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Utopia and Terror in the 20th Century

Utopia and Terror in the 20th Century

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Utopia and Terror in the 20th Century

Course No. 8313
Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, Ph.D.
University of Tennessee
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Course No. 8313
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  • You should buy audio if you would enjoy the convenience of experiencing this course while driving, exercising, etc. While the video does contain visual elements, the professor presents the material in an engaging and clear manner, so the visuals are not necessary to understand the concepts. Additionally, the audio audience may refer to the accompanying course guidebook for names, works, and examples that are cited throughout the course.
  • You should buy video if you prefer learning visually and wish to take advantage of the visual elements featured in this course. The video version is well illustrated with approximately 250 visual elements to enhance your learning, including photographs of key figures and events, wartime images, maps, and on-screen text highlighting names and dates.
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Course Overview

From the trenches of World War I to Nazi Germany to Saddam Hussein's Iraq, the 20th century was a time of unprecedented violence. According to best estimates, in that 100-year span more than 200 million people were killed in world wars, government-sponsored persecutions, and genocides. Such monumental violence seems senseless. But it is not inexplicable. And if we can understand its origins, we may prevent even greater horrors in the century to come.

This is the premise of Utopia and Terror in the 20th Century. Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius traces the violent history of that era, beginning with its early roots in the American and, especially, the French revolutions. With each passing lecture, you will see how the 20th century's violence was the result of specific historical developments that eventually combined, with explosive results.

The Fuse that Made the 20th Century Explode

The French Revolution proved that ideological movements could mobilize the public and, when willing to use violence, could indeed transform society.

The Industrial Revolution and subsequent technology created vastly more powerful weapons—including some that were entirely new, such as the airplane and rocket—that raised the potential for bloodshed to new heights.

Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection was perverted into Social Darwinism and eugenics: racist pseudosciences that provided excuses to repress or eliminate entire groups of people.

These events created a dangerous backdrop for the most sinister development of all. This was the notion that utopia was not just a perfect paradise to look forward to in the afterlife. Instead, utopia could be built right now, in this life.

Such 20th-century ideologies as Marxism, Nazism, Communism, and Fascism embraced this idea willingly—even enthusiastically—and used terror to implement it. These ideologies functioned as political religions, demanding fanaticism, commitment, and sacrifice in return for an ultimate reward in this life rather than the next.

Understanding Totalitarian Governments: Gangsters and Machines

Professor Liulevicius offers an intellectual framework though which to understand the totalitarian governments of the last century or, for that matter, of today. Such governments, and the terror they spread, share key characteristics and strategies.

For example, their leaders can be seen not as politicians but as mobsters, an organized conspiracy that uses criminal methods inspired by gangsters. They gain and maintain power by manipulating masses of people, often exploiting societies with many uprooted and alienated citizens, such as existed in Europe after World War I.

In addition, you will see that these regimes create fear and command allegiance through the use of "machines." These are not literally machines, but bureaucracies that carry out a set of deliberate, interrelated strategies. These include:

  • The cult of the leader, or the cult of personality. These make the dictator seem larger than life, or superhuman. After Italy annexed Ethiopia in 1936, Mussolini's followers declared him to be a new god in human form. In the Soviet Union, long ovations after Stalin's speeches were common, as no one wanted to be seen as the first to stop applauding.
  • The Big Lie, or deliberate distortions of the truth. During the Hundred Flowers Campaign, Mao Zedong seemed to promote free speech, then killed some half million dissidents when they came out in the open.
  • Secret police. An estimated 274,000 people worked with the East German secret police, the Stasi, from 1950 to 1989. When informers were added, this translated into one secret policeman for every 6.5 persons.
  • The media. Radio, film, and television were used to rewrite history and manipulate the masses. The Bolsheviks produced documentary films that made their October Revolution seem much more dramatic and deadly than it was (a common joke was that more people were injured during filming than in the actual event).

The portrait Professor Liulevicius paints is that 20th-century violence, while horrific and massive, was not chaotic or random but deliberate and calculated. Very often, it was based on precedent.

