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Trails of Evidence: How Forensic Science Works

Trails of Evidence: How Forensic Science Works

Professor Elizabeth A. Murray Ph.D.
Mount St. Joseph University

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Trails of Evidence: How Forensic Science Works

Trails of Evidence: How Forensic Science Works

Professor Elizabeth A. Murray Ph.D.
Mount St. Joseph University
Course No.  1190
Course No.  1190
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Course Overview

About This Course

36 lectures  |  30 minutes per lecture

Crime is as old as human society. So is the use of evidence, witnesses, and reason to solve crimes. The desire to identify lawbreakers and bring them to justice is so great that it has inspired countless stories, novels, plays, movies, and television series. But how accurate are the fictional portrayals of crime investigations? What happens behind the scenes when forensic scientists crack a case? The actual details are far more than a lesson in how detective dramas often get it wrong. Knowing how real forensic investigators approach real cases will help you

  • serve as a better juror in a criminal trial or civil lawsuit;
  • be a more effective witness if you ever see a crime take place or are a victim of one;
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Crime is as old as human society. So is the use of evidence, witnesses, and reason to solve crimes. The desire to identify lawbreakers and bring them to justice is so great that it has inspired countless stories, novels, plays, movies, and television series. But how accurate are the fictional portrayals of crime investigations? What happens behind the scenes when forensic scientists crack a case? The actual details are far more than a lesson in how detective dramas often get it wrong. Knowing how real forensic investigators approach real cases will help you

  • serve as a better juror in a criminal trial or civil lawsuit;
  • be a more effective witness if you ever see a crime take place or are a victim of one;
  • sharpen your analysis of the endless array of crime reports that fill the news;
  • think more critically in assessing the value of different types of evidence;
  • learn about a wide range of technical fields that all come to bear in the investigation of crime.

What's more, an introduction to the principles of forensic science and a look at some case studies will give you a new appreciation for law enforcement, which in recent decades has seen a revolution in its ability to determine who committed a crime, how it was done, and often, why.

Taught by veteran forensic scientist and Professor Elizabeth A. Murray of the College of Mount St. Joseph, Trails of Evidence: How Forensic Science Works takes you from the crime scene to the lab to the courtroom in 36 riveting half-hour lectures that reveal the personality and passions of an investigative mind.

Forensic Science from the Inside

One of the nation's foremost experts in forensic anthropology, Professor Murray has participated in hundreds of investigations, involving homicides, missing persons, and mass disasters. In Trails of Evidence, she draws on this extensive experience to show how forensic science works from the inside with discussions of cases such as these:

  • American Eagle Flight 4184: After a commuter plane went down in rural Indiana in 1994, Professor Murray was called to assist with identification of the victims, a daunting task that sheds light on how authorities mobilize to deal with the catastrophic loss of life.
  • The cold case of a missing teen: Four decades after police gave up trying to identify a young woman found dead in a cornfield, Professor Murray examined the evidence and reached new conclusions that helped give a name to a teenager who met a tragic fate.
  • The forgetful killer: A murder suspect agreed to take police to the spot where he buried one of his victims nearly two years earlier—except he couldn't find it. Given only a rough idea of where to search, Professor Murray used a few simple principles to locate the grave.

You also learn about landmark forensic cases that are classics in the history of crime solving, including these:

  • Lindbergh kidnapping: The abduction and killing of Charles Lindbergh's infant son left a host of puzzling clues, including a homemade ladder. When a suspect was arrested, tool marks and other distinguishing features on the ladder were crucial in establishing his guilt.
  • First use of DNA fingerprinting:The death of two teenage girls in central England in the 1980s led investigators to a strong suspect. However, a newly developed DNA technology developed at a local university exonerated an innocent man and led to the real killer.
  • Ted Bundy: This notorious serial killer perfected a modus operandi that allowed him to escape police for years. A master at hiding his tracks, he was finally convicted based largely on testimony by a forensic odontologist, who matched bite marks on a victim to Bundy's teeth.

Learn to Read the Evidence

Unlike what's shown on TV, forensic scientists do not chase down leads and question suspects. Instead, they leave the legwork to the police and use the tools of science—chemistry, biology, physics, and psychology—to uncover the story that carefully collected and analyzed evidence has to tell.

But first they have to know what to look for at a crime scene. Professor Murray begins the course by introducing Locard's exchange principle. Proposed a century ago by the French forensic scientist Edmond Locard, this important idea holds that no one can commit a crime without leaving something behind or altering the surroundings, however imperceptibly.

