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Understanding the Fundamentals of Music

Understanding the Fundamentals of Music

Professor Robert Greenberg Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances

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Understanding the Fundamentals of Music

Understanding the Fundamentals of Music

Professor Robert Greenberg Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances
Course No.  7261
Course No.  7261
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Course Overview

About This Course

16 lectures  |  45 minutes per lecture

We all know that beneath the surface of music, beyond the joy or excitement or even heartache that this beautiful language of sound can stir within us, lies the often mysterious realm of music theory—a complex syntax of structural and instrumental resources that composers may draw on.

No matter what kind of music we listen to—symphony or string quartet, saxophone solo or vocal ballad, hip hop or Gregorian chant—we feel the impact of that music and have done so all our lives, even though we may not know how such impact is achieved, or understand the fundamental processes of musical composition.

But what if we did understand how certain musical effects were achieved? What if we could learn to follow the often-intimidating language of key signatures, pitch, mode, melody, meter, and other parts of musical structure used by composers? What if we could recognize these various components at work as we listened to our favorite music? What if we could "speak" the language of Western music?

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We all know that beneath the surface of music, beyond the joy or excitement or even heartache that this beautiful language of sound can stir within us, lies the often mysterious realm of music theory—a complex syntax of structural and instrumental resources that composers may draw on.

No matter what kind of music we listen to—symphony or string quartet, saxophone solo or vocal ballad, hip hop or Gregorian chant—we feel the impact of that music and have done so all our lives, even though we may not know how such impact is achieved, or understand the fundamental processes of musical composition.

But what if we did understand how certain musical effects were achieved? What if we could learn to follow the often-intimidating language of key signatures, pitch, mode, melody, meter, and other parts of musical structure used by composers? What if we could recognize these various components at work as we listened to our favorite music? What if we could "speak" the language of Western music?

It's a language that Professor Robert Greenberg calls rich, varied, and magnificent, and he has little doubt about the rewards of even a beginning level of fluency.

"It's a language that pays us back tenfold—a hundredfold—for every detail we come to recognize and perceive! And it's a language that will only get richer and more varied, as our increasingly global culture contributes ever more vocabulary to it."

Learn the Basics of Music Theory without Knowing How to Read Music!

In this course, Professor Greenberg offers a spirited introduction to this magnificent language—nimbly avoiding what for many of us has long been the principal roadblock, the need to read music.

For anyone wanting to master music's language, being able to read musical notation is a necessity. But this course, as Professor Greenberg notes, is a basic course, designed to introduce you to music's language in a way that is similar to the way you learned your own native language, by "discovering and exploring musical syntax through our ears—by learning what the parts of musical speech sound like—rather than what they look like on paper."

By sidestepping the necessity to read music, these lectures represent an extremely rare opportunity in musical education—an opportunity to experience a solid introduction to music theory's basics in a way that is not technically intimidating, yet provides a substantial grounding in the fundamentals. As such, Professor Greenberg has devised a highly individualized approach to music theory. There is simply little or no literature in this field that can teach as much without recourse to music notation. Thus, it can appeal to those who are not learning, or even planning to learn, to play a musical instrument or to compose. It can even be beneficial to musicians who do not play a keyboard instrument and may have had difficulty grasping some of the more abstract concepts of music. As much as anything else, the course is designed to help deepen and intensify the experience of Professor Greenberg's other Teaching Company Courses, currently 21 in number.

Professor Greenberg has made use of a variety of tools, including thoughtfully chosen recorded examples, his own demonstrations at the piano, and helpful diagrams. One of those diagrams—a reproduction of a piano keyboard, with its keys identified—frees the student from needing access to a piano or any other keyboard instrument, a traditional demand of most music theory courses. It's of tremendous help in visualizing many of the course's most important concepts, such as how "pitch collections" are built, and it opens up the benefits of this course to anyone without access to a piano or keyboard instrument.

The extent of those benefits becomes clear the moment you start to apply the basic knowledge taught in this course. You'll listen to music with new levels of understanding and appreciation, not only when you find yourself at the concert hall, but also at home with your stereo, and when you're listening to your favorite music in the car or on a portable player.

Listen Over and Over and Learn More Each Time!

Each time you listen to this course—and Professor Greenberg has designed it to be listened to again and again—you increase your music-listening skills and come to appreciate what a complex and rewarding study music theory can be.

These are lectures that will prepare you, in Professor Greenberg's words, to "hear and identify those aspects of the musical language that are, collectively, the means to comprehending, on an intimate level, the music of the Western repertoire and, to a significant degree, the music of many other world cultures as well."

