Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor

Course No. 363
Professor Kenneth W. Harl, Ph.D.
Tulane University
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Course No. 363
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Course Overview

Perhaps no other region of the world has played so many different roles in culture, religion, and politics, for so long a period of time, as the peninsula of Asian Turkey, known to the Greeks as Anatolia and to the Romans as Asia Minor. Though today we call it Turkey, that name dates back only to the Middle Ages.

9,000 Years of History

From 7000 B.C., when Neolithic hunters began the transition to a pastoral and agricultural lifestyle, to the founding of modern Turkey in the 20th century, this varied geographical area about the size of Texas has been a crossroads of history.

Homer composed the Iliad and Odyssey on the shores of Asia Minor. All seven of the great ecumenical councils that defined Christian theology in the centuries after the conversion of Constantine took place within the boundaries of modern Turkey. To study the region is to study a land that has nurtured successive civilizations that have defined the Western and Muslim traditions that embrace so many of the modern world's inhabitants.

A Hands-On Professor

Professor Kenneth W. Harl bases these lectures on both a lifetime of academic study and decades of his own firsthand fieldwork at sites throughout Turkey. He is Professor of History at Tulane University, where he has taught since 1978, after receiving his Ph.D. in History from Yale University. At Tulane, he has received the annual Student Award for Excellence in Teaching eight times. In Fall 2001, he was the national winner of the Robert Foster Cherry Award for Great Teachers.

Conquest and Culture

The history of the region includes these milestones:

  • the rise of the Hittites, a chariot-borne warrior people who struck out from their Anatolian heartland to overrun the Babylonian Empire and fight the armies of Egypt's Ramses II to a standstill
  • the Trojan War, a legend created from historical events of the late Bronze Age, when Achaean merchant princes and adventurers clashed swords with Hittite emperors in Asia Minor
  • the birth of Western philosophy in the search for a rational account of all things by thinkers such as Thales, Anaximander, and Heraclitus—all Greek-speaking sages from what is now the Aegean coast of Turkey
  • the fiery revolt of the Ionian Greek cities that led to the Persian Wars (499-479 B.C.) and the rise of Periclean Athens as both the world's first democracy and the leader of a maritime empire wealthy enough to build the Parthenon
  • the great early victories of Alexander the Great that paved the way for the period of brilliant cultural and spiritual creativity we call the Hellenistic Age
  • the spread of early Christianity under the guidance of St. Paul, a native of Tarsus on the southern coast of Asia Minor
  • the golden age of the Byzantine Empire, which preserved the Greek classics and repeatedly saved Europe from nomadic invasion
  • the Muslim transformation of Asia Minor culminating in the Ottoman Empire, which at its height in the 16th century threatened to take over Europe itself.

Change and Continuity

Cultural change and continuity, says Professor Harl, are the main themes of this course. Each successive civilization inherited and modified the political, social, religious, and economic institutions of its predecessor.

The scope of Anatolian history can be best understood as a series of transformations in the religious landscape of the peninsula. Anatolia has experienced a number of major cultural and religious rewrites: first by the Hittite emperors; then by the elites of Hellenic cities; next by their Hellenized descendants in the Roman age; then by Christian emperors and bishops in the Byzantine age; and, finally, by Turkish rulers and Muslim mystics.

The final chapter, the transformation of Muslim Turkey into a modern secular nation-state, is still in progress. In looking at cultural changes, certain archaeological sites and important monuments will be featured as examples of wider changes.

Cultural Components

The course can be divided into five cultural components:

Early Anatolia (6000–500 B.C.)

The first lectures deal with the earliest civilizations of Anatolia, emerging at the dawn of agriculture in Neolithic villages on the Konya plain (in central Turkey); through the Hittite Empire, the apex of civilization in the late Bronze Age (1400–1180 B.C.); to the emergence of Phrygia, Lydia, and Persia, heirs to the Hittite traditions in the early Iron Age (1100–500 B.C.).

The Hellenization of Anatolia (750–31 B.C.)

