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Beginnings of Judaism

Beginnings of Judaism

Professor Isaiah M. Gafni, Ph.D.
Hebrew University, Jerusalem

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Beginnings of Judaism

Course No. 6457
Professor Isaiah M. Gafni, Ph.D.
Hebrew University, Jerusalem
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4.8 out of 5
87 Reviews
91% of reviewers would recommend this series
Course No. 6457
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  • You should buy video if you prefer learning visually and wish to take advantage of the visual elements featured in this course. The video version features nearly 100 visuals to support your learning, including historic and contemporary images, dozens of illustrative maps, and on-screen text that reinforces key concepts and definitions.
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Course Overview

How did Judaism develop from its biblical roots to the highly developed system we know today? What has changed—and what has remained constant? The answers to these questions are relevant to all faiths, as well as to anyone seeking to broaden their understanding of ancient history—a past that is inexorably linked to the present.

The roots of Judaism reach back to the Hebrew Bible—also known as the Old Testament by Christians. For thousands of years, Jews have looked to these scriptures for their origins, and have located in them the tenets of their faith. The Bible provides Jews reasons for sadness and joy, wisdom, and most of all, a profound belief in what God expects of them and has promised to them.

Though Jews of every generation have recognized and cherished the Bible as the ultimate source of all Jewish existence, much of what is recognized today as Judaism does not appear in the Bible.

For example, worshipping in places other than the single, original Temple in Jerusalem is expressly forbidden by the Bible. Nevertheless, Jews today worship in synagogues wherever there might be a Jewish community. Similarly, the Rabbinic model, for centuries the most visible example of religious and communal leadership among Jews, is not mentioned anywhere in the Bible.

In Beginnings of Judaism, Professor Isaiah M. Gafni of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem leads a spirited and provocative exploration of how the Jewish faith struggled to continually redefine itself during the first thousand years after the completion of the last books of the Hebrew Bible, tenaciously clinging to existence through circumstances that might well have torn it asunder.

This course explores the evolution of an ancient faith into a system of beliefs, practices, and laws recognizable today as Judaism. We discover a tradition of vigorous and joyous debate—where reinterpretation coexists with profound acceptance of the original instructions from God regarding the practice of faith.

Insights into this historical evolution—especially with respect to the roles of Jerusalem and the Diaspora in Jewish history—can also deepen one's perception of the historical, psychological, and religious forces at play in the Middle East today.

How Did Judaism Survive the Destruction of Its Most Sacred Place—Twice?

The crucial millennium on which Professor Gafni focuses twice witnessed the destruction of the Jewish people's most sacred place: the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. It was first destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E., and, after having been rebuilt 70 years later, was razed once again by the Romans in 70 C.E., after the Jews waged a fierce uprising against Roman rule in the province of Judea. A major portion of the course is devoted to the period between these two landmark events that altered Jewish history forever.

The destruction of the Second Temple, according to Professor Gafni, is "arguably the most important watershed in the history of the Jewish people," bringing about "a total reshaping and redefining of the Judaism that had evolved for centuries prior to that event."

Indeed, in the wake of the second destruction, Judaism's earthly religious and political center was literally removed. What came next was not an end, but a beginning. Synagogues replaced the Temple. Prayer came into being as an alternative to sacrificial worship. And Rabbinic Judaism in time became the dominant model of the faith. But as Professor Gafni emphasizes, the evolution of a reshaped Judaism took place amid constant tension created by two competing forces.

On one hand, there was the fervent belief in the unchanging continuity of Judaism's scriptural roots—a belief clearly expressed in the Rabbinic formulation, "Whatever an established student is destined to teach has already been revealed to Moses at Sinai."

At the same time, however, the challenges brought about by a rapidly changing world and the need to adapt the practice of the faith to new and often bitter realities in order to survive introduced a constant process of innovation.

What Does One of the Most Famous Rabbinical Stories Reveal about Judaism?

A ready awareness of this tension—the axial theme of Professor Gafni's approach to the course—has always been implicit in Judaism. Indeed, a candid admission of its power forms the core of a famous legend told by the rabbis themselves. The story recounts how Moses was granted the privilege of an incognito visit, many hundreds of years after his death, to a class of students studying the same Torah, or book of learning, he had received from God on Mount Sinai.

The class is led by Rabbi Akiva, the most prominent Jewish sage of the 2nd century. As Moses listens to their animated discussion of the Torah, he hears Rabbi Akiva ascribe a particularly difficult issue as a law "given to Moses at Sinai." Moses realizes he cannot even recognize this law they are discussing—the law supposedly given to him.