In using concentration camps, Hitler and Stalin essentially adopted a strategy that had first been employed by the Spanish in 1896 in Cuba and by the British against Dutch settlers during the Boer War (1899–1902).

Hitler's plan to exterminate Germany's Jews was inspired by the 1915 genocide of Armenians by the Turkish Ottoman Empire, an atrocity barely noticed by the international community. The fact that "no one remembered the Armenians," as Hitler is said to have declared, convinced him that his Final Solution would work.

Lessons Learned: A Hopeful Conclusion

In the final lectures, Professor Liulevicius considers recent figures such as Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden and assesses terrorism in the contemporary world. What is the future of terror? What lessons have been learned by the hard experience of the past century?

These questions hinge on several issues, including our attitudes toward human nature, our ability to remember and learn from past atrocities, and our use of technology. But an especially optimistic note is the notion of resistance. If the 20th century was plagued by repressive regimes, it was also blessed with those who resisted them.

Unlike the story of totalitarianism, which is about the state, the story of resistance is one of individuals who ignored personal risk to oppose violence. These "witnesses to the century," as Professor Liulevicius calls them, include novelists George Orwell and Aleksander Solzhenitsyn, Polish labor leader Lech Walesa, Pope John Paul II, and political philosopher Hannah Arendt.

Their examples offer a hopeful conclusion.

