Great Masters: Haydn-His Life and Music

Course No. 751
Professor Robert Greenberg, Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances
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Course Overview

The music of Franz Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) is so technically superb, so widely imitated, and so rich in quality and quantity that almost since the moment of its creation it has exemplified the Classical style. More than any other single composer, it was Haydn who created the Classical-era symphony. And his 68 string quartets? They are the standard by which all other Classical string quartets were and are judged. No less an expert than Mozart wrote that it was from Haydn that he had learned how to write quartets.

And yet this gentle, creative dynamo, who penned more than 1,000 works over a 50-year career and remained musically vital well past middle age, is all too often thought of as an aged figure surpassed and overshadowed by Mozart and Beethoven.

A Father, Not a Fossil

Not so, as Professor Robert Greenberg shows. The musicians who worked for Haydn called him "Papa" not because he was a fossil, but because of his unfailing kindness to them in an age when professional musicians were often treated poorly.

In truth, Haydn is one of the most original and influential composers of all time. He was the only musical contemporary whom Mozart admired. You learn from Professor Greenberg about the artistically fruitful friendship that grew between Mozart and Haydn.

He taught Beethoven. You can learn about the more troubled dealings Haydn had with Beethoven—whose Ninth Symphony, nonetheless, would be unimaginable without the influence of Haydn's Creation, the towering 1798 oratorio in praise of God's generosity, that crowned Haydn's career.

The Beauty of The Creation

In the culminating lectures of the series, you'll learn how The Creation perfectly expresses Haydn's rich inner world and personality: His childlike wonder, purehearted sensual joy, and genial humor mix seamlessly with profound faith, great nobility of expression, and genuine religious devotion.

In Haydn's works, the demands of popular entertainment and lofty aesthetic theory blend smoothly. Each piece strikes a new and finely judged balance between limpid accessibility and the integrity of compositional craft.

To know the man behind such works is to see Haydn's extraordinary achievement not merely as a technical feat or a display of pure talent—though surely these are involved—but as the work of a whole person, a triumph of generosity and the human spirit.

Haydn: A Brief Biography

Haydn was born on March 31, 1732, in an ethnically diverse part of Austria, near the Hungarian border. His music expressed this ethnically diverse environment.

When he was almost six years old, Haydn's soprano voice attracted his first music teacher, Johann Franck, a school principal and choir director in the town of Hainburg.

Young Haydn was sent off to Franck's school at that tender age. He was subjected to a rigorous and harsh life (thrashings were common), but he was also exposed to an extraordinary amount of music. He was taught the rudiments of music theory, singing, and keyboard and string playing, for which he remained grateful to Franck for the rest of his life.

At age eight, Haydn's musical ability attracted the attention of Georg Reutter, choir master at the Cathedral of St. Stephen's in Vienna, the most important church in the most important city in German-speaking Europe. For the next nine years, as a choirboy at the cathedral, he was exposed to the best music in Europe at that time. He learned to compose slowly and painstakingly through practical experience and hard work.

After his voice broke, Haydn was turned out of St. Stephen's to fend for himself in the great city of Vienna. He eked out a living by teaching, accompanying, singing, playing the organ and violin, and composing dance music.

In 1758, Haydn hit professional and financial pay dirt. He was hired by Count Morzin to be court music director and composer. With an orchestra at his disposal, it was for Count Morzin that Haydn wrote his first symphonies, among many other works.

Unqualified Musical Success

Haydn's musical development was an unqualified success, but his marriage to Maria Anna Keller was not. Maria Anna was, we are told, an ugly, quarrelsome, bitter woman who could not have children. Haydn would regret his marriage for the rest of his life, and his ultimate estrangement from his wife led to discreet affairs with women.

Haydn worked hard for the Esterházy family, and the opportunities his position gave him were enormous. At the magnificent palace of Esterháza in the Hungarian countryside, Haydn had the time he needed to develop his craft. The court orchestra played virtually everything he wrote, and his employer, Prince Nicholas Esterházy ("the Magnificent"), who had succeeded his brother Paul Anton, encouraged Haydn to experiment in every genre.

