2
    The Hundred Years War and the Church in Crisis
    Among the calamities affecting church and state in the 14th century were the Hundred Years War (1337–1453) between England France, the Babylonian Captivity (1305–1378), and Great Schism (1378–1415), which sowed turmoil in the Catholic Church and the papacy. x
  • 3
    The Origins of the Italian Renaissance
    What was the Renaissance, and why did it begin in Italy in the late 14th century? We investigate these questions and discuss European reactions to the crises of the 14th century, exploring in particular the views of the first x
  • 4
    The Birth of Civic Humanism
    Civic humanism was introduced in Florence as an educational reform to produce enlightened citizens and leaders. This approach stressed the study of classical civilization as a model for a strong Florentine state. x
  • 5
    Humanist Thought
    We take a closer look at humanist modes of thought, focusing on Francesco Petrarch, whose study of the evolving Latin language led him to a more dynamic view of history, in contrast with the static historical world-view of the Middle Ages. x
  • 6
    Renaissance Florence
    This lecture examines the multifaceted structure of the woolen cloth industry, which dominated the economy of Florence during the Renaissance and provided the organizational framework for all economic, political, and social activity in the city. x
  • 7
    Florentine Politics and Society
    The political structure of Florence decentralized power into many hands to prevent a single family from gaining total power. We look at Florentine politics and the political environment that fostered the Renaissance. x
  • 8
    The History of Florence
    Florentine history is marked by turbulent politics and frequent social unrest. This lecture charts the rise to power of the great patrician families of Florence, their contributions to the Renaissance, and the many changes in government brought by the fall of the Medici family. x
  • 9
    The Italian State System
    We survey the other major political powers of Italy during the Renaissance, focusing on the two north Italian rivals of Florence, Milan and Venice, with a briefer examination of the southern powers of the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples. x
  • 10
    The Age of Discovery
    This lecture investigates the Age of Discovery, the period of overseas expansion that began at the height of the Renaissance. Economic motives were clearly in evidence as first Portuguese and then Spanish expeditions set forth. x
  • 11
    Inflation and New Monarchy
    The arrival of New World treasure in Europe coincided with the beginnings of population growth, stimulating a period of economic expansion. At the same time, European governments began to reconstruct themselves on a new political model. x
  • 12
    Renaissance Art
    The Renaissance was one of the greatest periods in art history. Professor Fix offers an interpretation of the evolution of the Renaissance style and shows how new patronage patterns explain the changing styles in art. x
  • 13
    The Church on the Eve of the Reformation
    The political preoccupations of the church during the 14th century cost it the spiritual leadership of the people, who began quietly to take religion into their own hands, paving the way for the Reformation. x
  • 14
    The Church on the Eve continued
    Continuing our study of events within the church that led to the Reformation, we focus on the corruption at all levels of the clergy and the resentment in Germany about papal control over the German church. x
  • 15
    Northern Humanism
    Humanists presented the first plans for church reform even before the Reformation arrived. Humanists in the northern countries of Germany, France, The Netherlands, and England took these reform ideas most to heart. x
  • 16
    Martin Luther
    More than most epochal events in history, the Reformation in its early stages was the personal product of one extraordinary individual: Martin Luther. We examine his ideas and personality, as well as his youth and family background. x
  • 17
    The Reformation Begins
    This lecture covers the beginnings of Luther's conflict with the pope over indulgences, the acceleration of the dispute as the question of papal infallibility enters the debate, and the great pressure the church put on Luther to conform. x