The legend makes clear that the legal system on which Judaism rests has continuously been reinterpreted, and even innovatively recast, to reflect changing realities. At the same time, that law is still understood, without apology or a need for explanation, to have been revealed to Moses at Mount Sinai. Indeed, the innovation and reinterpretation necessary to deal with new realities could never be labeled as such, lest the links to the divine revelation at Sinai be broken.

One of those new realities was the destruction of the First Temple in 586 B.C.E., which had been built by King Solomon in the mid-10th century.

That destruction—accompanied by the capture and exile to Babylonia of 10,000 of Judea's priests, officers, warriors, and most respected families—denied the people of Israel the sanctified place where the scripturally mandated practice of their faith should be carried out. And with so many of their nation seized and expelled, they also received their first glimpse of the phenomenon of Jewish Diaspora—or dispersion—which forever altered the social and cultural structure of their people.

"The lessons that Jews would have to learn now, after the destruction of their First Temple, after their new and initial dispersion around the Middle East," notes Professor Gafni, "would accompany them throughout all of Jewish history. And they go to the heart of understanding Judaism, and the complex makeup of Judaism, which at times is a faith but at times is a land-oriented religion. And Jews would constantly juggle these two components of their self-identity.

"When do you stress the ethnic? When do you stress the geographic? When do you play down the political and say, well, we are really a faith, we are really a way of life, and, as the prophet Jeremiah advised the exiled Israelites of his own day, we should establish that 'way of life' wherever we might reside, even in captivity?"

In telling this story, our riveting lecturer draws on more than four decades of teaching skills and a broad array of approaches—including historical narrative, biblical episodes, anecdotes, and some wonderfully apt Rabbinic tales—designed to bring into clear focus an ancient past. Professor Gafni's expert instruction reminds us that a master teacher can help us see the past from the perspective of a participant.