The shores of western Anatolia came under the influence of the earliest Greeks, the Achaeans or Mycenaeans, during the late Bronze Age. Although this contact inspired the epic poems of Homer, it was only from 750 B.C. that Hellenic influence spread into the peninsula. Alexander the Great (336–323 B.C.) conquered Anatolia, and his successors transformed the region into a center of Greek cities that played a major role in the civilization of the Hellenistic Age (323–31 B.C.).

Roman Asia Minor (200 B.C.–395 A.D.)

The Romans built on the Hellenistic cities and institutions, and Anatolia was transformed into one of the most prosperous regions of the Roman world and homeland of the future Byzantine Empire. The Hellenic cities of Anatolia not only adapted Roman institutions and culture but also influenced the Roman monarchy, known as the Principate.

Byzantine Civilization (395–1453)

Imperial crisis in 235–305, and Christianization after 324, produced a new Byzantine civilization on Anatolian soil by 600, the basis of Orthodox Eastern Europe today. The Byzantine Empire, reduced to its Anatolian core, weathered two and one-half centuries of invasions and emerged as the leading civilization of medieval Christendom in the 10th and 11th centuries.

Islamic Turkey (since 1071)

The Anatolian peninsula was transformed from a Christian to a Muslim land in the wake of Byzantine decline and the arrival of crusaders from Western Europe. Ottoman sultans then built the last great Muslim empire in the Middle East and Mediterranean world, an empire that fragmented in the 20th century into a series of nation-states. In 1922-1939, Anatolia became the core of the Turkish Republic, a Muslim society that has successfully met the challenges of modernization.

