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Rome and the Barbarians

Rome and the Barbarians

Course No.  3460
Course No.  3460
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Course Overview

About This Course

36 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture

The history of the Romans and the "barbarians" they encountered as their mighty legions advanced the frontiers of Classical civilization has in large part been written as a story of warfare and conquest. But to tell the story on only that level leaves many questions unanswered, not only about the Romans but about the barbarians, as well.

  • Who were the Celts, Goths, Huns, Persians, and so many others met by the Romans as they marched to the north and east? And what made them barbarians in the eyes of Rome?
  • What were the political, military, and social institutions that made Rome so stable, allowing its power to be wielded against these different cultures for almost three centuries?
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The history of the Romans and the "barbarians" they encountered as their mighty legions advanced the frontiers of Classical civilization has in large part been written as a story of warfare and conquest. But to tell the story on only that level leaves many questions unanswered, not only about the Romans but about the barbarians, as well.

  • Who were the Celts, Goths, Huns, Persians, and so many others met by the Romans as they marched to the north and east? And what made them barbarians in the eyes of Rome?
  • What were the political, military, and social institutions that made Rome so stable, allowing its power to be wielded against these different cultures for almost three centuries?
  • What role did those institutions themselves play in assimilating barbarian peoples, first as provincials and often as players in a vast process of Romanization?

What Is a Barbarian? Explore the Basis of Western European Civilization

Rome and the Barbarians tells the story of the complex relationships between each of these native peoples and their Roman conquerors as they intermarried, exchanged ideas and mores, and, in the ensuing provincial Roman cultures, formed the basis of Western European civilization.

As you examine the interaction between Rome and the barbarians from 300 B.C. to A.D. 600, you learn that the definition of barbarian was, effectively, the "next group not under Roman control." And you see how that definition was always changing, as former barbarians became assimilated into the Roman world, becoming provincials and, often, eventually Romanized themselves.

In leading you through this 900-year period, Tulane University's Professor Kenneth W. Harl organizes the course around two major themes:

  • The makeup of Roman society, politics, and military organization, particularly from the standpoint of how those institutions enabled the Romans not only to conquer those peoples, but integrate them
  • The role played by the most recent of Rome's barbarian foes—especially the Germans and the Persians—in bringing down the Roman Empire, including the question of what gave them the military or political edge to accomplish this.

Throughout these lectures, and the introduction of each new barbarian culture, Professor Harl emphasizes three crucial aspects of Rome's relationships to them:

  1. The ability of the Romans to adapt and build pragmatically on existing structures of the barbarian world, using what worked, and not simply imposing a "Roman way"
  2. The ways the Romans looked on these barbarians not only as outsiders, but also as potential allies and provincials
  3. What barbarian societies were like at the time of Roman contact and conquest, and how, through assimilation, they contributed to the successful establishment of Roman provinces.

Enjoy an Intimate Sense of History

Professor Harl is a nine-time winner of Tulane University's Student Award for Excellence in Teaching. His other popular courses for The Teaching Company have explored The Era of the Crusades, The World of Byzantium, and Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor.

As in each of those courses, Professor Harl, in Rome and the Barbarians, puts on display a prodigious knowledge, combined with a wry wit and street-level familiarity with his subject that allows him to navigate the most distant pathways of history with a rare sense of intimacy.

In this course, Professor Harl has the opportunity to share the nuances of his principal area of interest and research—indeed, his passion—in exploring a subject whose influence on today's world, more than 1,400 years later, is as apparent to us now as it must have been then.

"What Rome perhaps gave, foremost, to the barbarian successor states were certainly some of the institutions, the literary culture, the organization that survived in the church, as well as the model to which to aspire," says Professor Harl.

"Even after Rome, as a political force, had disappeared, Rome remained a mentor to these peoples, who fused to become the ancestors of the modern Europeans.

"Rome is, therefore, ever present with us, and is ever a mentor, even to us today, as it was for those barbarians of the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries."

Nine Centuries of Fascinating Characters

Beyond the institutions that made Rome so extraordinary, of course, are the equally extraordinary figures—both Roman and barbarian—whose names have been familiar to us for so long, along with some that are not.