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24 lectures
 |  30 minutes each
  • 1
    The Beginnings of Judaism—Biblical Roots
    Much of today's Judaism developed after the completion of the Hebrew Bible, which Jews have nevertheless traditionally referred to as the source of their history, beliefs, and practices. In examining Judaism's biblical roots, we discover how the Jewish religion reconciles this seeming contradiction. x
  • 2
    New Challenges in the Late Biblical Period
    We encounter the historical contexts in which post-Biblical Judaism developed. The Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman empires, as well as the short-lived Jewish kingdom founded by the Hasmoneans, all made unique contributions to Judaism's development, both in the land of Israel as well as in the Diaspora. x
  • 3
    Jews under Persian Rule—The Return to Zion
    Persian rule over Israel lasted for more than 200 years. Beginning with the return to Judea of the descendants of the Jewish captives who had been forcibly removed by the Babylonians, we follow the rebuilding of Jewish communal life in their homeland. x
  • 4
    The Challenge of Hellenism
    Alexander the Great's incorporation of Palestine into the greater Hellenistic world, and the broad-based acculturation—or even threatened assimilation—that followed posed a challenge to Jewish identity that would be a constant factor in the lives of Jews for centuries to come. x
  • 5
    The Maccabees—From Rebels to Kings
    The revolt of the Hasmoneans—a family of Jewish priests led by Judah the Maccabee—against the Seleucids, who ruled over Judea in the early 2nd century B.C.E., ultimately led to the establishment of an independent Jewish state that would survive until the Roman conquest of Judea in 63 B.C.E. x
  • 6
    The Canonization of the Hebrew Bible
    After the gradual emergence of a tripartite canon of sacred texts—Torah, Prophets, and Writings—during the Second Temple period, Jewish authors embarked on the study, interpretation, translation, imitation, and retelling of these extant sacred scriptures. x
  • 7
    Translating the Bible—The Septuagint
    If the Hebrew Bible was to be made accessible to all Jews, a Greek translation was required. The version that emerged, in stages, is known as the Septuagint (Latin for "seventy"), because of the number of scholars said to have produced it. x
  • 8
    Adding to the Bible—The Apocrypha
    In its final form, the Septuagint includes not only the earliest complete translation of the Hebrew Bible, but also 14 or 15 texts not found in the Old Testament. We look at these texts, commonly referred to as the Apocrypha, Latin for "hidden." x
  • 9
    Tobit—A New Path of Righteousness
    We take a closer look at the Apocrypha's book of Tobit, a delightful novel on the merits of righteousness, which in many ways points to a new or reinforced set of religious and ethical values that would become particularly relevant for Jews in the Second Temple period. x
  • 10
    Retelling the Bible—The Book of Jubilees
    The canonization of the Bible opened the way for new retellings of biblical stories, with new interpretations read into ancient characters and situations. One of the most impressive is the revised rendition of Genesis and Exodus supplied by the book of Jubilees in the 2nd century B.C.E. x
  • 11
    Revealing the Unknown
    By the late Persian or early Hellenistic period, Jews believed that ongoing prophecy in its biblical form had been discontinued. But mankind's thirst for knowledge of the innermost secrets of the world was not quenched, and this information was now supplied by a new literary genre known as Apocalypse. x
  • 12
    "Judaism" or "Judaisms"?
    As Second Temple Judaism evolved into a "religion of the book" and its central texts became more accessible, diversity of opinion and interpretation naturally increased. Religious disputes led to sectarianism, with each group convinced that it alone observed the Law properly. x
  • 13
    Sectarianism—Pharisees and Sadducees
    At some stage of Hasmonean rule in Judea, three distinct schools of thought arose within the Jewish community. Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes embraced different opinions about God's relationship to this world, and were no less divided along political and social lines. x
  • 14
    Out of the Caves—Discovery at Qumran
    In the spring of 1947, a young Bedouin shepherd entered a cave south of Jericho and set into motion the most spectacular archaeological discovery of the 20th century, encompassing far more than what have come to be known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. x
  • 15
    The End of Days—Messianic Eschatology
    The post-biblical period introduced some major changes into the entire range of eschatological contemplation. During the Second Temple period the focus shifted beyond God's administration of a just system of rewards and punishments in this world to also include each individual's "life after death." x
  • 16
    Other Lands, Other Jews—The Diaspora
    One of the most significant departures of post-biblical Judaism from its earlier biblical days was the establishment of a widespread Jewish Diaspora, or dispersion. What the prophets had considered the ultimate punishment for sins had now become reality. x
  • 17
    Judaism in the Hellenistic World
    Jewish literary activity flourished in the Greek-speaking world, and especially in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, with Jews adopting almost every literary genre in their attempts to present Judaism to the Greek mind, as well as to a Jewish community that had adopted Greek as its primary language of discourse. x
  • 18
    Changing God's Address—Temple to Synagogue
    The Second Temple period represents a major turning point in Judaism's self-image. While the primary focus of religious expression remained the Temple of Jerusalem, an alternative institution—the synagogue—began to appear, leading to a major decentralization and democratization of Jewish religious behavior. x
  • 19
    Rome Arrives in Jerusalem
    Jewish independence under the Hasmoneans came to an abrupt conclusion with the Roman conquest of Judea in 63 B.C.E. The Romans experimented with different approaches in attempting to establish control, but the ultimate result was anarchy, a violent uprising, and the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple. x
  • 20
    Parting with the Temple
    Religious ideologies are not always limited to the spiritual world of contemplation, but frequently serve to motivate individuals or groups toward political involvement and even military action. We look at the impact of some of these ideologies on relations with Rome. x
  • 21
    From Jerusalem to Yavne—Rabbinic Judaism
    As Judaism evolved into a "book religion," teachers or interpreters of the sacred texts slowly assumed a position of prominence alongside the traditional priesthood. Removal of the Temple gave these teachers—rabbis—an unchallenged position of spiritual authority. x
  • 22
    The Shaping of Rabbinic Judaism
    Six hundred years of Second Temple history, culminating with the destruction of the Temple in 70 C.E., witnessed the erosion of the biblical frameworks of the Temple and priesthood, monarchy, and prophets. We see how the values of Rabbinic Judaism, no less than the revised forms of religious expression, became the new standards of Judaism. x
  • 23
    A Violent Epilogue—Bar Kokhba
    Not all Jews opted immediately for the Rabbinic alternative to Second Temple realities. Sixty-two years after the destruction of the Temple, the image of a militant messiah at war with Rome appeared once again. x
  • 24
    From "Roots" to "Tree"
    This closing lecture puts the lessons of the course into perspective, addressing key issues that include diversity in Judaism; Judaism's self-perception as either a nation, a religion, or a culture; the triumph of the Babylonian rabbinate; reconciliation with an ongoing dispersion; and the directions taken by Judaism during the past two millennia. x