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24 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    Introduction to Anatolia
    The lands around the central Turkish plateau have historically "faced" two ways. The western and southern shores have been drawn to Greece and Europe. The mountain-ringed interior has been linked to Iran and Asia proper. x
  • 2
    First Civilizations in Anatolia
    Neolithic Anatolians were among the first farmers and herders, dwelling in villages with sophisticated technology and organization. From the Sumerians to the south, they learned to write and build palaces and cities. x
  • 3
    The Hittite Empire
    Beginning as invaders from the Balkans, the daring Indo-European people called the Hittites overran Anatolia's core with their war chariots and founded a dynasty that rivaled the Egypt of Ramses II. x
  • 4
    Hattušaš and Imperial Hittite Culture
    Hittite kings became the first of many conquerors who would leave their mark on the land. Near their ritual capital of Hattušaš, they carved from the living rock a mighty open-air shrine to their thousands of gods. But shortly thereafter, Hattušaš was sacked and abandoned. x
  • 5
    Origins of Greek Civilization
    As the Hittites were uniting Anatolia, early Greeks (called Achaeans) were visiting its western reaches. From fortress-palaces at places like Mycenae and Pylos, Achaean warlords traded and raided along the shores of Asia Minor and, in time, would become the first Greeks to clash with the armies of a great king to the east. x
  • 6
    The Legend of Troy
    The most enduring legacies from early Anatolia are The Iliad and The Odyssey (c. 750 B.C.). How do the siege of Troy and the exploits of Homer's warrior chieftains fit into the wider tale of imperial struggle and decline during the Greek Dark Age (1100–750 B.C.)? x
  • 7
    Iron Age Kingdoms of Asia Minor
    From 1200 to 1000 B.C., migrations reshaped Anatolia. Phrygians came from the Balkans, only to be overcome by Cimmerian nomads (c. 700 B.C.). In the West, Hittite provincials founded trade-rich Lydia, whose last king was Croesus. x
  • 8
    Emergence of the Polis
    From 750 B.C. the Greeks distinguished themselves with the polis, a city-state based on citizen rule and destined to influence the world. By 500 B.C., Athens had devised the first democratic constitution, with all adult male citizens forming the sovereign assembly. x
  • 9
    Ionia and Early Greek Civilization
    The Archaic Age (750–480 B.C.), known in glimpses, remains one of history's most creative periods. Its poets, philosophers, sculptors, and architects gave birth to the mind of the West. At its forefront were the Greek trading cities of Ionia on the coast of Asia Minor and the nearby islands. x
  • 10
    The Persian Conquest
    In 546 B.C., Cyrus the Great of Persia made Anatolia part of his world empire. Anatolian grandees took to Persian ways, and life across Asia Minor soon bore a Persian stamp. Only the Ionian Greeks stood apart. When they rebelled against their Persian-sponsored local tyrants in 499 B.C., war flamed forth between the Greek city-states and the Great King. x
  • 11
    Athenian Empire and Spartan Hegemony
    As the 5th century B.C. closed, war among the Greeks left the Great King once again ruler of Ionia, but with a weakened empire. It seemed that Persian and native elites would carve out kingdoms, and that Ionia would again become the meeting place of East and West. But Alexander the Great had other ideas. x
  • 12
    Alexander the Great and the Diadochoi
    In eight years beginning in 334 B.C., Alexander and his Macedonians overran the Persian Empire, unexpectedly altering the course of Anatolian civilization by making Hellenism the leading cultural force in Asia Minor for the next 15 centuries. x
  • 13
    The Hellenization of Asia Minor