Among the many figures you'll come to know are:

  • Augustus, the emperor whose organizational genius allowed him to establish the constitutional basis of the Principate—the imperial government in which the emperor rules in accordance with the symbols and powers of the Republic
  • Constantine I, who reunited the Roman world and, in dedicating Constantinople—"New Rome"—as a Christian capital, assured the future of the Christian Byzantine empire
  • Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, one of the greatest of Roman commanders, whose defeat of Hannibal ended the Second Punic War
  • Diocletian, the emperor who put the empire on a sound fiscal footing and attempted to create a permanent Tetrarchy, wherein imperial power was shared by two senior and two junior emperors
  • Jugurtha, the Numidian king whose wars against his cousins for mastery of Numidia caused him to blunder into a scandalous war with Rome
  • Gaius Julius Caesar, the most famous Roman of them all and the creator of the Roman imperial monarchy. As a dictator, he reformed Rome, but his monarchical aspirations led to his assassination
  • Nero, whose amoral and outrageous conduct alienated the ruling classes and frontier legions and precipitated his downfall and suicide
  • Attila, the Hun ruler whose devastating raids into the Balkans earned him the sobriquet "Scourge of God," and whose life of warfare and violence ended, ironically, with a death from overindulgence at his own wedding
  • Shapur I, the second Sassanid Shah of Persia who waged three successful campaigns against Rome, captured the Emperor Valerian, and sacked Antioch, the third city of the Roman Empire
  • Ermanaric, the King of the Gothic confederation, remembered in Norse legend as a cunning and cruel tyrant, who committed suicide after being defeated by Huns and Alans in 375.

A list like this only begins to scratch the surface of the personalities brought to life by Professor Harl, whose dedication to this historical place and period is so complete he can be accurately described as speaking of individual Romans—as well as barbarian kings—as if they were acquaintances.

But these lectures deliver far more than personal snapshots, as compelling as those may be.

The Institutions that Shaped Rome and Its New Provinces

Professor Harl also brings to life the institutions that shaped both Rome and her relationship with, and assimilation of, the barbarians at her constantly expanding frontiers.

You learn about the nuances of Roman politics, and how one advanced—or didn't—in the Roman hierarchy.

You study the rules of servitude in the Roman world, and the upward mobility possible even for many slaves.

You find out about the daily lives of Rome's fighting men—including the techniques that made them so feared—and how changes in military organization brought about by the pressures of maintaining an empire took an inevitable toll on the might of Rome's forces.

Engage in an Unusual Depth of Detail

Professor Harl spices his analysis with a depth of detail that makes this long-ago world live once again. You'll learn about:

  • The extraordinary design principle behind Roman encampments, which still survives in the street plans of cities in Western Europe and elsewhere
  • The ignominious end of notorious Ptolemy the "Thunderbolt," ruler of Macedon, his head made into a drinking cup after his failure to defeat the Gauls, who, like other Celts, often took heads as a way of counting the dead
  • The Roman focus on enforcing taxation, and how this strengthened Carthage and gave Hannibal the funds to reopen the struggle against Rome
  • How Caesar's Commentaries, long maligned as little more than a primer for those studying Latin, survives as a guide to generalship relied on by no less a tactician than William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Professor Harl's light-hearted tale of how the Goths, no matter how much fear they stirred, were utterly stumped by the problem of mounting a successful siege against a walled city
  • The importance to the Romans of logistics, and how the elaborate all-weather roads they constructed to support their strategic mobility still form the road systems of Western Europe
  • The catastrophic Varian disaster and how it forever changed Rome's perceptions of whether the barbarians at the northwestern borders could ever be truly controlled
  • The humiliating fate of the captured Emperor Valerian—whom records suggest spent the remainder of his days as a mounting stool for Shah Shapur.

Rome and the Barbarians gives you a new appreciation of how our Western world came to be and detailed knowledge about the individuals from royalty to "barbarian" who played key roles in that process.