Some critics disliked the mixture of the serious and the comic in Haydn's music. But as time went on, Haydn acquired an international celebrity that far outweighed any criticism. Among his admirers was the much younger Mozart, for whom Haydn had a mutual regard. The two became great friends. Haydn's six String Quartets, op. 33, inspired Mozart to write six quartets of his own, and he dedicated them to Haydn.

In 1790, Haydn's employer Prince Nicholas died, and Haydn found himself free to leave Esterháza. The impresario Johann Peter Salomon took him to London, where Haydn immediately became the toast of the town. For this visit and his subsequent visit in 1794, he wrote his greatest symphonies, the London symphonies.

When he returned to Vienna in 1795, it was a far more "Haydn-friendly" place. A new Esterházy prince, Nicholas II, came into Haydn's life, and he liked old-style church music. Haydn's great masterworks of these years are the oratorios The Creation and The Seasons.

After completing The Seasons in April 1801, Haydn's health began to fail. With characteristic generosity he wrote a will that included everybody from his closest relatives to a shoemaker.

The last great moment of Haydn's public life occurred on March 27, 1808, when The Creation was performed at the university in Vienna in honor of his 76th birthday. The illustrious audience included the composers Beethoven, Salieri, and Hummel, as well as the highest aristocracy.

Haydn's audience knew he was approaching his death, and the performance became an almost mystical event. In one touching moment, Princess Esterházy saw Haydn shiver and covered his shoulders with her shawl. Soon other ladies followed suit until he was completely covered.

Haydn never appeared in public again. He died "blissfully and gently" on May 31, 1809.

Works you'll hear in the lectures are excerpted from:

Symphony no. 45 in F-sharp Minor (Farewell) (1772)
String Quartet in C Major, op. 33, no. 3 (The Bird) (1781)
String Quartet in E-flat Major, op. 33, no. 2 (The Joke) (1781)
Symphony no. 92 in G Major (1789)
Symphony no. 94 in G Major (Surprise) (1792)
Symphony no. 102 in B-flat Major (London) (1794)
Symphony no. 104 in D Major (final London symphony) (1795)
Piano Trio in F-sharp Minor (1794)
Trumpet Concerto (1796)
String Quartet, op. 76, no. 3 in C Major (The Emperor) (1797)

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8 lectures
 |  Average 45 minutes each
  • 1
    Introduction and Early Life
    Haydn's name is synonymous with the Classical style. No other single composer did as much to create and standardize the Classical symphony and quartet. This lecture describes his early years at school and as a choirboy at St. Stephen's Cathedral school in Vienna. In 1749, when his voice broke, he was expelled from St. Stephen's to begin a new life in Vienna at the age of 17. x
  • 2
    The Lean Years and the Pre-Classical Style
    Haydn eked out a living for years before his compositional career took off. He absorbed the musical traditions of his day: the high Baroque, and the new rococo music of the Enlightenment. This lecture discusses influences on Haydn: the Mannheim orchestra, Italian composer Sammartini as well as Viennese composers Reutter, Monn, and Wagenseil. In 1761, he got the opportunity of his life when he was hired by Prince Paul Anton Esterházy. x
  • 3
    Haydn’s Marriage and Esterháza
    Musically, Haydn's development was an unqualified success but marriage to Maria Anna Keller was not. Prince Paul Anton and his successor, Prince Nicholas Esterházy, were genuine music lovers. Haydn became the court music director with his own orchestra to conduct and write music for. Haydn was "forced to become original." x
  • 4
    Esterháza Continued
    Life at Prince Nicholas's court at Esterháza was exactly what Haydn wanted: predictable and calm. Ideas of the new Sturm und Drang cultural movement imbued his music with a greater emotional range. Haydn became famous and wealthy, and he developed a close friendship with Mozart. His music became the template by which we measure the Classical style, perfectly balancing head and heart, intellect and emotion. x
  • 5
    The Classical String Quartet and the Classical Symphony
    Haydn's string quartets and symphonies are models of the Classical style. He forged the notion of the string quartet as four individuals who collaborate to create a whole that is greater than its parts. As the years passed at Esterháza, Haydn's fame grew throughout Europe and England. When Prince Nicholas Esterházy died in 1790, he accepted the invitation of an English impresario to go to England, where his music was already worshiped. x
  • 6
    London
    Haydn went to London at the invitation of Johann Peter Salomon, a violinist and impresario. The symphonies Haydn wrote for his London audiences are among his finest. He returned to Vienna in 1792, but his reception there was mild. Moreover, he had lost his great friend Mozart and was soon to lose his old friend Marianne von Genzinger. It could not have been a worse time when the young Ludwig van Beethoven arrived to begin his lessons with Haydn. x
  • 7
    Beethoven, London Again, and Breakthrough
    Beethoven's composition lessons with Haydn were disastrous. Beethoven was discourteous and even duplicitous toward Haydn, although he would later forgive the young and rebellious Beethoven. At his second visit to London in 1794, he was as enthusiastically received as the first time. His 12 London Symphonies, written during both visits, are the crowning achievements of his symphonic output. After his return to Austria, he wrote a series of masses for his new employer, Prince Nicholas II. His oratorio, The Creation is the capstone of his career. x
  • 8
    The Creation, The Seasons, and the End
    As he grew old, Haydn's health began to fail, but he still kept a strict daily routine. He lived in the Viennese suburbs, continuing to receive a steady stream of medals, awards, and honors. He wrote The Seasons, his last major work, which was another extraordinary success. In March 1808, a performance of The Creation was given to a distinguished audience in honor of Haydn's 76th birthday; he died a little over a year later. x