    Alexander's successor dynasts promoted Greek culture. The Attalid kings turned their fortress city of Pergamum into a showcase of Hellenic arts and learning that the Romans admired. Elites poured their wealth into public display and buildings, and cities knew themselves to be part of a wider Hellenic world. x
  • 14
    Rome versus the Kings of the East
    Pompey charged the Hellenistic cities with administering the Roman provincial system in the parts of Asia Minor the legions conquered. Thanks to his reforms, these rich cities paid for the civil wars (48–31 B.C.) that destroyed the Republic and made the brilliant politician Octavian Rome's first emperor. x
  • 15
    Prosperity and Roman Patronage
    Under the pax Romana, Hellenic cities of Anatolia attained their greatest prosperity and cultural accomplishment. Polished Hellenic aristocrats sought Roman citizenship and, more than any other provincials, imposed the notion that an emperor should act not as a ruler of subjects but as a leader of free men. x
  • 16
    Gods and Sanctuaries of Roman Asia Minor
    In the Hellenistic and Roman ages, the native gods of Anatolia assumed Hellenic guises. The record of religious life at this time is at odds with the common opinion that the public worship of civic gods (including emperors) declined before enthusiastic, irrational mystery cults. x
  • 17
    Jews and Early Christians
    Paul preached in the cities of Anatolia, converting Hellenized Jews and Judaized pagans. In A.D. 250, Christians were still a tiny minority, but with impressive institutions developed in Anatolia. When the convert Emperor Constantine (r. 306–337) summoned the First Ecumenical Council to Nicaea in 325, a momentous new chapter in religious history opened. x
  • 18
    From Rome to Byzantium
    After a century of crisis in the Roman world, Constantine unified it and created an imperial church. By 500, Anatolia had undergone yet another cultural and religious transformation into a Christian land. Anatolia had passed over into the Byzantine age. x
  • 19
    Constantinople, Queen of Cities
    When Constantine dedicated his New Rome on the site of an old Greek colony on the European side of the Bosporus, he was founding a capital that would stand as the bastion of Roman government and classical learning under great emperors such as Justinian. x
  • 20
    The Byzantine Dark Age
    The restored Roman Empire of Justinian and after faced many foes, including the new armies of Islam. Urbane classical life yielded to a martial society. Fortress cities rose in the interior. Tenacious Byzantine defense broke the Arabic advance, and Anatolia prospered for a time. x
  • 21
    Byzantine Cultural Revival
    Macedonian emperors revived patronage of the arts and letters at Constantinople, and this cultural rebirth was echoed across Anatolia in the 10th and 11th centuries. By 950, nobles were hiring first-class artists who painted in naturalistic styles that looked back to classical models and would influence the Italian Renaissance. x
  • 22
    Crusaders and Seljuk Turks
    For a century, the fate of Anatolia lay poised between Byzantines and Seljuk Turks. Though damaged by Crusader depredations, the Byzantines struggled to stem the Turkish tide. As the 13th century opened, the outlines of a new Muslim Turkish civilization began to appear in Anatolia. x
  • 23
    Muslim Transformation
    The sultans sponsored a new, vital Muslim society that once again reshaped the religious landscape of Anatolia, this time with mosques and minarets. The Mongol attacks of the 1240s, ironically, would help make possible the rise of a new Turkish Muslim dynasty, the Ottomans. x
  • 24
    The Ottoman Empire
    The Ottomans forged the last great Mediterranean empire, ruled from a rebuilt Constantinople. Suleiman the Magnificent's failure to capture Vienna (1529) checked Ottoman expansion, but Ottoman military power remained formidable for centuries. x

