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Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy

Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy

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Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy

Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy

Course No.  174
Course No.  174
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Course Overview

About This Course

12 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture

Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution—the idea that life on earth is the product of purely natural causes, not the hand of God—set off shock waves that continue to reverberate through Western society, and especially the United States. What makes evolution such a profoundly provocative concept, so convincing to most scientists, yet so socially and politically divisive? The Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy is an examination of the varied elements that so often make this science the object of strong sentiments and heated debate.

Professor Edward J. Larson leads you through the "evolution" of evolution, with an eye toward enhancing your understanding of the development of the theory itself and the roots of the controversies that surround it. In these lectures you will:

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Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution—the idea that life on earth is the product of purely natural causes, not the hand of God—set off shock waves that continue to reverberate through Western society, and especially the United States. What makes evolution such a profoundly provocative concept, so convincing to most scientists, yet so socially and politically divisive? The Theory of Evolution: A History of Controversy is an examination of the varied elements that so often make this science the object of strong sentiments and heated debate.

Professor Edward J. Larson leads you through the "evolution" of evolution, with an eye toward enhancing your understanding of the development of the theory itself and the roots of the controversies that surround it. In these lectures you will:

  • Explore pre-Darwinian theories of the origins of life, from Genesis and the ancient Greeks to such 18th- and 19th-century scientists as Georges Cuvier and Chevalier de Lamarck
  • Follow the life and work of Charles Darwin, and the impact of his 1859 masterpiece, On the Origin of Species. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection was immediately recognized as a threat to traditional religion, but was quickly accepted (the first printing of Origin of Species sold out on the first day)
  • Examine the history of evolutionary science after Darwin—a fascinating story that includes the "rediscovery," after 35 years, of Gregor Mendel's work on genetic variation; the unearthing of prehominid, or early human, fossils by Raymond Dart in 1925 and the Leakey family in the 1950s; and the confusion created by the sensational, but later discredited, discovery of Piltdown Man—a fake evolutionary "missing link"—in 1912
  • Trace the history of religious objections to evolution, from those of Darwin's own time to contemporary efforts to teach creation science in American schools. This includes a detailed discussion of the famous Scopes "monkey trial," which in fact was a staged media event, designed to create publicity for the town of Dayton, Tennessee.

Are Our Genes more Important than We Are?

This course makes it clear that the history of controversy surrounding evolution is not limited to a dispute between science and religion. Even within the scientific community, the fine details of the theory of evolution have long been a matter of passionate dispute.

In fact, in the last third of the 19th century, the principal objections were scientific, not religious. Although the fossil record was a key piece of evidence for evolution, it had gaps that could be used to argue against the theory. And both proponents and critics wondered how altruistic human qualities such as love and generosity could possibly have evolved through the competitive, often harsh, processes that Darwin described.

From Professor Larson's presentation, you will learn that new ideas in evolution science have often created new controversies. For example, is it truly possible, as some scientists now maintain, that humans exist merely to ensure the survival of their genes? Such research has created disagreement among scientists about the degree to which evolution drives human behavior, and has further alienated many segments of the public.

Evolution's "Dark Side": Social Darwinism

In these lectures, you will review perhaps the most sinister controversy associated with the theory of evolution: social Darwinism. From the beginning, the Darwinian theory of evolution has been linked to economic and political views. Thomas Malthus's theories of population growth and competition for limited resources even inspired Darwin's thinking on natural selection.

Unfortunately, later supporters of evolution carried this line of thinking too far. Beginning with Herbert Spencer, who coined the term "survival of the fittest," Darwin's ideas were used as evidence for a wide range of social beliefs, from laissez-faire capitalism to racism, colonialism, and, in perhaps the worst application, Nazism. In the United States, social Darwinism has served as a basis for the creation of IQ tests and for eugenics programs that resulted in the forced sterilization of thousands of mentally ill or retarded Americans.

Unsettling Implications: The Growing Gulf Between Science and Religion

During the late 19th century, largely through the efforts of scientists who sought to integrate evolutionary science with spiritual belief, evolution was widely accepted by the religious community in the United States. Today, this is hardly the case.

In his last four lectures, Professor Larson examines the trends that have, since 1920, widened the gulf between science and religion. These include an increase in fundamentalist Protestantism, the weakening of liberal Protestantism as a counteracting force, and the growing power of a firmly conservative South.

In the 1960s, federally funded neo-Darwinian textbooks provoked a conservative backlash. Beginning with the publication of Henry M. Morris's The Genesis Flood, efforts to gain equal time for the teaching of creation science, based on biblical teachings, gathered strength. Rebuffed by the courts, creationism continues to thrive through the increasing numbers of private Christian schools and through home schooling.