It's difficult to imagine a teacher more qualified to help you reach that goal. Professor Greenberg is one of The Teaching Company's most highly regarded, popular, and prolific teachers—as well as an award-winning composer in his own right. He has produced more than 500 lectures for The Teaching Company on a range of composers and genres, each marked by his characteristic knowledge, enthusiasm, humor, and, most important, unique ability to teach the technicalities of music to nontechnical audiences. A love of music and a desire to understand it are the only prerequisites you need.

All these skills are on constant display throughout the lectures, as Professor Greenberg takes you step by step through the material, laying a firm foundation before introducing the next concept. He begins by introducing you to the instrumental families of the orchestra and their characteristics, before moving on to subjects that might seem intimidating in a classroom: pulse and meter; sound, pitch, and pitch collections; melody and texture; tonality and tonal harmony. Professor Greenberg's lectures are clear and purposeful.

Learn about the People behind the Music

Along the way, you'll learn the human side of music—about the men and women who write and play it—and discover, for example, that:

  • When violinists or other string players use the bow over the fingerboard, or neck, of their instruments, a lovely, flutelike sound is produced, similar to the effect of clamping a comb-shaped muting device to the instrument's bridge. The technique is called sul tasto. Even though it is an effect that can be achieved instantly, without having to pause to clamp on a mute, string players generally dislike it. That's because the rosin they use on the hair of their bows to make the hair grip the strings gets on a part of the strings that may come into contact with the players' fingers—an unwelcome experience for string players. Not wishing to incur the wrath of the string section, experienced composers have thus learned to avoid using sul tasto unless absolutely necessary.
  • The piccolo has so much power that its piercingly brilliant sound can be painful, so piccolo players wear earplugs when they practice to protect themselves from their own instruments.
  • The extraordinary two-and-a-half octave upward slide—or glissando—that begins George Gershwin's 1924 Rhapsody in Blue has become the most famous clarinet glissando in all of music. Gershwin did not write it that way; he indicated a simple ascending scale. But Gershwin's original score was written for piano and then orchestrated by Ferde Grofé. Grofé knew that Russ Gorman, who would play clarinet in the Rhapsody's premiere, was extraordinarily gifted at playing glissandi. Grofé thus scored the opening of Rhapsody as a glissando, and the rest is musical history.
  • Hector Berlioz was rare among major composers for barely being able to play any individual musical instrument. The "instrument" he could play was the orchestra. Considered the most original, adventurous, and innovative orchestrator that had yet come along, his "Treatise on Orchestration" has been a must-read for composers and conductors since its publication in 1843.

Understanding the Fundamentals of Music is as rich in musical lore as it is in technical knowledge. It will reward you many times over, not only as you listen and relisten to the lectures, gaining a new understanding each time, but also as you listen to different varieties of music and find yourself enjoying a much deeper understanding of their compositional structures.

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16 Lectures
  • 1
    The Language of Music
    Professor Greenberg begins the course with an introduction to one of the musical language's key syntactical elements—timbre, or the actual sound or tone color of an instrument or instruments—beginning with the string section of the orchestra. x
  • 2
    Timbre, Continued
    His exploration of timbre continues with plucked string instruments and woodwinds—both single- and double-reeds—as well as a discussion of the concept of transposing instruments and dynamics. x
  • 3
    Timbre, Part 3
    You conclude our discussion of timbre with the brass and percussion families before moving on to the evolution of the orchestra from the early 17th to the 20th centuries. x
  • 4
    Beat and Tempo
    A simple definition of music offered in Lecture 1 was "sound in time." Moving from our exploration of the "sound" aspect of music, we now begin an exploration of the role of "time" in music. x
  • 5
    Meter, Part 1
    Meter refers to how individual beats are grouped in a given passage. This lecture considers two basic types, duple meter and triple meter, the "dance meter" of which the waltz is the most enduring and popular example. x
  • 6
    Meter, Part 2
    Examine some of the ways a composer can manipulate the listener's sense of beat and meter, including syncopation, compound meter, additive meter, and asymmetrical meter. x
  • 7
    Pitch and Mode, Part 1
    After three lectures of discussion about the "time" aspect of music—rhythm—you will return to its sound aspect, introducing and defining terms such as noise, fundamental frequency, pitch, pitch collection, note, melody, harmony, interval, octave, and overtone and Pythagoras's role in "discovering" the overtone series. x
  • 8
    Pitch and Mode, Part 2
    Professor Greenberg continues his discussion of pitch and mode with a focus on the essential building block of the Western pitch systems—the octave—and its importance in tonal music. In this lecture you will also explore musical modes. x
  • 9
    Intervals and Tunings
    Resuming you focus on pitch, you will turn once more to Pythagoras, and his investigation into what is now known as the overtone series. This paves the way for an examination of intervals, the evolution of tuning systems, and an introduction to the major pitch collections. x
  • 10
    Tonality, Key Signature, and the Circle of Fifths
    This lecture explains the concept of a tonal center, or tonic, discusses how musical keys are constructed and how they relate to one another. It also introduces a fundamental graphic and conceptual aid in understanding keys and their relationships—the circle of fifths. x
  • 11
    Intervals Revisited and Expanded
    An interval is the relationship between two pitches, and can range from the most simple in terms of acoustical ratio, where the two pitches blend well, to the most acoustically complex, where the pitches blend poorly. This lecture explores that range, from the simplest—the consonant, stable octave—to the most complex—the dissonant and unstable tritone. x
  • 12
    Melody
    Begin with an examination of the single most important aspect of music: melody. Here you will look at the four basic types of thematic melody: word melody, vocal melody, vocally conceived instrumental melody, and instrumental melody; and continue with an examination of musical motives and motivic development, and the function of motives in creating melody. x
  • 13
    Melody, Continued
    This lecture reviews and builds on the analysis of thematic melody begun in the previous lecture. Instrumental melody is discussed, along with other types of melody, including accompanimental melody, countermelody, periodic melody, and continuous melody. x
  • 14
    Texture and Harmony, Part 1
    The idea of texture in music—the number of different melody lines in a given section of music and their relationship to one another—is introduced by discussing the four basic musical textures: monophony, polyphony, homophony, and heterophony. x
  • 15
    Harmony, Part 2—Function, Tendency, and Dominance
    Functional tonality is the tonal system that dominated Western music from the 16th to the 20th centuries. It is at its heart about tension and release. This lecture discusses the roles of various harmonies. x
  • 16
    Harmony, Part 3—Progression, Cadence, and Modulation
    Professor Greenberg concludes with the concepts of harmonic progression, the movement from one chord to the next; cadence, the progressions that serve as musical punctuation marks; and the techniques of modulation, by which a composer can change keys during the course of a movement. x