Armed with the assumption that clues are scattered everywhere, forensic investigators learn how to approach and evaluate an unfamiliar setting. For example, Professor Murray recounts how a police officer told her how to tell the difference between a ransacked house and a messy housekeeper just by looking in the kitchen sink.

In the first section of the course, you explore protocols for investigating a scene, and you probe some classic types of evidence:

  • Fingerprints: Learn the finer points of this venerable tool of identification, including how a common household product, Super Glue, is used to uncover latent prints.
  • Shoeprints:Footprints are more commonly left behind at crime scenes than fingerprints. Criminals can't avoid walking on a surface, even when they're careful not to touch anything with their hands.
  • Fibers:Microscopic fibers transferred to or from a crime scene have incriminated many criminals, including Wayne Williams, convicted of the Atlanta child murders in 1982.
  • Blood: TV dramas get it wrong when they show dramatic blood spatters revealed by high-tech chemistry or lighting. What real forensic scientists see is a smear, made by a perpetrator's attempt to clean up evidence.
  • Handwriting:Signs of hesitation, such as jerky starts and stops, can indicate that someone was trying to duplicate another person's handwriting by looking at a copy of it.

You also hear what goes into investigating a scene that has been nearly obliterated, whether by arson, bombing, or structural collapse. And you learn how the aftermath of an auto accident may hold all the clues needed to determine the sequence of events and who was probably at fault.

In the second part of Trails of Evidence, you focus on Professor Murray's specialty—analysis of human remains—discovering how the time of death is estimated, whether the body is discovered hours or years after the fatal event. She explains the difference between a coroner and a medical examiner. And using some powerful case histories, she describes the roles of various forensic scientists in establishing the cause and manner of death and how unknown persons are identified.

Professor Murray also delves into the psychology behind law enforcement, explaining that effective interrogation strategies are seldom as confrontational as depicted on TV. You will also hear about forensic profiling, the unreliability of eyewitness testimony, and the criminal mind. Then she takes you into the courtroom to see how evidence is presented to the final arbiters of its value: the judge and jury.

Science in Pursuit of Justice

Winner of the Sears-Roebuck Foundation Teaching Excellence and Campus Leadership Award, among other distinguished honors, Professor Murray brings to teaching the same gifts for clear, incisive, and creative thought that have made her so effective in the investigation of questionable deaths and unidentified persons.

In Trails of Evidence, she examines her subject from all angles, covering the principles and real-life practices of the diverse professions that come together in forensic science. And she offers several do-it-yourself projects that she uses with her students—from a simple exercise to test your observational skills to an experiment with blood spatter patterns that employs real-looking fake blood that you can make in the kitchen.

Not surprisingly, Professor Murray shares some of the classic qualities of her fictionalized counterparts. She is frank, meticulous, unflappable, and adept at diffusing the more shocking aspects of her work with humor. But she is also the real thing. She has witnessed firsthand the tragedy of innumerable crimes. What keeps her going is the quest to use the tools of forensic science to see that justice is done.