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36 Lectures
  • 1
    Greek and Roman Views of Barbarians
    Professor Kenneth W. Harl introduces the course and its main themes, beginning with an explanation of exactly what the ancient Romans meant by the term "barbarian." x
  • 2
    The Roman Republic
    This lecture introduces the constitutional and political institutions of Rome during the "Middle Republic" years, when Rome emerges with her political, military, and constitutional institutions in place. x
  • 3
    Roman Society
    This lecture looks at the societal bonds in the early Roman Republic that cemented the various social classes, or ordinates, as well as the Italian allied communities, into a wider Roman Republic, or Res Publica. x
  • 4
    The Roman Way of War
    This central lecture introduces the third of the key institutions of the middle and late Roman Republic—the army—and discusses the extraordinarily successful and brutal Roman way of war. x
  • 5
    Celtic Europe and the Mediterranean World
    You meet the Celtic-speaking peoples of western and central Europe, in many ways the epitome of "barbarians" to both the Greeks and Romans. x
  • 6
    The Conquest of Cisalpine Gaul
    Professor Harl explains the role played by the Celts—known to the Romans as Gauls—in northern Italy and the profound influence they had on early Rome. x
  • 7
    Romans and Carthaginians in Spain
    This lecture deals with the initial Roman intervention in, and eventual conquest of, the Iberian Peninsula—or what the Romans called Hispania. x
  • 8
    The Roman Conquest of Spain
    Professor Harl takes a closer look at the period from 197 B.C. to 133 B.C., when the Romans were forced to come to terms with the commitments they took on by defeating the Carthaginians in Spain. x
  • 9
    The Genesis of Roman Spain
    This lecture discusses the development of Roman Spain, moving us into the area of social and economic changes brought on by the Roman conquest. x
  • 10
    Jugurtha and the Nomadic Threat
    This lecture discusses the relationship between Rome and the barbarians of Roman North Africa, especially the Numidians and their king, Jugurtha—with whom Rome blundered into an ugly frontier war. x
  • 11
    Marius and the Northern Barbarians
    Gaius Marius, the victor over Jugurtha, fights a series of battles against the dreaded Germanic-speaking northern barbarians that shape not only the direction of Roman foreign policy but, ultimately, Roman attitudes toward those barbarians. x
  • 12
    Rome's Rivals in the East
    Professor Harl shifts the focus away from the western Mediterranean to the peoples who lay to the east, at the frontier Rome inherited by taking over the hegemony of the Hellenistic world. x
  • 13
    The Price of Empire—The Roman Revolution
    This lecture examines the impact on Rome's institutions of her wars, conquests, and territorial acquisitions. x
  • 14
    Julius Caesar and the Conquest of Gaul
    The entire axis and dimension of the Roman world is transformed during this key period in the career of perhaps the most memorable of all Romans. x
  • 15
    Early Germanic Europe
    In this first of a series of lectures introducing new barbarians, Professor Harl discusses the Germanic tribes who came to epitomize the most ferocious barbarians the Romans had encountered. x
  • 16
    The Nomads of Eastern Europe
    This lecture introduces still more barbarians to the mix: the various Iranian-speaking nomads of eastern Europe. x
  • 17
    Arsacid Parthia
    This lecture examines how the Parthians came to become the dominant barbarian power in the Near East and the great rival of Imperial Rome for almost 300 years. x
  • 18
    The Augustan Principate and Imperialism
    The focus returns to Rome proper: what the Roman Empire was all about, how it evolved from the institutions of the Republic, and how changing political arrangements altered those institutions and, ultimately, Rome's relationship with the barbarians. x
  • 19
    The Roman Imperial Army
    As Rome moves from Republic to Empire, the Roman Imperial Army becomes a very different institution. x
  • 20
    The Varian Disaster
    In beginning a set of five lectures that discuss the different relationships between Rome and its various foes on the imperial frontiers, Professor Harl examines one of the most dramatic events in Roman imperial history. x