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Your professor

Isaiah M. Gafni

About Your Professor

Isaiah M. Gafni, Ph.D.
Hebrew University, Jerusalem
Dr. Isaiah M. Gafni is the Sol Rosenbloom Professor of Jewish History at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he earned his Ph.D. and has taught for more than 40 years. He was formerly the Director of the Mandel Center of Jewish Studies at the university and also previously served as Director of Graduate Studies at the university's Rothberg International School. He has been a visiting professor at numerous American...
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Beginnings of Judaism is rated 4.7 out of 5 by 87.
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Middle History of Judaism This course covers a period of the development of Judaism which is not commonly included in broader histories. The period of the Old Testament is popular, but what happened after the Temple was destroyed, twice. What was the effect on the religion? The presentation flows nicely.
Date published: 2018-02-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A revelation! I had no idea of the evolution of Judaism over the centuries, or of how much Christian doctrine depended upon the political situation of the Second Temple period. The lecturer has a wonderful speaking style and makes the most abstruse principles clear. I find even some of my Jewish friends are unaware of the origin of synagogues, etc.
Date published: 2018-01-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Welcome Perspective Most Jews currently in their early senior years received their only exposure to Jewish history in bar mitzvah prep classes that ended at age 13. This is just too early and leaves one with a hodge-podge of floating disconnected images with little relation to each other or today. It was all just stuff that happened immensely long ago and immeasurably far away. Dr. Gafni provides revisits the same material, but provides a very clear and welcome narrative thread that turns the pile of beads into a necklace.' Stylistically, the greatest virtue of these lectures is also their greatest vice. That is our presenter's relentless enthusiasm and "this is critical" emphasis on every second of the twelve hours of content. Any symphony conductor knows it can't be fortissimo all the time, but Dr. Gafni is completely carried away by the epic proportions of his theme. While it certainly kept my attention, it might have helped to take a little off the fastball every once in a while. Still, the depth of the presenter's expertise and the inherent appeal of story itself carried the day.
Date published: 2017-10-01
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Could Have Been a Little More Selective I have a fool-proof method for reviewing books, movies & Great Courses. I read, watch or listen to them at night. The sooner I fall asleep, the lower the rating. Both the topic & material in these lectures are interesting. Obviously, for such an all-encompassing topic as this, the voluminous tomes of information have to be condensed. My final conclusion is that it should have been condensed even more. Having to winnow through the uninteresting rhetoric often overshadowed the good stuff. I would say that this course could have/should have been half as long, and then it would have been a winner indeed.
Date published: 2017-08-31
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great Course I've had this course for years, and this week I finally began listening (I purchased the audio version). Now, I wonder what took me so long. The instructor does an excellent job of explaining the beginnings of Judaism. The detailed history lesson and stories he tells about this period are very beneficial in helping me to gain a much better understanding. Thank you!
Date published: 2017-08-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent speaker! Knows his area! I love the way this course is organized and the details are fascinating and informative. I am learning so much yet enjoying the historical narrative of a great people.
Date published: 2017-07-08
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Good account of Jewish history Good account of Jewish history in the late BC and early AD time period but the professor’s talking style left something to be desired and prevented me from really getting into some of the discussions Pluses: • Coverage of the Maccabees revolution and other historical events and how they influenced changes to core foundations of Judaism practices • Proposed an interesting theme of how the Jewish people should identify themselves and how to define what made them Jewish: was it with their land, their religion, or their culture? Minuses: • The professor’s talking style was somewhat jarring since his pauses in certain areas of a sentence made it difficult for what he was saying to be conveyed and sink in