View Less
36 Lectures
  • 1
    Using Science—Crime Scene to Courtroom
    Professor Murray opens the course by discussing her participation in a multifaceted homicide case that illustrates the many factors that go into a forensic investigation. Learn how the scientific method is rigorously applied in the field, and survey the topics you will cover in the course. x
  • 2
    Crime Scenes and Forensic Evidence
    Locard’s exchange principle holds that every contact leaves a trace. Starting with this rule, discover how a forensic scientist approaches a crime scene. Professor Murray suggests an experiment you can perform to understand the difficulty of finding evidence in an unfamiliar setting. x
  • 3
    Fingerprint Science—Hands-Down ID
    Explore the science of fingerprint analysis, which has been a tool of forensic investigators since the late 1800s. Learn the different coding systems for classifying fingerprints, the techniques for recovering prints where they appear absent, and the innovation of computerized matching. x
  • 4
    Telltale Marks—Tools, Guns, and Ammunition
    Many people know that a gun leaves telltale marks on the bullets it fires. But firearms evidence is only part of a much broader field called toolmark analysis. Examine the ways forensic scientists match a tool to the impressions it leaves on a surface it contacts. x
  • 5
    Good Impressions—Shoes, Tires, and Skin
    Continue your study of the crime scene by looking at the importance of forensic photography and the marks made by shoes, tires, and textiles. Professor Murray describes a case in which crucial clothing impressions on a body showed a death was accidental. x
  • 6
    Forensics of Fibers, Paint, and Glass
    Turn to examples of trace evidence that can clinch a case in court—as long as samples are properly handled and analyzed. Fibers, paint, and glass fragments sometimes have a vivid story to tell about their origin and the events that left them on a victim or at a crime scene. x
  • 7
    Traces of Hair and Fur
    Hair is one of the most commonly analyzed forms of trace evidence and may contain DNA that can pin down its source. Discover that the difficulty of DNA testing makes hair more often used to rule out suspects, since hair has distinctive characteristics that are easily observable. x
  • 8
    Soil, Protist, Plant, and Animal Traces
    Enter the field of wildlife forensics, which involves not just attacks by animals on people but the many ways that evidence from nature is used to solve crimes. Soils, wood, pollen, and animal traces can all connect a person or object to a crime scene. x
  • 9
    Serology—Blood and Other Body Fluids
    What does an investigator do when a murder scene has been scrubbed spotlessly clean by the perpetrator? TV dramas often get the facts wrong. Survey the arsenal of tests for body fluids that can uncover a hidden crime. x
  • 10
    The Forensic Analysis of DNA
    Learn how DNA profiling became the gold standard in both victim and perpetrator identification, even though humans have more than 99% of their DNA in common. Professor Murray discusses the landmark case in the United Kingdom that was the first to use DNA to convict a killer. x
  • 11
    Forensic Toxicology of Drugs and Poisons
    Enter the toxicology lab to learn how drugs and poisonous substances are detected, even in minute quantities. Trace the path of drugs through the bloodstream and understand their effects. Then see how forensic scientists use sophisticated tests to identify chemicals in a victim’s body. x
  • 12
    The Forensics of Substance Abuse
    In one recent year, drug overdoses accounted for 26,000 deaths in the United States. Focus on the forensics of this serious social problem. How are drugs of abuse classified? How do they affect the body? And which regulated substances are more commonly analyzed in the forensic chemistry lab, since they’re the most frequently encountered on the street? x
  • 13
    Handwriting and Forgery Analysis
    Examine the field of questioned documents, which involves both handwriting analysis and the more scientifically conclusive procedures of materials examination. Learn the tip-offs that someone is trying to duplicate the handwriting of another, and explore the ways that some famous fakes were unmasked. x
  • 14
    Computer Forensics and Digital Evidence
    Learn how forensic investigators extract evidence from computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices. Discover the importance of slack space on a hard drive, and review how GPS tracking solved one murder that ultimately led officials to link that killer to another murder over a decade earlier. x
  • 15
    Structure Failure—Forensic Engineering
    Whenever a bridge, building, or other structure fails, forensic engineers are called in to determine what went wrong, which may show whether a crime was committed. Focus on cases such as Boston’s deadly Great Molasses Flood in 1919 and the collapse of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in 2001. x
  • 16
    Forensic Analysis of Vehicle Accidents
    Apply Newton’s laws of motion to automobile accidents, discovering what skid marks, front-end damage, and other clues reveal about the cause of a collision. Close by considering two other types of vehicle accidents: an airline crash in 1994 and the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986. x
  • 17
    Fire Science and Explosion Forensics
    Probe the ashes of a smoldering building to find the telltale traces that can point to arson. Even the aftermath of a violent explosion leaves clues about what caused it. But first, it’s important to understand the physics of fire and explosives—and the motives of those who light the fuse. x
  • 18
    Blood Evidence—Stains and Spatters
    Even when a body is absent, blood leaves distinctive patterns that can tell investigators the nature of an injury, the type of weapon that made it, and sometimes the degree of culpability of the person who caused it. Review the role of blood evidence in the infamous Sam Sheppard murder trial. x