Lecture Titles

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Robert Greenberg
Robert Greenberg, Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances

Dr. Robert Greenberg is Music Historian-in-Residence with San Francisco Performances. A graduate of Princeton University, Professor Greenberg holds a Ph.D. in Music Composition from the University of California, Berkeley. He has seen his compositions—which include more than 45 works for a wide variety of instrumental and vocal ensembles—performed all over the world, including New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Los Angeles, England, Ireland, Greece, Italy, and the Netherlands.

He has served on the faculties of the University of California, Berkeley; California State University, Hayward; and the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, and has lectured for some of the most prestigious musical and arts organizations in the United States, including the San Francisco Symphony, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, the Van Cliburn Foundation, and the Chicago Symphony. For The Great Courses, he has recorded more than 500 lectures on a range of composers and classical music genres.

Professor Greenberg is a Steinway Artist. His many other honors include three Nicola de Lorenzo Composition Prizes and a Koussevitzky commission from the Library of Congress. He has been profiled in various major publications, including The Wall Street Journal; Inc. magazine; and the London Times.

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Reviews

Rated 4.7 out of 5 by 140 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by Simply Outstanding! This sixteen lecture course (45 minutes per lecture) produced in 2007 is outstanding. Professor Greenberg covers the topics of timbre, tempo, meter, pitch and mode, intervals, key signatures, melody, and harmony in an entertaining fashion that holds one’s attention throughout, even for those with some knowledge of the topic. He includes plenty of musical examples from all musical genres to illustrate his points and makes efficient use of his 45 minutes per lecture. His “sidebars” – more advanced, nonessential information to supplement the topic under discussion – were great. Even if you are an expert musician I suspect you will learn from Professor Greenberg. At the very least you should enjoy his humor! I wish that my early band and music teachers had incorporated portions of this material into my musical training. It would have heightened my appreciation for the music we performed and for the instruments that I played. As a trumpet player I memorized the valve positions for the notes I played (as most every other trumpet player has from the beginning of time) but never understood why I was using those specific valve combinations for each specific note. It took Professor Greenberg to teach me why the trumpet (or bugle) without the use of valves produces the pitches C – G – C – E – G following the overtone series of a perfect 5th, a perfect 4th, a major third, and finally a minor third! It now makes some sense after listening to Professor Greenberg! I suspect that music instructors may feel that aspects of music theory are either too dull or too complicated for their students (who want only to make noise) – but I disagree. I encourage music teachers to try this course and reconsider whether or not to include some of this material in their classes. I recommend this course (and many others by Professor Greenberg) quite highly – entertaining and most informative. May 16, 2013
Rated 5 out of 5 by Music "Fundamentals", indeed My starting point this spring was an engineering background and life work, including a professorship, in computer science. As a kid, my direction was visual, not auditory, which has served me well in web and app development. However, I've always loved music, so I decided to buy the Greenberg "Fundamentals". Ah, the "Ode to Joy"! I then followed up (as recommended by Greenberg reviewers) with the purchase of a Casio LK-280, and have learned the basics of reading a score and playing simple songs. I must admit, that in the first lecture, the Bronx background bombast had me wondering if I had the right resource to further a love of music. Greenberg's humor, demeanor, subject depth, and range started to grow on me, and "oy gevalt!", I wound up wanting to hug the guy. My daughter had piano lessons throughout middle and high school, and started as a music major as an undergraduate. Greenberg's coverage would have served her well, and I recommend this in retrospect to high school music majors. This is the intellectual stuff you must have covered before you hit college. My notes to any music newbie science person is that music tech is a very enthralling challenge. As other reviewers suggest, music fundamentals are like learning a difficult science subject; barge through, then go back as needed and review. As I said, I wound up getting a Casio (Yamaha also has one) "lighted keyboard" with practice songs, and really started to "get it" better when I actually tried the music myself. Further on the newbie science person stuff... Greenberg discusses Pythagorean overtones, resonance, tuning problems, cultural differences, and such. Consider this preparation for Kung's "How Music and Math Relate". The curious techie will have issues that Greenberg has neither the time or background to cover. Kung is a great follow- up, and answers many techie issues that Greenberg necessarily leaves hanging. August 12, 2015