The growing gulf between science and religion has unsettling implications for our society. Large segments of the American population reject the naturalism of current evolutionary thinking. Nine of 10 Americans believe in spiritual causes for life, with only 10 percent accepting the purely naturalistic explanations espoused by evolution. Strikingly, these statistics are almost exactly the opposite among the scientific community.

A Pulitzer Prize-Winning Teacher

As both a historian of science and a professor of law, Professor Edward J. Larson brings exceptional qualifications to this subject. His book, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate Over Science and Religion, won the 1998 Pulitzer Prize in History. His analysis provides an invaluable perspective on the volatile history of what is arguably the single most significant idea of modern times.

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12 Lectures
  • 1
    Before Darwin
    By 1800, biblical and other ancient accounts of origins dissatisfied many scientifically sophisticated Europeans. French naturalist Georges Cuvier concluded that history was punctuated by epochs of life-destroying catastrophes, with distinctive species populating each epoch. This was the leading scientific theory of origins during Charles Darwin's youth. x
  • 2
    Evolution in the Air
    The idea that species evolve from pre-existing species gained currency early in the 19th century. The emerging fossil record and developments in geology laid a foundation for evolution theory. A new notion of geological formation, Charles Lyell's gradualist theory, was the springboard for Darwin's thinking about evolution. x
  • 3
    Darwin's Inspiration
    Charles Darwin set sail aboard the H. M. S. Beagle in 1831 as the ship's naturalist. Inspired by Lyell's Principles of Geology, which he read on the voyage, Darwin was persuaded by his observations on the Galapagos Islands that existing species evolved from pre-existing ones. He struggled to refine his theory until 1858, when he learned that Alfred Wallace had hit on the same idea. x
  • 4
    An Intellectual Revolution
    On the Origin of Species spawned an ongoing revolution in human thought. Although Darwin's theory did not preclude belief in God, it dispensed with the need to believe in a supernatural creator. As extended in Descent of Man, Darwin's thinking excluded God as the creator of humans. The study of man and nature became an investigation of natural, not supernatural, causes. x
  • 5
    Debates over Mechanism
    By 1875 virtually all biologists in Europe and America adopted an evolutionary perspective. Yet, even as they accepted the basic idea that species evolve, biologists doubted the sufficiency of Darwin's theory of natural selection. Alternative theories flourished, cushioning the impact of evolutionary science for traditional social and religious beliefs. x
  • 6
    Missing Links
    By 1900 technical arguments on evolution that appealed to scientists failed to persuade the public, particularly the notion that humans evolved from apes. Beginning late in the 19th century, those intent on proving evolution hunted for "missing links" in the fossil record. Any such missing links became front-page news and boosted popular acceptance of evolution. x
  • 7
    Genetics Enters the Picture
    At the dawn of the 20th century, biologists still believed that evolution happened, but there was no consensus on how it operated. As often happens in science, answers came from an unexpected source: the 35-year-old work of Gregor Mendel. x
  • 8
    Social Darwinism and Eugenics
    Even before Darwin published his theory in 1859, Herbert Spencer proposed that a survival-of-the-fittest process drove social progress. With the rise of Darwinian biology, such thinking gained credence under the banner of "social Darwinism." One result was the eugenics movement, a social crusade advocating more children from genetically fit parents and fewer children from genetically unfit ones. x
  • 9
    America's Anti-Evolution Crusade
    Decades of popular concern erupted during the 1920s into a crusade by conservative American Protestants against teaching evolution in public schools. The issue reached a public climax in 1925, when a schoolteacher named John Scopes challenged Tennessee's new law against teaching evolution. x
  • 10
    The Neo-Darwinian Synthesis
    By the 1940s biologists reached a consensus on how the evolutionary process worked. Evolution was a purely materialistic process driven by the natural selection of random variation at the genetic level. This so-called modern or neo-Darwinian synthesis was more fully Darwinian than Darwin's own conclusions. x
  • 11
    Scientific Creationism
    Commemorating the centennial of On the Origin of Species in 1959, scientists hailed the triumph of a consensus theory of evolution. They largely ignored the anti-evolutionism that marked conservative Christianity in America. If anything, however, the rise of neo-Darwinism heightened tensions between traditional religious beliefs and modern scientific thought. x
  • 12
    Selfish Genes and Intelligent Design
    Americans remain divided by the origins debate. The God-less theory of origins dominates science. But the public believes overwhelmingly in a supernatural source of life and individual species. The debate over origins remains as intense as ever. x

Lecture Titles

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Edward J. Larson
Ph.D., J.D. Edward J. Larson
Pepperdine University

Dr. Edward J. Larson is University Professor and Hugh & Hazel Darling Chair in Law at Pepperdine University. He earned a B.A. from Williams College and a J.D. from Harvard University. He also holds an M.A. and a Ph.D. in the History of Science from the University of Wisconsin- Madison. He previously taught at the University of Georgia and served as Associate Counsel for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor. While at the University of Georgia, Professor Larson received several teaching awards, including the Richard B. Russell Award for Undergraduate Teaching. He also received the George Sarton Award for Science History from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Larson was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History for his book, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate over Science and Religion. He is the author of three other books and more than 50 articles for such publications as Nature, Scientific American, The Atlantic, and The Wall Street Journal.