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24 lectures
 |  31 minutes each
Year Released: 2003
  • 1
    Defining Utopia and Terror
    The 20th century saw the rise of brutal ideological regimes that promised total solutions. The key elements of such modern regimes are: 1) masses, 2) machines and mechanisms for control, 3) the seizure of the state by mobsters (political criminals), and 4) ideological master plans. x
  • 2
    The Legacy of Revolutions
    Nineteenth-century revolutions set the agenda for the 20th century. The French Revolution ushered in a new mass politics, while the Industrial Revolution created new productive power and confidence in science and progress. Both contributed to "utopian socialism," the point of departure for further revolutions. x
  • 3
    Omens of Conflict
    The 20th century began with optimism, but darker omens also appeared: the growing influence of Marxism, a wave of anarchist terrorism and assassinations, the brutal rule of worldwide imperialism, and premonitions of a coming world war. x
  • 4
    World War I
    World War I brutalized Western civilization through such innovations as poison gas, aerial bombing, and targeting of civilians. x
  • 5
    Total War—Mobilization and Mass Death
    This lecture considers implications of modern industrial war, or "total war," including use of violence against civilians, expansion of strong central states, propaganda as a tool of persuasion, and modern genocide: the massacre of a million Armenians in 1915. x
  • 6
    Total Revolution in Russia
    Total war led to a new kind of political upheaval: total revolution. Led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Bolsheviks seized control of Russia in 1917 and began a vast revolutionary experiment. x
  • 7
    War's Aftermath—The Hinge of Violence
    The peace treaty of Versailles set the terms for new conflicts that inevitably arose. The little-known movements of millions of refugees displaced by the war set a dire precedent for subsequent massive "population transfers." x
  • 8
    Communism
    This lecture traces the early outlines of Soviet power: the establishment of the Cheka secret police and the Red Army, the use of propaganda campaigns, the repression of internal dissent, and, after Lenin's death, the emergence of Josef Stalin. x
  • 9
    Stalin
    Josef Stalin, the "Man of Steel," made himself synonymous with the state. This lecture examines obscure beginnings, his rise to power, and the cult of personality deliberately crafted around him. x
  • 10
    Soviet Civilization
    The new society of the U.S.S.R. was self-consciously revolutionary and modern, heralding the construction of a "new man" and "new woman." Foreign visitors enthusiastically hailed what they saw as a vision of the "future that works." x
  • 11
    Fascism
    Coming to power in 1922 through the falsely mythologized "March on Rome," the Fascists brutalized their opponents, prepared to mobilize society in a "total state," and chanted slogans of "Believe, Obey, and Fight." The Fascist style of "Il Duce," Mussolini, was imitated by would-be dictators worldwide. x
  • 12
    The 1930's—The "Low Dishonest Decade"
    The 1930s were marked by deepening worldwide economic crisis, the rejection of liberal ideas, and the ominous revival of imperialist desires. Poet W.H. Auden called it the "low dishonest decade." The Japanese invasion of China foreshadowed World War II, while the Spanish Civil War was its dress rehearsal. x
  • 13
    Nazism
    This lecture surveys the origins of the Nazi movement, its ideological roots, and its rise to power in Germany. All of these were linked to the brutalizing legacies of World War I. x
  • 14
    Hitler
    Adolf Hitler, the man behind the Nazi movement, was indispensable to its success and its growing radicalism. This lecture profiles Hitler and considers the keys to his effectiveness as a dictator, in particular his capability for boundlessly cynical propaganda. x
  • 15
    World War II
    The Second World War was unleashed by Hitler in 1939 with help from Stalin. On all sides, this "perfected" total war resulted in massive civilian casualties, especially in war from the air, culminating in the opening of the atomic age. x
  • 16
    Nazi Genocide and Master Plans
    This lecture considers the Nazis' program of mass murder against the Jews, beginning with escalating persecutions and culminating with extermination camps like Auschwitz. x
  • 17
    The Cold War
    No sooner had World War II ended than a new confrontation emerged: ideological blocs of countries faced off against one another in the Cold War. x
  • 18
    Mao
    After decades of civil war and struggle, Chinese Communists came to power in 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong. This lecture examines the society formed by the ideology of "Mao Thought," the "Little Red Book," the uniform dress of "Mao suits," and the cultural break with a rich past forced by the regime. x
  • 19
    Cambodia and Pol Pot's Killing Fields
    In 1975, Cambodian Communist leaders educated in France and led by the mysterious Pol Pot turned their own land into a social experiment. In the three years of their rule, the Khmer Rouge killed some 2 million people, more than 25 percent of Cambodians. x
  • 20
    East Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea
    During the Cold War, different variants of communist regimes emerged. The German Democratic Republic was considered a success story. In the Soviet Union, the system lurched towards stagnation. North Korea enshrined its militarized isolation from the world in the ideology of "juche" or self-reliance. x
  • 21
    From the Berlin Wall to the Balkans
    As the 20th century neared its end, the spirit of the times sent mixed signals. From 1989 to 1991, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union fell with astonishing speed. Yet, as Yugoslavia began to crumble, Europe saw a reversion to the crimes that had marked World War II. x
  • 22
    Rwanda
    In 1994, horrific events unfolded in the central African country of Rwanda. The Hutu-dominated government organized the mass murder of the Tutsi minority. In 100 days, 800,000 people were slaughtered; the international community failed to intervene. x
  • 23
    Saddam Hussein's Iraq
    This lecture traces how Hussein established his personal dictatorship in Iraq, modeling himself on long-ago despots and surrounding himself with elite Republican Guards. His eight-year war against Iran resembled World War I in its ferocity. x
  • 24
    The Future of Terror
    Ultimately, what are the lessons of the 20th century's linked experiences of the promise of utopia and the reality of terror? This lecture poses the urgent question of how to be vigilant against the revival of movements such as those surveyed, and examines the growing appeal of Arab radicalism and groups like al-Qa'ida. The question of whether these global trends are likely to continue is of vital importance. x

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Your professor

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius

About Your Professor

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, Ph.D.
University of Tennessee
Dr. Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius is Lindsay Young Professor of History and Director of the Center for the Study of War and Society at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He earned his B.A. from the University of Chicago and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. After receiving his doctorate, Dr. Liulevicius served as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace at Stanford...
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Reviews