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Kenneth W. Harl

About Your Professor

Kenneth W. Harl, Ph.D.
Tulane University
Dr. Kenneth W. Harl is Professor of Classical and Byzantine History at Tulane University in New Orleans, where he teaches courses in Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Crusader history. He earned his B.A. from Trinity College and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University. Recognized as an outstanding lecturer, Professor Harl has received numerous teaching awards at Tulane, including the coveted Sheldon H. Hackney Award. He has...
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Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 78.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Enjoyable course. Not as good as some of the others, but well worth listening to. I like Dr Harl's turn of phrase & humour, but he says um (or variations of it) a lot. Can grate after a while
Date published: 2019-10-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A GOOD PLACE TO START THE HARL SERIES BUT WHAT ABOUT ORIGINS of GREAT CIVS?: The 12 lecture "Origins" post-dates this course by 4 years but is a general background course covering the western understanding of the recorded world up to only about 500 B.C. "Great Ancient Civs of Asia Minor" (2001) covers some of the same ground up through L11 but specifically uses Asia Minor (Harl's area of primary expertise) as its fulcrum. This seems warranted because so many of today's cultural issues have passed through or near Asia Minor: the Hittites, the Greeks, Alexander, Rome, Jews and Christians, Byzantines, Crusaders, Islam and the Ottomans. Harl later courses expand this basic course like branches from a tree in 9 of his other courses. Information builds on information. The introductory Scope is here a very useful prep for the course and L1 sets the geographical, soil, resources & weather-related parameters. L2: the early colonists and as a sidebar describes Catal Huyuk a city that Tuck well describes in "Cities of the Ancient World" as providing revolutionary insight into early city foundation. GEMS: Harl is known for gems. Why should we fear a national $22T debt & a world with a debt:GDP ratio of 3:1 See L3: debt & the mighty Hittite. Why should the fulcrum be Anatolia? See L3 cultural and religious rewrites in the classical, Roman, Byzantine & Muslim eras. The real origin of the mysterious Sea Peoples: L5. Why could possibly cause civilization to migrate away from the fertile valleys? See L7. What were the Greeks famous for inventing? The surprising answer ends L7. Another gem is seen in L8 & L13-17 which, carefully read, watches the progress of politics from early disorganization to the Homeric rule by force of personality changing to aristocratic cavalry to hoplite phalanx communal virtue to democratic Greek Polis city-states to "lords" (ie: tyrants) who broke the aristocracies by exploiting political rights and ethnic divisions (sound contemporary?). Rome continued political development through the indirect rule of political crony states and "patronage" where the rich ran civic gov't. Even the gods of the time were recast in Hellenistic garb linked to secular civic worship and finally the cult of the emperor. GREAT STORIES: The March of the 10,000 (L11); How Alexander monetized markets (L13). There is a nice story (L17) of how Jewish populations continued to adapt across all cultural boundaries. Harl describes in detail how the small society of Christians greatly improved their infrastructure even as they were forced to become "invisible" until the 4 edicts of toleration by Galerius, Constantine, Licinius and Maximinus II. Finally, given the recent tendency to view the Crusades as barbaric unilateral aggressions, Harl's factual comments in L20 & 22 are of interest. As Harl had stated (L2 of "The Ottoman Empire"): "Constantinople was...destined to be captured as foretold in the Quran". That Harl is correct is amplified in the Prophet's written threat to Heraclius, the Eastern Roman Emperor (Bukhari, v4, book 56, no.2941) according to Robert Spencer. L20 covers the armies of Islam by both the Orthodox and Umayyad caliphs raiding throughout Anatolia and twice besieging Constantinople. Weakened by the bankruptcy of Justinian's wars (L19), the Persian War (L20) and the Iconoclastic Controversy (L20), besieged Anatolian cities became martial societies. A failed counteroffensive (Manzikert) led the desperate Alexius I to request Crusader aid. L22 describes the initial attempts to help, but Alexius' inflexibility led to distrust. The next two Crusades concentrated on the foe and less on Byzantine wishes. When desperately poor Alexius reneged on his re-supply promises to the massive, stalled, hungry, well-armed 4th Crusade on his doorstep, the predictable happened. The Crusades as barbaric unilateral aggression seems unsupported. SUMMARY: Harl's lectures are a bastion against shallow historical revisionism. The more often one re-listens to Harl, the more one understands people patterns, politics, the past and its reflection: our future.
Date published: 2019-04-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very informative course I previously listened to the "Barbarian Empires of the Steppes" by the same lecturer. I have same thoughts about Professor Harl as I did on the previous course. He is very enthusiastic and really knows his stuff but one must work hard to keep up with his fast pace. On both audio courses I had to search the internet for maps, etc to follow the lectures. I then took the video version of the present course out of the library. I highly recommend the video version for both of these courses since they have maps that make sense of the audio.
Date published: 2019-03-19
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great content. This series is an excellent addition to my library of history lectures. It dovetails nicely with 'Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations' and ' Barbarian Empires of the Steppes'.
Date published: 2019-03-12
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Not about the Middle East only "Anatolia" December 3, 2018 Great Courses # 363 Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor by Ken Harl Published in 2001 No information on any relation to current (2018) problems in the area. The title is misleading. It should at least be: --- about Anatolia I did not know that he means essentially what is now Turkey. Others may know this, but I did not. I wanted information on what I thot was the “middle East: Israel, Syria, Egypt, etc.” He means “Anatolia” , which I assume many people know as like Turkey. I confess my ignorance. He lists too many kings, rulers, places, etc. with limited explanations of what does it mean. I hoped for him to give explanation & insight of the meanings of the times, he did not do this. Limited graphics, most maps are confusing & not helpful Presentation is very bad, too many: “ums” & ahhs, etc. He does not speak very consistent sentences. He rarely moves away from the podium to read his notes. Great Courses should show him how to put his notes on the teleprompter at the bottom of the camera. This one is going back, with a note to avoid this author.