Rated 5 out of 5 by Exceeded my Expectations! I’m an amateur composer who has been involved in music since I was a child. I wasn’t sure what to expect from Dr. Greeberg’s course but decided to take chance based on all the outstanding reviews. I was pleasantly surprised by the quality of the content and by Dr. Greenberg’s fantastic delivery. He speaks eloquently but explains things clearly and at a level that even beginners could understand. I don’t think I heard him say “umm” once! His engaging delivery and dry sense of humor make paying attention extremely easy. Dr. Greenberg takes the listener on a journey that covers everything from basic tonality to why some notes harmonize well together and others don’t. He did an outstanding job of explaining how the Circle of 5ths is generated. I liked the fact that he included numerous musical examples to highlight the points he was making. If I had one suggestion, it would be to shorten some of the musical sections and avoid the times where he played the same thing more than once. Overall, I was so impressed with this course that I encouraged my mother to purchase it and she did. She has started watching it and thus far she is also impressed by the course and Dr. Greenberg’s delivery. I highly recommend this course. I learned a lot, and just as important, really enjoyed watching each of the lectures! July 27, 2015
Rated 4 out of 5 by I Wish I Was Smart Enough for this Course I like to begin reviews with an explanation of my background and motivation. Despite having received what I consider to be a good education, I somehow missed music education completely beyond the most basic of concepts. Recently, I learned that my daughter is required to learn a musical instrument and play in the band as part of her middle school curriculum. I hate to be completely ignorant about anything my children are doing, so I decided to obtain at least a rudimentary understanding of music. I started with Dr. Greenberg's excellent How to Listen To and Understand Great Music. I then moved on to this course hoping to gain more technical knowledge. My review is likely worthless for someone who already has a background in music or a significant understanding of music theory as I really cannot judge what a more knowledgeable person would glean from this course. For complete neophytes such as myself, I was able to follow along pretty well with the first three lessons. These lessons focused on the different types of musical instruments and how they work together. I enjoyed these lessons and learned something. Then came the fourth lesson on Beat and Tempo. I have never had anything resembling "rhythm" (needless to say, I have zero dancing skills), so the professor lost me when he instructed the listener to clap along and find the beat. I thought I was lost at that point, then I progressed to lesson five and learned a new definition of "lost." I started to have flashbacks to college calculus (not a good thing) when these lessons covered concepts such as meter, pitch, mode, intervals, tunings and the mystical Circle of Fifths. I really think the professor tried to make these concepts understandable, but they were mostly too difficult for me to follow. The professor conceded that these lessons may need to be listened to multiple times, but it was very difficult to push through these lessons. I would have given up if I didn't have such a strong motivation to understand what my daughter is learning in school. The lessons became easier to follow when he got to Melody and Harmony in lessons eleven through fourteen, though he lost me again in the middle of lesson fourteen when he began talking about tonics and intervals again. One of the better parts was the professor's explanation of how composers use different approaches to melody to achieve expressive goals in musical pieces, and I sort of understood it even with my pitiful understanding of the rest of the course. The professor began the course by saying his goal was to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of music in order to deepen the appreciation of his other courses. I learned a few things, and I believe my ability to appreciate music has deepened somewhat. That being said, I would have been better off spending the time listening to one of the professor's other courses that focus less on the technical aspects of music. I really believe the fault lies more with me than the professor. The professor's presentation skills are great, and his passion is obvious. Therefore, despite not learning much, I still give this course excellent ratings and believe people with a stronger background could benefit. Despite my failure in this particular course, perhaps it is telling that the next course I started to listen to is the professor's Thirty Greatest Orchestral Works. July 14, 2015
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