  • 19
    The Science of Death
    Begin a series of lectures on death and its aftermath by studying the end stages of life. Seldom as simple as portrayed on TV, death is a cascade of failures rather than a single event. Explore some of the many routes to this inevitable end. x
  • 20
    Death Investigation—Algor, Livor, and Rigor
    How can an investigator inspect a body and estimate the time of death? Follow the steps that the body’s systems take after life ends, including algor mortis, livor mortis, and rigor mortis. Each of these processes can help signal when death occurred and also the likely circumstances. x
  • 21
    Autopsy—Cause and Manner of Death
    Step into the morgue to understand why and how a forensic autopsy is performed. The purpose is to determine the cause and manner of death, and often to identify the victim. Much like exploratory surgery, no two autopsies are the same. x
  • 22
    Decomposition—From Bugs to Bones
    When bodies are in a state of advanced decomposition, forensic entomologists use knowledge of insect life cycles to estimate the time since death. Discover that a research center known informally as the Body Farm has turned this gruesome subject into a science. x
  • 23
    Forensic Anthropology—Skeleton Stories
    Study the science behind skeletons, learning how investigators read the clues in bones for signs of age, sex, ancestry, and trauma. Human skeletons vary widely, even in the number of bones in an individual. The standard textbook figure—206—is only an average. x
  • 24
    Forensics of Teeth and Bite Marks
    Forensic odontologists are dentists trained to use their knowledge of teeth in two ways: to identify unknown persons and to interpret bite mark evidence on victims. Learn how dental patterns can be compelling evidence and led to the murder conviction of serial killer Ted Bundy in 1979. x
  • 25
    Police Sketches and Facial Reproductions
    From wanted posters in the Old West to today’s digital face reconstructions, forensic art is an enduring tool of law enforcement. Explore the techniques artists use to create a recognizable human likeness based on limited information, and learn about the careful approaches these artists must take when interviewing witnesses. x
  • 26
    Interview, Interrogation, Intelligence
    Turn to a key component of police work that underlies all forensic investigations: evidence provided by people. Learn the differences between interviewing, interrogating, and gathering intelligence. Effective interrogation is a far less adversarial process than is portrayed on TV. x
  • 27
    Forensic Profiling—Who, How, and Why?
    Explore one of the most controversial aspects of forensics: personality profiling. Profiling can greatly narrow the field of potential suspects and aid in capturing criminals. Review cases in which this technique proved spectacularly successful and also tragically misguided. x
  • 28
    Human Memory and Eyewitness Accounts
    Eyewitness testimony carries enormous weight in court. But how reliable is it? Professor Murray describes a “crime” that she stages in front of her students to test their reliability as witnesses. Her experiences in the classroom match the unsettling findings of studies. x
  • 29
    Criminal Minds—Psychology and Psychiatry
    Dealing with human behavior is at the root of the legal system. Delve into forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry by studying the disturbing case of serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer. Then look at how the criminal justice system evaluates insanity pleas, separating frauds from the genuinely mentally ill. x
  • 30
    When Forensic Evidence Is on Trial
    Forensic evidence must be collected, prepared, and analyzed with care, since it may wind up in court. What happens when it does? Review the history of scientific evidence, its changing acceptance by the courts, and efforts today to develop uniform standards in forensics that apply throughout the country. x
  • 31
    Forensic Scientists and Expert Testimony
    Both sides in a legal dispute have the right to good science, and Professor Murray has testified for both the prosecution and defense in different trials. Hear some of her experiences, and examine the many career pathways to becoming a forensic expert. x
  • 32
    Comparing Crimes and Crime Labs
    Turn to the subject of crime itself, exploring the different categories of homicide, assault, and property offenses. The disparity in technology around the world means that forensic science practices vary. Close by looking at a typical high-tech crime lab and the types of evidence that move through it. x
  • 33
    Crimes—Nobody’s Supposed to Get Hurt
    Get practical forensic experience by learning how to calculate when an individual is over the alcohol limit for drunk driving. Then explore the role of forensics in cases of identity theft, arson, and a famous kidnapping in which an astute victim laid the foundation for snaring his captors. x
  • 34
    Crimes—Killers of One, Killers of Many
    Analyze four tragic cases that were solved with the help of forensic evidence: the killing of eight-year-old Sarah Payne in England, the Jeffrey MacDonald triple-murder case, a 17-year string of hospital killings that appeared to be natural deaths, and the BTK (“Bind, Torture, Kill”) murder spree in Wichita, Kansas. x
  • 35
    Applications—Mass-Disaster Forensics
    What is the experience of a forensic investigator in the aftermath of a mass disaster? Professor Murray recounts her role in the analysis of the 1994 crash of American Eagle Flight 4184. Learn how mass disasters are like monumental crime scenes, in which many forensic techniques come into play. x
  • 36
    Applications—Identification Matters
    One of the most emotionally satisfying aspects of Professor Murray’s work is identifying deceased unknown persons, helping to bring answers to a victim’s family. Finish your study of forensic science with examples of her work in this area, including a nearly 40-year-old cold case that she helped solve. x