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Reviews

Rated 4.2 out of 5 by 58 reviewers.
Rated 3 out of 5 by This Series Caused me to Learn A Lot This is not a bad course, and Prof. Larson is an excellent lecturer, one of the better ones that I've listened to. I bought this series because the reviews were pretty good, and I generally have enjoyed the science oriented lectures that I've purchased. I also have steered away from lectures dealing with evolution because I'm pretty sure I'll disagree with them, but I did buy the series Biology: The Science of Life, which I quite enjoyed it and learned a lot from it. There was a lot of hand waving in the parts where it talked about evolution but when it talked about the current trends in Biology it was fascinating. In fact I would suggest Prof. Larson might benefit from listening to it. One good thing did happen from this series was for myself. Prof. Larsen talked about the "red eyed fruit fly" and that's something that I'd never heard of. A little background checking to see what he was talking about and it appears that Prof. Larsen made a mistake and meant the white eyed fruit fly. That's OK we all make mistakes but I'm somewhat surprised that this wasn't found and edited out some how. It seems that I've noticed things that sound like edits on other series (when the sound quality changes somewhat from the surrounding lecture). Well I'd heard of the white eyed fruit fly before, but didn't know very much about it and while I was checking on it I read a lot more about it. That was very interesting. Then Prof. Larsen talked about the peppered moth in England and I said to myself; "What the heck, that study's been discredited and he's using it?" Now the funny thing is, that I'm nearly 100% sure that the first time I'd heard about the discrediting of that study was on another Great Courses series because that pretty much all I listen to anymore and it's not something that I remember reading. It was most probably in Science Wars: What Scientists Know and How They Know It by Prof. Steven Goldman or Philosophy of Science by Jeffery Kasser. If I had to guess it is probably the first series, Science Wars, one of my favorite series. He also talked about the fossil record of the horse as being proof of evolution, and I knew that had been discredited as well. This caused me to look around for more information about the peppered moth studies and that caused me to finally read The Icons of Evolution by Jonathan Wells. I'd pretty much decided I wasn't going to read that book, because from the reviews I'd read I thought it was going to be a strident discourse about how evil evolution is and why it shouldn't be taught in schools. I was pleasantly surprised that it wasn't that. All it was was a critique of the way evolution is taught as dogma in schools, and how all the examples taught as dogma have been discredited. This course by Prof. Larsen proves Prof Wells case perfectly as far as I'm concerned. After reading the book by Prof. Wells I went back and listened to the lectures again just to make sure that I'd heard everything correctly and it was just my imagination. I found that Prof. Larsen used even more icons of evolution in his lectures and I hadn't known they'd been discredited so I had heard correctly, it was just worse than I thought. Obviously I'm a person who finds the way evolution is taught is a travesty, so why would I buy this course? Well first the title was Theory of Evolution: A History of a Controversy and I was hoping that the course might actually explain why there is still a controversy about evolution. However, the only thing that I got from the series is that the only reason there is a controversy is because of benighted fundamentalist Christians don't accept evolution. That may be a little polemical but that's how I felt. However, I do have to give Prof. Larson points for admitting that Julian Huxley pushed a humanist atheist religion that was based on evolution. Probably because Julian Huxley was honest enough to admit that that was what he was doing as opposed to Richard Dawkins who teaches the dogma just as strongly but doesn't claim to be doing that, he claims he's doing science. Also, I have to give Prof. Larsen credit that when he talked about Intelligent Design (ID) he was honest enough to, seemingly grudgingly, admit that those who support ID are "mostly" Christian. Most people who don't agree with ID just say that it's a bunch of Christian Creationist's and that it is only "Creationism in a tuxedo". At least Dr. Larson's statement allows those who might be interested to know that there are atheists, agnostics, Indian Hindi's and people of other philosophical beliefs involved with it, who often don't like to be described as Christian Creationists. Phillip Johnson may have started the Discovery Institute and came up with the idea of using ID as a wedge, but there are many others who find the ID arguments compelling and the Discovery Institute is practically the only place people can do ID research because everywhere else they are censored by the establishment. The discovery Institute accepts fellow travelers even if they're not Christians. The other reason I bought the series was because it was on sale and I had a coupon code that made it even cheaper. Over all listening was a good experience and I learned a lot, not so much from the content of the lectures, but just from the fact that the lectures prove a point. This has actually decided me on buying the other course on evolution that others reviewers have recommended as being more in depth just to see if it confirms my suspicions on college level teaching of evolution. December 2, 2014