Date published: 2018-12-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent subject matter primer I’ve found this course an excellent primary in areas of acieant history I have not been into deeply. As a result I’ve found things of great interest to dig more deeply into and have begun. Your course is well worth the expense, and is enjoyable to listen to over and over.
Date published: 2018-11-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Location, Location, Location Just as Kenneth Harl’s Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations course functions as a gateway to other courses on ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Israel, Anatolia, and Achaean Greece, this course leads to several other Harl lecture series, including Alexander and the Macedonian Empire, the Fall of Paganism and the Origins of Medieval Christianity, the World of Byzantium, the Era of the Crusades, and the Ottoman Empire. What ties them all together is the location—the Anatolian peninsula, also known as Asia Minor. Asia Minor has a dual geographic character, as Harl points out. Its core consists of a high and windswept plateau abutting the Pontic and Anti-Taurus mountain ranges. Its climate—dry in the summer and very cold in the winter--and grassy terrain resemble that of Central Asia. Surrounding the core is a fringe of warm low-lying coastlands facing the Black, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. While the plateau had early trade and cultural connections with Syria and Mesopotamia, the coastlands interacted with and became part of the Greek world, until the Turkish takeover toward the end of the Middle Ages. Asia Minor is also a mosaic of sacred landscapes, which each successive civilization has “rewritten” with its own shrines, temples and tombs, sometimes erecting them atop or near their predecessors at springs or on mountaintops. Harl sees special continuity in the Anatolians’ devotion to the goddess, whether it be the mother goddess of ancient farm villages, the Phrygian and Greek Cybele, or the Virgin Mary. Speaking of civilizations, Asia Minor has hosted a long parade of them: the ancient Neolithic town of Çatal Hüyük from around 7000 BC and similar communities, the Bronze-Age Hittite Empire that ended around 1180 BC, the city of Troy (which Harl identifies with the “Wilusa” of Hittite records) in the northwest, the Iron-Age Luvian/Neo-Hittite kingdoms of the southeast, the Phrygians in the center and north, the Lydians, Lycians and Carians in the west, the classical Greeks—at first independent and then under Persian, Macedonian and Roman rule--the medieval Greeks/Byzantines, and finally the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks. Each invasion (excepting the Macedonians and Romans) brought a new language, new religious ideas, new artistic styles, and new political institutions, yet the invaders sometimes borrowed and perpetuated what they found. Turkish mosques, for example, strongly resemble the Hagia Sophia and other Byzantine domed churches. I highly recommend this course as a standalone or as an introduction to all those others I named above. Its combination of geography with human history is like no other Teaching Company course. There are a lot of good maps, with copies in the guidebook, and great photos of ancient, medieval and early modern cult sites. My only major complaint is the usual one about Harl, an extremely well-informed and organized yet undisciplined lecturer, umming, uhhing, hesitating, and stumbling throughout. There is also a minor mistake in the first lecture, when he attributes the famous quote of Ottoman Turkey being the “sick man of Europe” to Tsar Nicholas II rather than Nicholas I. On the plus side, Harl has an enjoyable sense of humor. In Lecture 15 he mentions that he likes to share his high opinion of Roman Empress Julia Domna with his students, to the point that one wrote in an exam that she was the love of Harl’s life, but history “screwed” them by putting them centuries apart.
Date published: 2018-10-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Another Solid Harl Course This is the fifth course I’ve taken from Professor Harl, the others being “Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations”, “The Era of the Crusades”, “The Barbarian Empires of the Steppes”, and “Vikings”. Dr. Harl has his usual delivery: fast with a lot of dates, place names and persons. This course suffers a bit on audio, unless you have a pretty good understanding of ancient Asia Minor, or access to a good atlas of ancient civilizations. There are plenty of maps provided in the course materials, but they are not nearly so good as the ones in the video version of “Barbarian Empires” or “Vikings”. However this should not detract from the overall course material presented. In 24 lectures we move from Neolithic Anatolia and the Hittites to the rise (and eventual decline) of the Ottoman Empire. The course takes an interesting view of the history of Asia Minor by considering the rise and fall of the dominant cultures of the area as kings form empires and then they are supplanted by other empires and lines of kings. An interesting approach and one that fits in with the course title. I’m a fan of Professor Harl’s courses and as such perhaps ignore what other reviewers see as his weaknesses. For example, his “uhs” and other verbal tics. I’d rather have a professor with full command of his subject, who is not reading from a teleprompter or even very many notes, but rather knows where he is going, how to get there, and takes time for a few diversions along the way, than one who can’t deviate from prepared text at all. Of course this is my preference and others may well feel differently. A few high notes: The lecture on Constantinople filled out a lot about the city and times that I sort of knew, but not well; the transition lectures from the Neolithic age to the Hittites were particularly interesting, although as usual much has to be informed speculation, rather than hard facts; and finally I loved the last third of lectures where the flow from the early Christians to Byzantium, its rise, decline and rebirth to the Crusaders and the Muslim hegemony was seamless and consistent.
Date published: 2018-06-22
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