  • 18
    The Progress of the Reformation in Germany
    Excommunicated by the church for his writings, Luther was granted a hearing at the Diet of Worms, which turned into a dramatic confrontation. Afterwards he disappeared—spirited away by a sympathetic German prince. As his ideas caught on, religious war loomed. x
  • 19
    German Politics and Society
    We look at the establishment of the Lutheran Church in Germany and at the economic and social conditions that favored the spread of the Reformation. We also study the Knight's Revolt of 1523 and the Peasant Revolt of 1525. x
  • 20
    Imperial Politics and International War
    After reviewing the history of the Holy Roman Empire, we focus on its emperor at the start of the Reformation: Charles V. Warfare on many fronts distracted him from the religious crisis and allowed the Lutheran movement to grow. x
  • 21
    The Reformation Beyond Germany—Zwingli
    As Luther's Reformation began to spread in Germany, a parallel but largely separate Reformation flared up in Switzerland, led by Humanist priest Ulrich Zwingli. We study the cause for which Zwingli fought and died. x
  • 22
    The Radical Reformation
    This lecture examines Anabaptism, one of three radical branches of the Reformation that took Protestant ideas to extremes. The Anabaptist Kingdom of Munster was a disastrous attempt to found a religiously pure Protestant community. x
  • 23
    The Radical Reformation continued
    We survey the other main branches of the Radical Reformation, the Radical Spiritualists and Evangelical Rationalists. The radicals raised important questions, such as: How is one qualified to be a Christian? x
  • 24
    Calvin and Calvinism
    In this lecture we explore the continuation of the Swiss Reformation under John Calvin. Calvin created a dynamic new branch of Protestantism that spread to France, The Netherlands, Scotland, Germany, and elsewhere. x
  • 25
    The English Reformation
    Protestantism developed differently in England than on the continent. From the start, the movement was tied to crown politics and the efforts of Henry VIII to obtain a male heir to the throne. x
  • 26
    The Birth of Anglicanism
    We look at the pressure on the newly established Anglican Church in England to become more Protestant, and we see the final establishment of Anglicanism under Elizabeth I after a brief return to Catholicism under Queen Mary. x
  • 27
    The Catholic Counter-Reformation
    Challenged by the Protestant movement, the Catholic Church began a process of internal reform coupled with a militant counterattack. This Counter-Reformation infused the old church with new vigor and dynamism. x
  • 28
    Loyola and the Society of Jesus
    An important weapon of the Counter-Reformation was the Society of Jesus, established by Ignatius Loyola. It sought to reform the church from within, fight the Protestants, and restore the masses to the church. x
  • 29
    Religious Politics and Religious War
    A devastating series of religious wars struck Germany, France, and The Netherlands from 1546 to 1648. We look at the beginnings of this disastrous time, which started with the Schmalkaldic War of 1546–1555. x
  • 30
    Religious War in France 1562–98
    This lecture examines the French wars of religion at the end of the 16th century, which climaxed with the intervention of the Spanish Armada in 1588, sent by Phillip II of Spain to defeat Protestants in The Netherlands, England, and France. x
  • 31
    The Dutch Revolt
    In the late 16th century Phillip II of Spain was determined to wipe out Protestantism in The Netherlands, where he ruled. His brutal actions set off a nationwide revolt that eventually led to independence. x
  • 32
    The Course of the Revolt
    This lecture traces the Dutch Revolt from its beginnings with the Sea Beggars through the Spanish invasion of the north to the truce of 1609, which led to the establishment of the Dutch Republic. x
  • 33
    The Thirty Years War
    The Thirty Years War, 1618–1648, was the last and most destructive of the religious wars. It pitted German Catholics against Protestants, German princes against their emperor, and it drew the intervention of other nations seeking to seize German lands. x
