Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists, 2nd Edition

Course No. 153
Professor Richard Wolfson, Ph.D.
Middlebury College
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Course No. 153
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Course Overview

"It doesn't take an Einstein to understand modern physics," says Professor Richard Wolfson at the outset of this course on what may be the most important subject in the universe.

Relativity and quantum physics touch the very basis of physical reality, altering our commonsense notions of space and time, cause and effect. Both have reputations for complexity. But the basic ideas behind relativity and quantum physics are, in fact, simple and comprehensible by anyone. As Professor Wolfson points out, the essence of relativity can be summed up in a single sentence: The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion.

The same goes for quantum theory, which is based on the principle that the "stuff " of the universe—matter and energy—is not infinitely divisible but comes in discrete chunks called "quanta."

Profound ... Beautiful ... Relevant

Why should you care about these landmark theories? Because relativity and quantum physics are not only profound and beautiful ideas in their own right, they are also the gateway to understanding many of the latest science stories in the media. These are the stories about time travel, string theory, black holes, space telescopes, particle accelerators, and other cutting-edge developments.

Consider these ideas:

  • Although Einstein's theory of general relativity dates from 1914, it has not been possible to test certain predictions until recently. The Hubble Space Telescope is providing some of the most striking confirmations of the theory, including certain evidence for the existence of black holes, objects that warp space and time so that not even light can escape. Also, the expansion of the universe predicted by the theory of general relativity is now a known rate.
  • General relativity also predicts an even weirder phenomenon called "wormholes" that offer shortcuts to remote reaches of time and space.
  • According to Einstein's theory of special relativity, two twins would age at different rates if one left on a high-speed journey to a distant star and then returned. This experiment has actually been done, not with twins, but with an atomic clock flown around the world. Another fascinating experiment confirming that time slows as speed increases comes from measuring muons at the top and bottom of mountains.
  • A seemingly absurd consequence of quantum mechanics, called "quantum tunneling," makes it possible for objects to materialize through impenetrable barriers. Quantum tunneling happens all the time on the subatomic scale and plays an important role in electronic devices and the nuclear processes that keep the sun shining.
  • Some predictions about the expansion of the universe were so odd that Einstein himself tried to rewrite the mathematics in order to eliminate them. When Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, Einstein called the revisions the biggest mistake he had ever made.
  • An intriguing thought experiment called "Schrödinger's cat" suggests that a cat in an enclosed box is simultaneously alive and dead under experimental conditions involving quantum phenomena.

From Aristotle to the Theory of Everything

Professor Wolfson begins with a brief overview of theories of physical reality starting with Aristotle and culminating in Newtonian or "classical" physics. Then he outlines the logic that led to Einstein's theory of special relativity, and the simple yet far-reaching insight on which it rests.

With that insight in mind, you move on to consider Einstein's theory of general relativity and its interpretation of gravitation in terms of the curvature of space and time.

Professor Wolfson then shows how inquiry into matter at the atomic and subatomic scales led to quandaries that are resolved—or at least clarified—by quantum mechanics, a vision of physical reality so at odds with our experience that it nearly defies language.

Bringing relativity and quantum mechanics into the same picture leads to hypotheses about the origin, development, and possible futures of the entire universe, and the possibility that physics can produce a "theory of everything" to account for all aspects of the physical world.

Fascinating Incidents and Ideas

Along the way, you'll explore these fascinating incidents and ideas:

  • In the 1880s, Albert Michelson and Edward Morley conducted an experiment to determine the motion of the Earth relative to the ether, which was a supposedly imponderable substance pervading all of space. You'll learn about their experiment, its shocking result, and the resulting theoretical crisis.
  • In 1905, a young Swiss patent clerk named Albert Einstein resolved the crisis by discarding the ether concept and asserting the principle of relativity—that the laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion.
  • Relativity implies that the time order of events can be different in different reference frames. Does this wreak havoc with cause and effect? And why does Einstein assert that nothing can go faster than light?
  • Shortly after publishing his 1905 paper on special relativity, Einstein realized that his theory required a fundamental equivalence between mass and energy, which he expressed in the equation E=mc2. Among other things, this famous formula means that the energy contained in a single raisin could power a large city for a whole day.
  • Historically, the path to general relativity followed Einstein's attempt to incorporate gravity into relativity theory, which led to his understanding of gravity not as a force, but as a local manifestation of geometry in curved spacetime.
  • Quantum theory places severe limits on our ability to observe nature at the atomic scale because it implies that the act of observation necessarily disturbs the thing that is being observed. The result is Werner Heisenberg's famous "uncertainty principle."
  • Are quarks, the particles that make up protons and neutrons, the truly elementary particles? What are the three fundamental forces that physicists identify as holding particles together? Could they be manifestations of a single, universal force?