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Elizabeth A. Murray
Ph.D. Elizabeth A. Murray
Mount St. Joseph University

Dr. Elizabeth A. Murray is a forensic anthropologist and also Professor of Biology at the College of Mount St. Joseph, where she teaches doctoral-level human gross anatomy and undergraduate-level anatomy and physiology, as well as forensic science. She earned her bachelor's degree in biology from the College of Mount St. Joseph and her master's degree in anthropology and Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Biology from the University of Cincinnati. Most of Professor Murray's forensic casework has been in Ohio and Kentucky, where she has participated in hundreds of investigations. She is one of fewer than 100 anthropologists certified as a Diplomate by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. Professor Murray has been honored with the Sears-Roebuck Foundation Teaching Excellence and Campus Leadership Award, and she twice earned the Clifford Excellence in Teaching Award. She has served as an instructor for numerous organizations, including the U.S. Department of Justice, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, and the International Association of Coroners & Medical Examiners. Her television appearances include National Geographic's Buried Secrets, Discovery Health's Skeleton Stories, The New Detectives, and Forensic Files. Her book Death: Corpses, Cadavers, and Other Grave Matters was named one of the top ten summer titles for students by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Her 2012 book, Forensic Identification: Putting a Name and Face on Death, was recently selected as one of the outstanding books of 2012 by the prestigious National Science Teacher's Association.