  • 34
    Climax of the War
    We examine the final phases of the Thirty Years War: the Dutch phase, which resulted in a terrible new form of warfare; the Swedish phase, when the Protestants nearly won; and the French phase, which led to stalemate and eventual peace. x
  • 35
    The 17th Century—Crisis and Transition
    In the final segment of the course, we survey the 17th century, a period of crisis and transition when many of the traditional institutions and ideas of European life were in disarray. x
  • 36
    Economic Change in the 17th Century
    At the start of the 17th century medieval subsistence farming practices dominated the European agricultural economy. By the end of the century new discoveries had made agriculture more productive, freeing up resources for the growth of industry. x
  • 37
    The Rise of Absolutism in France
    The wars of religion led to a new movement to keep religion out of politics and pursue only the interests of the state. In France the result was the growth of royal absolutism, in which the king was the sole source of power and authority. x
  • 38
    Louis XIV
    Despite a noble rebellion known as the Fronde, French absolutism reached its zenith under Louis XIV. We focus on Louis' domestic policies, the construction of the palace of Versailles, and the many costly wars fought under his leadership. x
  • 39
    Absolutism in Germany
    The German states took a different path to royal absolutism. We look at two cases: the military absolutism created by the Hohenzollern dynasty in Brandenburg-Prussia and the absolute regime constructed by the Habsburgs in Austria. x
  • 40
    The Spanish Monarchy
    The kings of Spain tried to strengthen royal power during the 16th and 17th centuries, but with multiple factors working against them, absolutism could not be achieved. We explore these factors and Spain's decline to a second-rate power. x
  • 41
    The Dutch Republic
    In its revolt from Spain, The Netherlands rejected not only absolutism but monarchy as well, becoming the first major European state to be governed as a republic. The ensuing commercial growth of the Dutch Republic gave it the wealthiest economy in the world. x
  • 42
    Constitutional Monarchy in England
    Another alternative to absolutism is the constitutional monarchy that developed in England. We study the beginnings of this struggle, which saw Kings James I and Charles I in protracted conflict with Parliament. x
  • 43
    The English Civil War
    This lecture examines the final breakdown of relations between Charles I and Parliament, leading to the outbreak of the English Civil War. We conclude with the trial and execution of the king and the beginning of Cromwell's rule. x
  • 44
    Cromwell and the Glorious Revolution
    We cover Cromwell's dictatorship and the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II after Cromwell's death. The mature form of the English constitutional monarchy was established after the bloodless Glorious Revolution, which deposed Charles II's successor, James II. x
  • 45
    The Scientific Revolution—The Old Science
    Preparing the way for our study of the Scientific Revolution, we focus on the Aristotelian system inherited from antiquity and its role in defining the medieval world-view. x
  • 46
    Preparing for Change
    For Aristotle's science finally to be overturned, a number of important preparatory steps had to be taken in the 16th and 17th centuries. We look at these developments in the work of Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, and others. x
  • 47
    The Revolution Under Way
    This lecture traces the birth of an entirely new scientific system that met setbacks and resistance before the great breakthroughs of Kepler, Galileo, and Newton. We also examine the powerful influence of the new science on the culture at large. x
  • 48
    The Early Enlightenment 1680–1715
    In his final lecture, Professor Fix traces the beginnings of the European Enlightenment between the years 1680 and 1715. Sparked by the Scientific Revolution, this intellectual movement altered the world-views of educated people during the 18th century. x