A Teaching Legend

On his own Middlebury College campus, Professor Wolfson is a teaching legend with an infectious enthusiasm for his subject and a knack for conveying difficult concepts in a way that fosters true understanding. He is the author of an introductory text on physics, a contributor to the esteemed publication Scientific American, and a specialist in interpreting science for the nonspecialist.

In this course, Professor Wolfson uses extensive illustrations and diagrams to help bring to life the theories and concepts that he discusses. Thus we highly recommend our DVD version, although Professor Wolfson is mindful of our audio students and carefully describes visual materials throughout his lectures.

Professor Richard Wolfson on the Second Edition of Einstein's Relativity:

"The first version of this course was produced in 1995. In this new version, I have chosen to spend more time on the philosophical interpretation of quantum physics, and on recent experiments relevant to that interpretation. I have also added a final lecture on the theory of everything and its possible implementation through string theory. The graphic presentations for the DVD version have also been extensively revised and enhanced. But the goal remains the same: to present the key ideas of modern physics in a way that makes them clear to the interested layperson."

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24 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    Time Travel, Tunneling, Tennis, and Tea
    What are the two big ideas of modern physics? How can nonscientists gain a handle on these ideas and the radical changes they bring to our philosophical thinking about the physical world? x
  • 2
    Heaven and Earth, Place and Motion
    Understanding motion is the key to understanding space and time. Is there a "natural" state of motion? Learn why the ancients gave different answers to this question, and how Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo laid the foundation for a new approach. x
  • 3
    The Clockwork Universe
    Isaac Newton was born in 1642, the year that Galileo died. You'll learn how he built on the work of Galileo and Kepler, developing the three laws of motion and the concept of universal gravitation. You'll learn why Newton's laws suggest a universe that runs like a clock. x
  • 4
    Let There Be Light!
    The study of motion is not all there is to physics. By the 18th century, scientists were delving into the relationship between the two phenomena. Today, electromagnetism is known to be responsible for the chemical interactions of atoms and molecules and all of modern electronic technology. x
  • 5
    Speed c Relative to What?
    In mechanics (the branch of physics that studies motion), the principle of Galilean relativity holds—meaning that the laws of mechanics are the same for anything in uniform motion. Is the same true for the laws of electromagnetism? x
  • 6
    Earth and the Ether—A Crisis in Physics
    In the 1880s, Albert Michelson and Edward Morley conducted an experiment to determine the motion of Earth relative to the ether. You'll learn about their experiment, its shocking result, and the resulting theoretical crisis. x
  • 7
    Einstein to the Rescue
    In 1905 a young Swiss patent clerk named Albert Einstein resolved the crisis that flowed from the Michelson-Morley result. When Einstein discarded the ether concept and asserted that the principle of relativity holds for all of physics, mechanics as well as electromagnetism, he was making a simple claim with almost unimaginably profound implications. x
  • 8
    Uncommon Sense—Stretching Time
    Why does the simple statement of relativity—that the laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion—lead directly to absurd-seeming situations that violate our commonsense notions of space and time? x
  • 9
    Muons and Time-Traveling Twins
    As a dramatic example of what relativity implies, you will consider a thought experiment involving a pair of twins, one of whom goes on a journey to the stars and returns to Earth younger than her sister! x
  • 10
    Escaping Contradiction—Simultaneity Is Relative