Rated 4 out of 5 by Evolution From an Historical Perspective Professor Edward Larson does a creditable job covering the history of the theory of evolution in this short twelve-lecture course. The story is told from an historical perspective in a roughly chronological order and covers important material from about 1800 to the present time. Professor Larson demonstrates no clear bias in relating this historical chronology. Some aspects of the science that relates to evolution and natural selection are provided, but the primary focus is historical. If you are looking for a scientific treatment of this topic you will not find it here. The Teaching Company course entitled “Darwinian Revolution” taught by Professor Frederick Gregory covers very similar material from a similar perspective and is more detailed (24 total lectures). If time allows I would suggest the course by Professor Gregory as the better of the two. However, this course is suitable if you prefer to invest only six hours on the topic. A review of the bibliography of Professor Larson reveals that he is a distinguished author on historical aspects of evolution and has received a Pulitzer Prize for his book on the 1925 Scopes trial in Dayton, Tennessee. Given this expertise I think a longer, more detailed course, would have been well within the ability of Professor Larson and would have strengthened the quality of this course. Maybe he will get a chance to expand his treatment of the topic in a second edition. June 22, 2014
Rated 4 out of 5 by Good overview on why laymen don't accept Evolution I purchased the video download of this course which was good, but you would also be fine with audio only. Course Content (4/5): The professor presents a broad variety of information on Evolution and even though he does cover a little bit of science, this definitely needs to be thought of as a history course (as per the title). The course is about the right length considering the information covered so you should not get bored partway through. He also addresses several things that Creationists try to use to discredit Evolution. Professor Presentation (4/5): The professor speaks in an acceptable manner and at an adequate pace. He does make a few mistakes while talking and corrects himself and also wanders around a little bit, but it's not too distracting (as mentioned by another reviewer). Course Value (3/5): If you get this on sale, it is a great value; if you pay full price, you might be disappointed with the total content provided. Bottom line- If its on sale, buy it! I highly recommend supplementing this with a science-based course on Evolution because it is something everyone can benefit from knowing, especially those, like me, who grew up having never really studied it from an unbiased perspective. This course will help you to understand why so many laymen are stilling questioning what 97-99.9% of scientists accept as true (based on Pew Research and NIH Record). Overall, this is a course worth getting and you will walk away with a better understanding of the controversy of Evolution. May 19, 2014
Rated 5 out of 5 by Excellent and Insightful Overview The recent (often vitriolic) controversy about Darwin's Theory of Evolution masks profound subtleties about the development and implications of Darwin's ideas. Professor Larson provides a tightly argued and very clear summary of whole Darwinian Revolution. His ability to do this in just 12 lectures is superb. The Professor summarises the development of the theory and the reaction to it including some of the very dark consequences that arguably flowed from it including the rise of eugenics and justification of oppression of many peoples. The course mentions, for example, that the subtitle to Darwin's 1859 "Origin of the Species" is actually "...or the preservation of favoured races in the Struggle for Life". Frankly this was something entirely new to me and not a fact that is often if ever mentioned in contemporary discussions about Darwin. The course Guidebook is also very good and provides detailed summaries of each lecture. Invaluable as many of the lectures covered a lot of ground. The course covers #with sensitivity and appropriate balance#the perceived conflict between traditional Christian worldviews and the implications of Darwin. This is not a straightforward "us versus them" conflict. There are many nuances which the Professor skilfully highlights. There were highly respected scientists# such as Asa Gray in the 19th century and Francis Collins in the late 20th century#who saw Darwin's ideas as capable of being construed as a Theistic Evolutionary theory. Furthermore the Scopes trial is very artfully covered. Often represented as a resounding failure for "fundamentalists" it was in fact decided on technical arguments. In addition William Jennings Bryan was challenging human evolution rather than evolution in general. The course ends with reference to very recent Intelligent Design arguments and again these are presented in a balanced nuanced way. This is a highly elegant course and an excellent introduction to the importance of and controversies arising from Darwin's theory. It has inspired me to undertake the other #longer/24 lecture#course on this subject offered by the Teaching Company by Professor Frederick Gregory. January 27, 2014
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