Lecture Titles

Clone Content from Your Professor tab

Your professor

Andrew C. Fix
Ph.D. Andrew C. Fix
Lafayette College

Dr. Andrew C. Fix is the Charles A. Dana Professor of History at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania, where he has been teaching for more than 15 years. He earned his B.A. in History and Philosophy from Wake Forest University and went on to earn his M.A. and Ph.D. in History from Indiana University at Bloomington. Prior to teaching at Lafayette College, Professor Fix held a Fulbright Fellowship and a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship. Professor Fix is the recipient of the Jones Award for Superior Teaching and Excellence of Scholarship and the Van Artsdalen Award for Scholarship. Dr. Fix has written or edited three books, including Prophecy and Reason: The Dutch Collegiants in the Early Enlightenment, and Fallen Angels: Balthasar Bekker, Spirit Belief, and Confessionalism in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic.

View More information About This Professor

Reviews

Rated 3.7 out of 5 by 77 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by Very important and valuable course Based on a lot of the reviews and a first impression of the professor, I was reluctant to get into this course, but I have long been curious as to how the world evolved into the nation-state system that is the world we pretty much know today, and never really could see how, exactly, we got there. This course really helps understand that process. At first I was a bit shocked by the Bilbo Baggins-like appearance of Dr. Fix and his style--and he certainly is not like most of the GC lecturers. However, by the second lecture, I didn't want to stop listening. I recommend that if his appearance and more colloquial lecture style bother you, just don't watch, but listen. But you should watch some of the time and get the DVD if possible, because of his use of many maps--most of which I have never seen anywhere-- in the lectures is extremely rich and valuable to understanding the big picture and themes of the presentation--plus many photos of the important people. If you just think of Professor Fix as sitting across from the table from you and explaining things in a less formalistic way, you begin to see why he is so good. And like others have recently written, a 3.7 average of the reviews seems to do this course and professor somewhat of an injustice. There are many different styles that are effective in teaching. If people would relax about his presentation style and appearance and pretend that he is a good friend on a trip or hike or across a dinner table explaining things, he is really very easy to listen to, and you realize he really has thought about and studied this subject. It is somewhat amazing that in 48 lectures, so much detail of so many events still had to be left out or quickly summarized or condensed. I am sure there could probably be an entire course, for example, on the Thirty Years' War. Hardcore History podcaster Dan Carlin recently released a fascinating 4 1/2 hr show on the Munster siege alone, which gets only about 10 minutes in this course. But getting into the details is not the mission of the course--I think the mission here is to give, maybe not the 30,000 foot view, but the 10,000 foot view of the bridge between the late Middle Ages and the early modern period in Europe--and doing so in a way that you realize that no region or country's history occurred in isolation or in a vacuum. While that may seem obvious, actually synthesizing many pieces of this story into a coherent whole has been pretty elusive to me. I like how Professor Fix kind of puts himself into the heads of various people to try to understand, in the light most favorable to them, how they were seeing their world--such as Henry VIII's desperate desire to have a son to avoid a succession crisis and possibly relaunching another round of the War of the Roses. Maybe it wasn't all just lust for younger women. And then the Pope's denial of his request for divorce--since the Pope had been arrested by the Spanish forces and to grant Henry's request would have been a great insult to the Spanish monarchy and royal family--and the Pope was simply and literally in no position to offend the Spanish throne at that moment. You start to understand perhaps why both did what they did. By the last phase of the course we are starting to see a few key nations of Europe being very diverse laboratories for the development of various forms of government, from the highly centralized and authoritarian kingdom of France, to the very decentralized system of numerous ultra balkanized kingdoms in what would one day become Germany. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? There ought to be some modern applications for all the lessons learned. I have to say that slogging through all the religious wars from Martin Luther to the Treaty of Westphalia--around 125 years or so by my count--got pretty tedious. Which is why I think we tend to skim over it--it is just so long and complicated and bloody with too many princes and moving parts to the story--and then wondering after all the belligerents had slaughtered a third of the population on the continent, what had really been accomplished by the end of it all? It's too depressing to think about. But it can't really be avoided either--it is a huge part of the big story, if a very depressing part. That said, Professor Fix doesn't really focus much on the gore and horror of it all, and is pretty matter-of-fact about all the executions, burnings and beheadings, relating just enough to explain how things unfolded for the larger narrative of how the larger world was evolving. Still it is a long slog to go through the religious wars, which seem like they will never end--and wondering 'when will these people ever learn'? February 10, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Better than 3.7 out of 5 stars This is a course on European history that glosses over the dates and concentrates on big picture themes. Having listened to several European history courses, this fills in the blanks, adding to a greater appreciation of the major movements that shaped history. A little long winded but excellent content. January 10, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Fix is in Wow, opinion here seems as polarized as it is in the case of the late Dr. Fears. The objections to this course are not without some merit. Yes, there are a few factual errors here, but history is more than an amalgam of names, dates and places. There are political, ethical and aesthetic dimensions to history as well, which, on the whole this course successfully captures in a way that a mere recitation of facts cannot. After taking this course, I feel as though I have a feel for the climate of the time As far as the presentation style goes, I enjoyed it. The professor has no annoying verbal tics, the lectures flow at a comfortable pace, and there is enough information at the level of detail and overarching themes to give one a good sense of the time. I found Fix's diction easygoing and quite good. Unlike reviewers who complain about Fix's grammatical errors, I deliberately looked for them and find the claims to be exaggerated. Professor Fix's errors are, in my opinion, no more or less prevalent than most of the Professors in the TC catalog. December 28, 2013
Rated 5 out of 5 by An organ of perception Excellent descriptive, explanatory, and interdisciplinary information connecting the classical world-view with modern social-consciousness. Whether by design or unintended, a definite organ of historical perception is offered by participating in this course. Thanks professor for the intellectual and rewarding journey... August 30, 2013
2 3 4 next>>

Questions & Answers

Customers Who Bought This Course Also Bought

Some courses include Free digital streaming.

Enjoy instantly on your computer, laptop, tablet or smartphone.