  • 21
    The Roman Conquest of Britain
    This lecture reveals some of the differences in how the Romans reacted to a Celtic-based civilization, as opposed to the German tribes in the imperial age. x
  • 22
    Civil War and Rebellion
    The record left by Tacitus reveals how the Roman Empire was ripped apart by civil wars and rebellions between A.D. 68 and 70, illuminating both the institutional weaknesses in the constitutional and military arrangements made by Augustus and Rome's relationships with its various provincial frontier peoples. x
  • 23
    Flavian Frontiers and the Dacians
    With this lecture and the next, Professor Harl concludes Rome's creation of its frontier, setting the stage for an examination of why Rome fell and the role played by the barbarians. x
  • 24
    Trajan, the Dacians, and the Parthians
    This lecture concludes imperial Rome's wars of conquest against her barbarian foes by concentrating on the career of the emperor Trajan, the first man of provincial origins to become emperor. x
  • 25
    Romanization of the Provinces
    In the first of three lectures dealing with the social and economic transformations of the frontier provinces, Professor Harl looks at the ability of the Romans to adapt existing institutions, bring in their own concepts of citizenship and political organization, and incorporate her foes into the Roman system. x
  • 26
    Commerce Beyond the Imperial Frontiers
    The economic and social changes brought on by imperial Rome had a profound impact not only on the traditional societies of the provinces, but on the barbarian peoples living beyond the Roman frontier. x
  • 27
    Frontier Settlement and Assimilation
    This lecture examines how the movement of barbarians along Rome's frontiers took place and the kind of exchanges—both social and material—that ensued. x
  • 28
    From Germanic Tribes to Confederations
    The "3rd-century crisis" is seen as the era when Rome would be profoundly altered by the unique changes going on in the frontier provinces and the distinct provincial societies emerging as a result of immigration, trade, and military service by the barbarians. x
  • 29
    Goths and the Crisis of the Third Century
    As Goths begin to attack the mid and lower Danube, they are seen by Roman authors as a particularly vicious and new threat at a time when Rome is already feeling mounting pressures from her own civil wars and the Sassanid Shahs of Persia. x
  • 30
    Eastern Rivals—Sassanid Persia
    This lecture examines why the Persians represented such a formidable threat and why the Romans massed so much of their forces in the East, thus exposing their Danube and Rhine frontiers to the Goths and West Germanic tribes. x
  • 31
    Rome and the Barbarians in the Fourth Century
    This lecture explains the changes that occurred in the Roman world as a result of the wars and invasions of the 3rd century A.D. and the ways in which the emperors Diocletian and Constantine were fundamental to those changes. x
  • 32
    From Foes to Federates
    In this lecture, Professor Harl deals with the relationships between the barbarian foes of Rome and the new imperial order created by the emperor Constantine in the early 4th century A.D. x
  • 33
    Imperial Crisis and Decline
    The Battle of Adrianople in A.D. 378, in which Goths defeated the Eastern Roman field army—slaying the emperor Valens—proves decisive in its aftermath as it alters the character of the late Roman Army. x
  • 34
    Attila and the Huns
    This lecture takes a close look at the Huns—along with their most famous king—and their role in the breakup of the Empire and the shaping of the political and cultural landscape that followed. x
  • 35
    Justinian and the Barbarians
    Two related subjects are covered: the aftermath of the Hun attacks, with the breakup of the Western Empire and collapse of the imperial government, and the reign of the emperor Justinian, the dominant figure of the 6th century A.D. x
  • 36
    Birth of the Barbarian Medieval West
    This lecture concludes the course by reminding us of how Rome, though its empire was broken up in the West and greatly contracted in the East, has indeed survived in many ways. x