    If, as relativity implies, "moving clocks run slow," who's to say which clock is moving? x
  • 11
    Faster than Light? Past, Future, and Elsewhere
    Relativity implies that the time order of events can be different in different reference frames. Does this wreak havoc with cause and effect? Finally, why is it that nothing can go faster than light? x
  • 12
    What about E=mc² and Is Everything Relative?
    Shortly after publishing his 1905 paper on special relativity, Einstein realized that his theory required a fundamental equivalence between mass and energy, which he expressed in the equation E=mc2. Among other things, this famous formula means that the energy contained in a single raisin could power a large city for an entire day. x
  • 13
    A Problem of Gravity
    Historically, the path to general relativity followed Einstein's attempt to incorporate gravity into relativity theory, which led to his understanding of gravity not as a force, but as a local manifestation of geometry in curved spacetime. x
  • 14
    Curved Spacetime
    What causes spacetime to curve? Einstein's theory of relativity offers an answer, but for decades after he published it, there were only a few, very subtle tests of its validity. How has modern astrophysics changed all that? x
  • 15
    Black Holes
    General relativity is similar to Newtonian gravitation except in the case of very dense objects such as collapsed stars. Learn why they are called black holes. x
  • 16
    Into the Heart of Matter
    With this lecture, you turn from relativity to explore the universe at the smallest scales. By the early 1900s, Ernest Rutherford and colleagues showed that atoms consist of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons whirling around it. But Rutherford's model could not explain all the observed phenomena. x
  • 17
    Enter the Quantum
    The "stuff" of the universe—matter and energy—is not continuously subdividable but comes in discrete "chunks." This fundamental graininess of the universe has profound implications for the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scales. x
  • 18
    Wave or Particle?
    Einstein's resolution of the photoelectric effect problem suggests that light consists of particles (photons). But how can this be reconciled with the understanding of light as an electromagnetic wave? x
  • 19
    Quantum Uncertainty—Farewell to Determinism
    Quantization places severe limits on our ability to observe nature at the atomic scale because it implies that the act of observation disturbs that which is being observed. The result is Werner Heisenberg's famous Uncertainty Principle. What exactly does this principle say, and what are the philosophical implications? x
  • 20
    Particle or Wave?
    In 1923, Louis de Broglie proposed that, like light photons, particles of matter might also display wave properties. The wave nature of smaller particles such as electrons is quite visible and leads to many unusual phenomena, including quantum tunneling mentioned in Lecture 1. x
  • 21
    Quantum Weirdness and Schrödinger's Cat
    Wave-particle duality gives rise to strange phenomena, some of which are explored in Schrödinger's famous "cat in the box" example. Philosophical debate on Schrödinger's cat still rages. x
  • 22
    The Particle Zoo
    Are quarks, the particles that make up protons and neutrons, the truly elementary particles? What are the three fundamental forces that physicists identify as holding particles together? Are they manifestations of a single, universal force? x
  • 23
    Cosmic Connections
    Why does physicist Freeman Dyson think that intelligence may persist into the infinite future, even as the universe evolves through an unimaginable richness of new forms and structures? x
  • 24
    Toward a Theory of Everything
    Why can't we answer questions about what happened before the Big Bang, or what goes on at the center of a black hole? Can we manage the formidable task of combining quantum physics with general relativity? Physics may well be the most important subject in the universe, a theoretical realm that ranges from the infinitesimally small to the infinitely vast, its laws governing time, space, and the forces that created our world. x