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Rated 4.1 out of 5 by 42 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by A Very Unusual Course You will find this course to be one of the most unusual ones offered by The Great Courses. The lectures are well written and well organized. Professor Murray's experience as a teacher really shows. If she mentions a phrase or term that would not be known by many people, she immediately explains the term so that there is no confusion going forward. It's impossible to come away from the course without understanding it all. (Really.) After watching a lecture, you will realize the incredible amount of information that was conveyed without causing fatigue. I would highly recommend this course especially to those young people considering a career in forensic science, as well as to those interested in writing mysteries and crime novels. If you like watching TV detective and crime programs, this course will let you in on how things are really done. You will really enjoy this one! March 19, 2015
Rated 4 out of 5 by Great Course Let's be realistic, the plethora of crime shows on television is a clear motivating factor for having a course like this available. The reality is that unlike what's on television, forensics is painstaking and often dry work. Professor Murray strikes a balance between the science, and making the topics engaging and interesting. She provides a good level of detail and presents a realistic insight into the world of a forensic scientist. Her background teaching forensic science in university is clearly evident, but I don't see that as a negative. She has a relaxed style that is very accessible. She clearly enjoys her subject material and gets pleasure out of sharing it. February 22, 2015
Rated 3 out of 5 by Not a course I could recommend I had the strong impression throughout the course that the instructor believed that she was addressing a roomful of teenagers rather than adults who were taking the course in order to learn more about something they already knew tangentially from life experience. I did not relish the "talking down" experience. By frequent reference, she clearly believed that most of her audience has spent many hours watching crime shows such as "CSI", and she tries to engage her listeners by talking more in the vernacular - "the perp", "the bad guy" - I was waiting for her to start dropping her terminal "G"s. Others have referred to her constant exclamation: "There I go again, making smart criminals" and the annoying sound effects - something like a cheep or beep or computer tone every time a graphic was posted on the screen, which had me looking around for a beeping smoke detector or something of that kind until I realized in each lecture that it was coming from the DVD. I waded through the entire course, because despite her "dumbing down" and general overly casual style, she did cover a variety of modern trends relating to evidence. When I finished it, I even gave it to my son (a litigating attorney) and his wife (a criminal justice major, then parole officer) because I thought they might be interested in a broad survey of the current state of knowledge. So it definitely has interesting information and redeeming value, but I couldn't get past the instructor's delivery. January 7, 2015
Rated 4 out of 5 by Great presentation, distracting sound effects This course is fascinating, and Prof. Murray enriches it with case stories, personal stories, and personal nuances. I have no interest in crime as a topic or as a source of dramatic entertainment, but I am greatly interested in all facets of science and technology, and Prof. Murray satisfied my expectations with an excellent introductory survey of forensic science. I also think that she establishes outstanding rapport with the audience through the personable way in which she communicates. I wish to comment in detail on the visual effects and the sound effects added by the video editor, as have other reviewers. There should be a rating option for this feature, and if there were, my rating would be one star because of the distracting nature of these effects. This is the reason that my overall rating for the course is four instead of five. I've been viewing Teaching Company courses since 2003, when they first came out on DVD, and I own more than 150 courses. At that time, Tom Rollins, who founded the company, ran it. But about five years ago, Tom turned the management of the company over to business people, and I infer that they hired a hotshot video editor to add razzle-dazzle to the content. As of then, the editor has been adding visual effects and sound effects that are distracting. The audience for scholarly material spends good money to obtain clearly presented, fascinating ideas, and for this kind of content, razzle-dazzle is annoying. Adding razzle-dazzle is like a huckster trying to impress an intellectual audience with glitz and hype. In this forensics course, the following is a partial list of sound effects, and these are associated with text or images being presented or removed: jingling, clicking, thumping, and a variety of air movement sounds, some of which are like a whistle blowing, some of which are like a cymbal ringing, and some of which are like wind whooshing. The air movement sounds are the least distracting, while the others are quite annoying. It is even worse in Craig Heller's course on sleep because some of his lectures have dense intellectual material about neural biology that requires intense concentration. Imagine concentrating as hard as you can to understand what Heller's saying and then you hear phone-ringing in the background! Yes, phone-ringing! That's one of the sound effects that the video editor added to Heller's course. In one particular instance, Heller’s content required so much concentration that I had to replay the part multiple times until my cognitive system numbed to the phone-ringing, allowing me to ignore it so that I could think about what Heller was saying. The choice of phone-ringing shows that the video editor is toying with the audience by choosing sound effects that happen to catch his fancy. The video editor also added extraneous visual effects, including high-tech fairy dust blasting out of an unseen jet engine, complete with whooshing sounds. Not just that, but the jet-blast of fairy dust whooshes across the screen IN FRONT OF the professor, no less! To use an analogy, we’ve paid good money to see a famous singer perform on stage. However, a hotshot guitarist in the band decides that the singer’s performance is so dull that the guitarist needs to go onstage to dazzle the audience with his skill, while dancing around the singer. In fact, if the visual effects and the sound effects were actually helpful for understanding the course content, they should be the same for every course so that the cognitive system of a viewer would be able to get their roles automated and would then be able to rapidly, automatically process the effects according to their cognitive role. But we can infer that this video editor would be bored if he had to follow a strategy that makes cognitive sense. The variety of effects are, no doubt, interesting for him to insert, thereby reducing his boredom. And inserting the effects allows him to pretend that he’s adding value to the courses. But the effects do not add value; they are not for the cognitive benefit of the audience; they are for the emotive benefit of the video editor; and they detract from the course because they are distracting. As if all of the foregoing weren’t bad enough, the video editor added insult to injury. Tom Rollins had chosen the music intro for each lecture to be the end of movement 1 of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto #2. This constitutes a few closing measures of a delightful, uplifting masterwork that became a feature of the Teaching Company brand, putting the viewer or listener into a pleasant disposition to experience yet another informative lecture. Well, the hotshot video editor threw Bach in the trash in order to substitute uninteresting, uninspiring, forgettable sound effects. The video editor is clearly clueless when it comes to understanding how best to convey scholarly content to an audience and how to enhance the Teaching Company brand. In conclusion, a video editor for scholarly courses should not be chosen for skill in adding razzle-dazzle. Rather, they should be chosen for skill in enhancing a viewer’s ability to understand and remember intellectual content, some of which may require intense concentration. In particular, the editor should take great care never to grab the attention of the viewer’s perceptual system with extraneous visual effects or extraneous sound effects because such effects will distract the viewer, making it harder for them to focus on the intellectual content, understand it, and enter it into their memory system. This problem will be even worse in older people because their perceptual systems process information more slowly, and a good portion of the Teaching Company audience consists of retirees. If the Teaching Company managers have any doubts about these conclusions, they should consult Peter Vishton, a perceptual expert with an outstanding course on perception. Speaking personally, the sound effects do not assist me in any way as I concentrate on what the professor is saying. As I concentrate, I seek to understand the content as deeply and as thoroughly as possible in order to minimize the number of times that I need backtrack and replay a portion of the lecture. I pay good money to learn from professors who are chosen for their superb communication ability. These professors don’t need jingles, clicks, thumps, phone-ringing, and wind noises in order to make their lectures interesting. These noises are nothing more than perceptual distractions that my cognitive system must try to ignore so that I can focus on what the professor is saying. January 4, 2015
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