Rated 4.3 out of 5 by 70 reviewers.
Rated 5 out of 5 by Superb course! I came away from this course with a profoundly increased understanding of ideological regimes. I had been drawn into the paradigm of communism on the left and facism on the right. During WWII America was invited to consider communism as the force to defeat facism. This was communist propaganda taken up by the West when Russia joined the Allies. More recently, I was exposed to the idea of totalitarism versus freedom, an idea discussed in "The 5,000 Year Leap" by W. Cleon Skousen and in an earlier work, "The Road to Serfdom" by F. A. Hayek. Hayek actually credits another writer for the idea, but I am not recalling whom. In this view, which I strongly hold, facism and communism are not opposites, but are totalitarian regimes that oppose freedom. Communism is often presented in terms of its ideology, but facism is usually presented in terms of its results, such as The Holocaust. When facism's ideology is discussed, it is in terms of eugenics or racism, but not its very core ideology. This has made it difficult for me to understand why these two ideologies are supposed to be different or why they produced such similar results. This course left me with the following two insights. 1) Both of these regimes have utopian visions of the future and believe that any means is justified to accomplish their ends. Central to their methods is taking total control of the lives of the people which is what is meant by totalitarianism. 2) Facism says that the individual is not important, but only the State is important. Communism says that the individual is not important, but the mass of the people are important, and their interests are expressed through the State. In the end both movements subjugate the interests of the individual to the interests of the State, and both become militaristic states. Facists are more honest about what they are about, but in saying this I mean no endorsement of either ideology. Honest butcher is not something I wax poetic about. About the harsher reviews: There are political implications to the information given in this course. I do not think it fair to ding a course because it has implications that work against your political views. Some criticized it because it is not this or not that. It is what it is. It cannot be everything. If they want something else, they should buy someone else's book or write their own. Others are upset because they do not agree with some of his views on the Iraq war. Part of being big boys and girls is being able to realize that people do not have to be right about everything to be worth listening to and realizing that being wrong about something does not make one wrong about everything. I did not agree with everything that he said about the Iraq war, but this took up a very small part of the discussion on Iraq. Very interesting to me was that the Ba'ath party in Iraq was socialist and had utopian views of the future. Another criticism was that the professor did not speculate about whether the leaders of these movements really believed what they said or whether their movement was just an excuse to seize power. Unless they confessed their fraud, I think you could only guess at what they really thought. I thought a lot about this question as I listened to this course, but I did not fault the professor for not trying to answer it for me. This course impressed me with how bloody utopian regimes are and how dangerous utopian ideas are to our lives and liberty. We live in a world where these issues are becoming increasingly important. November 24, 2010
Rated 5 out of 5 by Great Introduction to The Great Courses This was the first course I've taken with the Great Courses, and I really enjoyed it! I purchased the audio version, so I mostly listened during my commute. I felt like it was a worthwhile use of my time and I definitely have a better grasp on how the conflicts of the 20th century arose. I was already acquainted with much of the information, but this served as a refresher and went much deeper than I had gone previously. The professor was great, and kept my attention the whole way through. This course was on sale, so I feel like I got a great deal! I will definitely purchase another course, and highly recommend this one! August 15, 2016
Rated 2 out of 5 by Utopia and Terror I was overall disappointed with this course. It was not up to the level of the presenter's work on WW I course. There was a considerable amount of time devoted to the Holocaust but just a few sentences on the famines caused by Stalin and Mao which according to the presenter caused the death of up to 3-4 times the number of people killed by the Nazis during the Holocaust. July 20, 2016
Rated 4 out of 5 by More a course on terror If I got one message out of this course it is that what we accept as terror stems from "ideologies that promised utopias and final solutions." I gave this course a Course Value of 5 stars even though I only gave it 4 stars on all the other ratings. That is because I feel that this is a subject that more of us should pay attention to -- why has terror flourished? what is the appeal of a utopia? Professor Liulevicius takes us on a journey through time and space, and shows how the ideology of utopia and the phenomena of terror is not isolated -- it has gone on for eons (like Plato's Republic) and has spread around the globe. It is not unique to Hitler's Germany or the Communist Manifesto. For example, he shows how the 'workers of the world' turned into Stalinism and the Gulag. Professor Liulevicius' presentation was fast, but not flawless. I got the feeling, at times, that he got ahead of himself and had to back up. It's like he has so much information he wants to get out but his brain is faster than his tongue. Speaking of 'tongue,' I liked that he frequently included what were the jokes of the era he is discussing to highlight a point. May 9, 2016
  • 2016-08-29 T13:10:00.536-05:00
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