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  • 160-page course synopsis
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Your professor

Richard Wolfson

About Your Professor

Richard Wolfson, Ph.D.
Middlebury College
Dr. Richard Wolfson is the Benjamin F. Wissler Professor of Physics at Middlebury College, where he also teaches Climate Change in Middlebury's Environmental Studies Program. He completed his undergraduate work at MIT and Swarthmore College, graduating from Swarthmore with a double major in Physics and Philosophy. He holds a master's degree in Environmental Studies from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in Physics from...
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Reviews

Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists, 2nd Edition is rated 4.5 out of 5 by 192.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Helpfull pulling together of two giant processes. This is our second course presented by professor Wolfson. As expected, he delivers. He speaks a little too fast for we over 80 year olds, but it makes us sit up and pay attention. Wonderfully thorough, he conveys these unfathomable concepts poured over by so many thru history, giving us our “Aha” moment!
Date published: 2018-09-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution Manageable for a non-specialist like me. Great job!
Date published: 2018-09-03
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Not a Good teaching style I hold a degree in science teaching and this fellow just doesn't have the gift to communicate. I watched this in hope I would enjoy it as a review to physics reading and education I had at University Of Vermont in 1980's. In fact my mother was an honors grad of Middlebury in 1938. That said I found his style terrible. He tends to repeat very obvious points and actually glosses over or omits the more challenging ones. I would give him a C grade and at same viewing I was watching Professor Steven Pollock and the incredible Sean Carroll physics courses. I give these professors A and in fact both of them are awesome .However, people like or dislike their teachers styles. I didn't care for his. I felt as if he was talking to himself and I think he does that. Not really a good teacher.
Date published: 2018-08-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from So far this course is outstanding! I am a physics major, USAF Pilot, and civilian pilot - my whole life has been involved with science and seeing it actually work. This course eliminates most of the math and talks with common sense and examples on this very interesting subject. I feel I am understanding more in just a few lessons than I did from a whole year of school. In school, I could do the math problems but I found out I really did not 'get' the concepts and understanding the way I am learning now. The way this professor teaches shows me how it should have been done in the university - stress concepts, understanding and knowledge first - then the math. Excellent course.
Date published: 2018-08-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very imformative I needed help with preparation of a non-scientist discussion of Einstein's contribution to physics. These lectures were very helpful.
Date published: 2018-08-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from great teacher! Yes, the course looks a little dated now, but it is still wonderful. This guy is a great teacher and a big inspiration to me. I have watched his other course "physics and our universe" which is also great. I'm a Physics teacher, and i love to copy his explanations and use his demonstrations in my classes. His enthusiasm is infectious and he reignited my love for Physics which i hope to pass on to my students. Thanks Professor Wolfson i owe a lot to you!
Date published: 2018-07-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very well taught Richard Wolfson is an excellent teacher: clear, enthusiastic and methodical. A very enjoyable and informative course.
Date published: 2018-06-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I didn't think it possible Wow... he actually got me to understand modern physics in layman's terms. I expected a deep listen intently or get lost type of lecture and this was NOT that. The only negative aspect... the course needs to be updated based on the new research coming on Gravity waves and Higgs Bosen (because I actually kind of understand those now from this course)
Date published: 2018-04-25
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Don't know how to access courses! Never got any correspondence about HOW TO ACCESS the courses, can't even find the website!
Date published: 2018-04-23
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Enthusiastic and sincere effort My criticism is that all contemporary interpretive stories for the general public about modern physics boil down to an enthusiastic hand-waving plea for “belief” in narrative that cannot be digested by common-sense. The historical sketch was very good; and the technical portion follows party-line physics; but what the general public really needs is narrative that is not so tightly leashed to the rather narrow measurement, prediction, and control mission of professional physics. We need story that makes “family/community” sense of the investment we’ve made in experimental work.
Date published: 2018-01-23
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Learning never gets old. The request for evaluation has arrived before I have had time to listen to the lectures. However previous classes have been very good and have no doubt about these lectures
Date published: 2018-01-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from This is very great course I see this course this is very good and the Professor done very great job so thank you Professor.
Date published: 2017-12-21
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Easy to follow I am very interested in quantum theory as a non-scientist. This is course is excellent and at a great price. Very pleased.
Date published: 2017-12-17
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great teacher He takes a very difficult topic and makes it clear and almost east to understand. Teaches with a good bit of humor.
Date published: 2017-11-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fantastic I first listened to this course in audio. I found the audio version so good that I purchased the video version. That may have been unnecessary but this course answered so many questions that have really puzzled me over the years I felt it was well worth the cost. I can not praise the instructor enough. Let it suffice to say he is a great teacher!
Date published: 2017-11-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent - Complexity Simplified and Entertaining Professor Wolfson delivers an excellent course for the non-scientist. He makes a very complicated topic understandable and entertaining. I was eager for the next topic. Recommend this for high schoolers that may take physics. It will give them a balanced mindset and understanding preparing them for the rigors of the course.
Date published: 2017-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very good. I found this very interesting and well presented. There aren't a lot of visuals, but the ones there are were helpful.
Date published: 2017-09-29
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Excellent lecturer but the material is 20 years old. No dark matter/energy, accelerating expansion of the universe, exoplanets, m-theory, Higgs Bosin, etc. The title includes Modern Physics but the course needs to be retired and updated.
Date published: 2017-09-24