Lecture Titles

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Kenneth W. Harl
Ph.D. Kenneth W. Harl
Tulane University
Dr. Kenneth W. Harl is Professor of Classical and Byzantine History at Tulane University in New Orleans, where he teaches courses in Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Crusader history. He earned his B.A. from Trinity College and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University. Recognized as an outstanding lecturer, Professor Harl has received numerous teaching awards at Tulane, including the coveted Sheldon H. Hackney Award. He has earned Tulane's annual Student Body Award for Excellence in Teaching nine times and is the recipient of Baylor University's nationwide Robert Foster Cherry Award for Great Teachers. In 2007, he was the Lewis P. Jones Visiting Professor in History at Wofford College. An expert on classical Anatolia, he has taken students with him into the field on excursions and to assist in excavations of Hellenistic and Roman sites in Turkey. Professor Harl has also published a wide variety of articles and books, including his current work on coins unearthed in an excavation of Gordion, Turkey, and a new book on Rome and her Iranian foes. A fellow and trustee of the American Numismatic Society, Professor Harl is well known for his studies of ancient coinage. He is the author of Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East, A.D. 180-275 and Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700.
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Reviews

Rated 4.9 out of 5 by 49 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by The Second Step to Understanding the Roman World We often limit ourselves to geopolitical feuds and great personalities when it comes to understanding the distant world of antiquity. Everyone knows of Hannibal and Scipio Africanus, Julius and Pompeii, Octavian and Antony, Justinian, Constantine, the Conquests of Gaul, Dacia, and Britain. This course takes a step beyond that. You still get all the same great names and even greater conflicts, but they are put into perspective. You hear about these great people of history only in so far as they relate to the worlds they entered in their conquests. Rather than seeing the spread of the Roman World on barbarian peoples, you see the Roman World entering into a wider, far greater, community of nations. You see a synthesis of peoples into a larger culture, and through this you see a glimpse of the Late Antiquity Crisis and Transformation. Professor Harl and his course about Rome and the Barbarians has led me to purchase additional courses by the professor, he knows his material well and I have no complaints about lectures. A few minor details may make those who studied under different professors wonder briefly, but none of that subtracts from the work. I suppose you could call this course a bridge. When you learn about different eras and subject materials, you start to see patterns and how things connect into one another. The most obvious ways to see this would be to take a course in Western Civilization and then take a focused course within Western Civilization. I am recommending the History of Ancient Rome and the Late Antiquity Crisis and Transformation, which can serve for this example. Both are magnificent, building context for the future and providing a solid foundation of basic literacy in the fields the courses open up to you. This course, Rome and the Barbarians, has a timeline that runs side by side with both of them. Both courses are brought to a greater context and connected in some truly fantastic ways. Some elements are reinforced and perhaps reintroduced, but it never becomes a retread of old territory. Everything is presented in a new way and you are forced to ultimately come to the realization that one event and chronology can have many different meanings and impacts. And if you have no desire to purchase other courses, this course still challenges you to rethink old conceptions about the relationship Rome had with its neighbors. A few kind hearted jabs are given to history books in high school, if only because much of what they purport to be true about this time in history are simply not true or have very little to substantiate it. It is with all this in mind that I would like to introduce Rome and the Barbarians to you. Should you be interested in better understanding and piecing together the history of our world, the west, the ancient world, or even just this fascinating history of Roman Europe, then I know you will not be disappointed. October 20, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Rome and the Barbarians Professor Harl is engaging and knows how to present his subject, the often complex relationship between Rome and the 'barbarians,' many of whom belonged to sophisticated societies. He covers all of the major cultures that interacted with Rome and provides a good social and historical perspective. Of particular interest was the time spent on areas that are often overlooked such as ancient Spain and Portugal, the Balkins (Trace and northern Greece) as well as the steppe cultures (modern Russia and areas near modern Turkey and Armenia/Georgia). He also explained the role of Roman colonies/military bases. Although he did not spend a great deal of time with Parthia (essentially Iran), there was enough to explain why the two empires had a complex, sometimes violent relationship. Excellent introduction that shifts perspective away from just Rome. The accompanying handbook provides additional reading material and includes many readily available books. Well worth the cost. October 14, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Excellent Roman History Course Prior to viewing this course, I thought I knew a lot about Roman history. I was wrong. Kenneth Harl provides a unique perspective showing how the Roman Empire evolved over