Date published: 2017-02-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Ancient Judaism: Beyond the Chains of Idolatry The Beginnings of Judaism is an historical and intellectual journey into and through the heart, mind, and soul of an ancient religious faith and culture. You will witness Judaism in the Jerusalem Temple (priests / sacrifices) and simultaneously in the expanding Diaspora with an evolving rabbinic tradition (synagogues / prayer) as the central dichotomy driving ancient Jewish history both towards Jerusalem and away from the Holy Land into dispersion among pagan cultures. JERUSALEM and the DIASPORA will go through four stages of political control during the 2nd Temple period (516 B.C.E. -- 70 C.E.) radically widening this dichotomy within the faith itself (philosophical sects / interpretations) and the external Diaspora (Jewish identity / host cultures). Judaism will also canonize its biblical books during this period into the sacred texts of the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament), translate the Hebrew Bible into Greek for the Diaspora Jews (Septuagint), append the Septuagint (Apocrypha), retell and reinterpret Bible stories transcending the declining prophetic tradition with a new literary genre of apocalyptic writings, messianic visions, and an end of days eschatology. In professor’s Isaiah Gafni’s own words: “We discover a tradition of vigorous and joyous debate -- where reinterpretation coexists with profound acceptance of the original instructions from God regarding the practice of faith. Insights into this historical evolution -- especially with respect to the roles of Jerusalem and the Diaspora in Jewish history -- can also deepen one's perception of the historical, psychological, and religious forces at play in the Middle East today.” Political control of Judea during the 2nd Temple period follows the destruction of the 1st Temple in 586 B.C.E. and the Babylonian captivity (Jewish Diaspora), followed by the conquering Persian Empire (538 -- 333 B.C.E.) issuing the King Cyrus’s Declaration allowing the captive Jews to return to ZION and rebuild their Temple. Major tensions of this period revolved around the reaffirmation of Jewish law, the major-prophets, and the people of the land; Ezra and Nehemiah are portrayed as the prototype of an evolving RABBINIC tradition of reading the Torah in the synagogues as practiced today. Most of the books in the Hebrew Bible were written by the end of this period, and with prophecy in decline and the rising of a religion of the text, a new literary genre emerges -- the apocalyptic tradition -- with messianic hopes of a past restoration (priestly monarchy), an evolving intellectual based orientation (rabbinic model), and national aspirations (Zionism); this tradition will also influence the early Christian movement. With Alexander’s conquests of the near East (332 B.C.E.), both the Hellenistic-Ptolemaic Empire / Egypt (301 – 200 B.C.E.) and the Hellenistic- Seleucid Empire / Syria (200 – 164 B.C.E.) were formed by his generals which ruled over Judea. Major tensions of this period center on the “I-S-M” of Hellenism and Jewish ethnic identity in the Diaspora – not just a political force but a profound Hellenistic social and cultural totality / LOGOS – generating various cosmopolitan and assimilatory pressures between the Eastern-Western Hellenistic-cultures with the rise of religious and ideological syncretism and the classical Greek gods, philosophy, science, new literary forms, etc. This explosion of cultural forms was accompanied with the rise of sects (Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes, Dead Sea Scrolls), and ideological conflicts within Judea (Torah / pro-Hellenism). The Jews (Judah the Maccabee) and the Greek-Syrian Hellenistic Empire (Antiochus IV Epiphanes) ignited the Hasmonean Revolt resulting in the establishment of an independent Jewish state (164 B.C.E. – 63 B.C.E.) possibly inspired by messianic aspirations (book of Maccabees with the feast of Hannukah celebrating the purification of the Temple from pagan IDOLATRY). Judea was conquered by the Roman state in 63 B.C.E. (Pompey), indirectly ruled 37 B.C.E – 6 C.E (King Herod), and in 6 C.E. forward governed (Pilate) as a direct Roman province. Within these social upheavals arises a 4th PHILOSOPHY which believed that rule by Rome with its emperor-cult worship changed its aspirations for liberty from a political into a religious crusade against idolatry – the gravest transgression against the Law (Josephus). The JEWISH REVOLT (66 C.E.) began with the refusal of sacrifices on behalf of the emperors’ welfare and the Roman state; by 70 C.E. both the siege of Jerusalem and destruction of the 2nd Temple was completed (Vespasian / Titus); and by 73 C.E. the fortress of Masada fell (Zealots). The professor comments: “in the wake of the second destruction, Judaism's earthly religious and political center was literally removed.” With the professor’s paradigm of the social tensions between the ending of Temple life and widening Diaspora practices, the cumulative existential and historical dichotomy (Law / Idolatry) will end the militant-Jewish activism (Trajan / Hadrian) known as the Bar Kokhba uprising (132 – 135 C.E.) and inherit a religious community that has been long evolving into a book religion, with spiritual teachers of the Torah (Gamaliel / Mishnah / Talmud), and culminating into a rabbinic model of Judaism (scriptural reading and prayer). Finally, in the professor’s own words: “Not all Jews opted immediately for the RABBINIC alternative to Second temple realities…the image of a MILITANT messiah appeared once again…by stressing passive resistance rather than activism of Bar Kokhba and his soldiers, the rabbis were effectively…setting the stage for a refined Jewish lifestyle that represents the core of rabbinic Judaism.” This course is a gem for historians, religious studies, and social scientists for a fuller understanding of the role of Judaism in history – ancient, medieval, and modern. A special thanks to the professor for opening my eyes, heart, and mind to the dynamism of rabbinic Judaism. *** Very Highly Recommended ***
Date published: 2017-02-06
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