Rated 4 out of 5 by from You'll enjoy this course. Professor Wolfson is very animated and you feel as though he really cares that you absorb the concepts. This is a hard subject to understand, as the course progresses, but this is the professor to help you understand the theories. He spends a lot of time on Special Relativity. I wish he would have spent more time on General Relativity and in particular, the concept of space-time. Overall, this course is worth your time as a beginners course in the basics of physics. Wait till course is on sale.
Date published: 2017-09-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Prof. Wolfson is beyond brilliant. Love him! Can't recommend this enough. I have literally seen it over 100 times, maybe double. Had this a few years now and although it's old, it's still relevant and useful. Wolfson is my favourite Professor ever bar none. He dispells myths and creates an ever lasting interest in his subjects which stays with the viewer. No maths is great and therefore this particular course is suitable for all. If only more people could see this ! Thank you so very much Professor Wolfson !
Date published: 2017-08-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A gifted teacher I started with almost nothing and I left with a basic but well-rounded understanding of some of the most powerful ideas in history. As someone who isn't a scientist or physics student, I just want to have a grasp of the fundamental ideas and theories that govern the universe. Relativity and quantum mechanics just happens to be two of our most powerful tools. I want to understand these theories just enough so that I can appreciate the patterns of scientific progress and appreciate how far we've come from thinking thunder was some divine being getting angry to our formation/understanding of the Standard Model. It makes me feel more in-touch with the rest of my species. Humans have discovered this wonderful truth about the universe and I want in on the fun. This course helped me to do that. I'm happy with the course as is but here are some suggestions: I think it's a great decision on the designers of this course that it's non-mathematical, but I think it would be great if we could at least see some of the more complicated mathematics (if only to appreciate it or impress our friends). It would be great if we could have subtitles in these videos as well.
Date published: 2017-08-13
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Somewhat Dated But Still Good This course was produced in 2000 which makes it sixteen years old when I first watched it. It’s age does show a bit when Dr. Wolfson briefly mentions the Higgs boson and gravity waves. It is also is presented in the older style of standing at a lectern. Other than that it still holds up pretty well. It does has the best explanation of the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle that I have ever seen and I love his 2D demo of General Relativity using an embroidery hoop and an over head projector. If you watch this I recommend “The Theory of Everything” as a good followup course.
Date published: 2017-08-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from This is how Physics should be taught in school I have listened to this course in the car on Audible 2 times. Now I have also purchased a video to watch it together with my daughter.
Date published: 2017-07-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fine as is. I meet once a month with about 5 other people to watch and discuss the lectures, doing one or two at a meeting that lasts 2 hours. We all enjoy it although we come from different backgrounds - lawyer, physics teacher, doctors... I would like to see more visuals and realize that you sell these as just audio also and are thus restrained. Simple diagrams and equations would be good. At times Wolfson goes a bit fast, so we pause it, discuss it and even go back to see and hear it again. We have just completed the first two disks and will begin the third and fourth.
Date published: 2017-06-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great explanation This course furnish the infos in a simple and precise way. The professor drive you in a logic path from special relativity to general relativity. The last lessons explain the atomic particle's world with also a little of superstrings and the thory of all. The fact that prof. Wolfson find always the more logic, precise and simple way to make people understand very well each argument is the prove of his brilliant mind and complet understood of this arguments! It has been a pleasure to study this course! There could be a little difficulty if you don't understand the sometimes very high speed speech from Wolfson, but you can integrate with his printed book. I'm italian and I've been able to follow his speech in the near to all the course.
Date published: 2017-05-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The logic and clarity of the professor on this complex and difficult subject makes me feel I almost understand the subject.
Date published: 2017-04-09
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I don't qualify as a non-scientist, but I had worked my way through Wolfson's Physics and Our Universe and wanted to see what he could do with mostly non-mathematical explanations. I loved his explanations and analogies in this series, and his focus on the critical steps in the evolution of these ideas was spot-on. I think this series would work for any liberal arts major who wanted to know more about the weird world of relativity. And, speaking as an elderly but still-aspiring teacher, Wolfson is a true star.
Date published: 2017-04-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great course about the Theory of Relativity Yes, I just finished looking at the course a couple of days ago. I have read about Einstein's theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics mostly from local Nassau county library books. I found that the course was very insightful in explaining all the exact details of the Special and General theory of Relativity and how Albert Einstein first figured out the details in the early 20th century. Watching the DVD lectures about the subject had a much more dynamic appeal than just reading about it in a written text in a physics book. I think the subject matter is very far removed from common everyday experience and quite difficult for the average person to comprehend as to how the laws of physics start changing dramatically as material objects approach the velocity of light and when gravitational fields become strong enough to bend light rays as observed in black holes. Then in explaining quantum physics, the idea seems pretty weird that when matter and energy are in the size order of Angstroms or 10^-10 meter, the size of atoms and Fermi or 10^-15 meter, the size of atomic particles, the behavior of matter and energy takes on a weird wave/particle duality which is very difficult for us very large macroscopic humans to interpret, that matter and energy will only exist in specific amounts of quanta of energy. It seems pretty far fetched at first to believe.
Date published: 2017-03-02
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Well Thought Out and Presented I have purchased and sat through the lectures of several courses now and I rate this course near the top for: excellent presentation by Richard Wolfson and well thought out course material.
Date published: 2017-02-04
Rated 3 out of 5 by from I am unable to listine to the course because it crashes laptop audio. About midway of the lecture it shuts laptop audio. When it happens I have to reconfigure laptop audio. It is not a laptop problem, there is a problem somewhere on your side.
Date published: 2017-01-16
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