time to cope with the various Barbarians on its frontiers. It also countered my previous view (taught at school) that wild barbarians invaded and destroyed the Roman Empire. I found Professor Harls presentation style excellent and it was easy to finish the 36 lectures. For anyone interested in Roman history this course is a must. October 12, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by The Roman Will To Power, Glory, & Decline Approaching Roman history is a daunting undertaking. Its breadth approximates the 1000 years between its foundation as a REPUBLIC (509 B.C.) and the decline and sack of its EMPIRE (410 A.D.). Witness the profound consequences of Rome’s political, military, and social relations on its class structure, barbarian frontiers, & provincial societies on the one hand, and the depth of its organization, logistics, law, oratory, noble and unhinged social characters on the other. At first, the title of these lectures drew up many images in my mind concerning the NOBLE-character (i.e. emperor, commander, senator, orator, etc.) and the SAVAGE-character (i.e. warrior, pagan, destroyer, cannibal, etc.). Professor Harl immediately corrects for these all too human distortions in his opening lecture concerning the conceptualization of the barbarian from the Greeks, Romans, Christians, Enlightenment, down to the Age of Discovery writers. He widens the conceptual view with anthropological and archaeological data concerning inter-marriages, trade, material cultures, etc., on both participants. Lectures 2 - 4 concern the uniqueness of Roman institutions: its politics (Republic), its society (patron-client relations), and its citizen-legions (wars of conquest & engineering). These “4” lectures combine to form a SCIENTIFIC HISTORICAL METHODOLOGY that offers a dynamic and critical analysis to navigate the birth, growth, maturity, and decay of the Roman Empire and the ensuing European states of the middle-ages. The Roman genius lay not only in its ability to conduct war and conquer, but to assimilate and integrate the conquered barbarians into provincial societies (a 2-way process that adds wealth, slaves, military, & material aspects to the expanding empire), gather allies especially early in its Republican phase, and offer the potential for citizenship to provincials in an unplanned open-ended process of ROMANIZATION (eventually becoming WESTERN CIVILIZATION from these territorial barbarian kingdoms). But maintaining and expanding an empire comes with internal & external costs (Classical Greece). Below is a “sampling of historical periods and social characters” that document the greatness and limitation of the Roman Empire -- its will to power, glory, and decline. 5th – 1st century B.C. (Republic) >CULTURES: the Celtics in northern Italy, Gaul, and central Europe; the Celtiberians in Spain; the Carthaginians and desert nomads in North Africa; the Germanic-speaking peoples in Transalpine Gaul; Populares & Optimates in Rome. >SOCIAL CHARACTERS: Hannibal, Scipio Africanus, Tiberius Gracchus, Jugurtha, Gaius Marius, Sulla, Julius Caesar, Mithridates, Vercingetorix, Pompey the Great. >HISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES: eroded the republican constitution (SPQR), Italian society (social & civil wars), and the citizen legions (decline). Now, popular commanders / emperors gained effective power over the Senate and dictated Roman politics but under the ideology and guise of the republic; birth of the Roman Empire. 1st – 2nd century A.D. (Principate) > CULTURES: Germanic peoples of the forests and central Europe; the Iranian speaking steppe nomads of Eastern Europe, Sarmatians, Roxalani, Alans, Scythian nomadic horsemen; the Parthians & Arsacid kings of central Asian steppes; Dacians of central Europe; Catuvellauni of Britain and Druids of Wales. >SOCIAL CHARACTERS: Mark Anthony, Augustus, Macroboduus, Arminius, Claudius, Nero, Hadrian, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Decebalus, Trajan, Oroses, Marcus Aurelius. >HISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES: growth in standing professional frontier armies (Rhine, Danube, & Euphrates); rationalization of the provinces with Roman engineering on the existing barbarian infrastructures; growth of auxiliary units increasingly manned by barbarians assimilated as Roman soldiers which would come back to haunt the Empire as they grew in strength, cultural identity, & confederations; increasing use of Roman concessions; rise in civil wars & rebellions; war against the Jews & capture of Jerusalem. 3rd – 6th century A.D. (Dominate) > CULTURES: Germanic tribal coalitions, Saxons, Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks; Iranian nomads & Sassanid shahs of Persia; Huns. >SOCIAL CHARACTERS: Shapur, Ardashir, Diocletian, Valerian, Constantine, Theodosius, Alaric, Stilicho, Honorius, Attila, Justinian. >HISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES: increasing expense of wars of re-conquests; rise in barbarian organization & discipline from Roman assimilation; assassinations & succession of emperors; cultural exchanges between imperial Rome, frontier societies, and beyond; increasing loss of strategic provincial zones; political fragmentation of Empire, decline of senatorial powers; rise of Christianity; growth in civil & frontier wars; pandemics & demographic collapse; migrations transforming the Classical into the Medieval world. To end, let me quote Professor Harl, “To some extent, it can be argued that the 900-year history of Roman ascendancy was an interlude in local barbarian societies.” Now that’s food for thought – just look around -- no? Much thanks to the professor and the Teaching Company for delivering an excellent presentation on Rome. *** Highly Recommended *** the best survey and approach on Rome I have come across! August 29, 2014
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