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Your professor

Robert Greenberg

About Your Professor

Robert Greenberg, Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances
Dr. Robert Greenberg is Music Historian-in-Residence with San Francisco Performances. A graduate of Princeton University, Professor Greenberg holds a Ph.D. in Music Composition from the University of California, Berkeley. He has seen his compositions—which include more than 45 works for a wide variety of instrumental and vocal ensembles—performed all over the world, including New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Los Angeles,...
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Reviews

Great Masters: Haydn-His Life and Music is rated 4.8 out of 5 by 60.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The "Inventor" of the Symphony and String Quartet You may point out that sinfoniae and string quartets existed before Haydn. And you'd be right, sort of. Mostly. But there is no question that Haydn perfected both and defined the structure we recognize today. Robert Greenberg, a delightful and talented professor, is the perfect choice to tell us about this delightful and talented composer. Though Haydn's reputation is overshadowed in the popular mind by Mozart and Beethoven -- both of whom he mentored -- Greenberg makes clear that he was every bit the genius his students were. This is a short course - only eight lectures. Yet Greenberg does an excellent job of packing them tightly with biography and musicology. Don't expect entire concerts: As with all the Great Masters courses, there's barely enough time to present a coherent picture of the man, his times, and his contributions to the art. You can and should explore Haydn's music on your own. But Greenberg arms you with everything you need to fully appreciate it when you do. The picture that emerges is of a genuinely admirable man. Mozart may be the man to share dinner and a joke with; Beethoven might be the performer you want a front seat for; Bach might be the brain you most want to pick, not to mention the steady, reliable family man you want for your daughter. But the Haydn that Greenberg brings to life is a truly admirable man, the sort who commands respect not just for his genius, but also for the sheer power of his character: A demanding but fair boss who looked out for his people; a loyal and reliable employee; a warm and trustworthy friend; an unpretentious celebrity in his own lifetime; an incredibly prodigious and confident master of his art despite a miserable marriage to a sharp-tongued woman who treated him as worthless. I purchased this course while I was living in Vienna, so I was able to visit Haydn's home as well as the Esterhazy estates that are now in Hungary and Austria. But even if that's a bonus you don't have, you'll enjoy this course. Get it.
Date published: 2020-07-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Wonderfully informative; humor! Great music! I'm still listening to this and think it is just superb. Robert G. is a terrific teacher with a foot in the classical world, and another foot in the very contemporary world. His enthusiasm for his subject and for music is A+++. The musical excerpts are well chosen, and well explained. It is extremely entertaining and I will probably listen to it more than once!
Date published: 2020-06-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from HAYDN-His Life and Music Like all Professor Greenberg's Courses, it is both educational and entertaining.
Date published: 2020-05-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Hayden, Go Seek! Greenberg does it again with a great course of Hayden. My only complaint, as always, is that the series isn't 3 times as long. MORE!
Date published: 2020-04-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Lively and informative Greenberg is always an entertaining lecturer who delivers quality information and perspective on his subject
Date published: 2020-03-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Enjoyable and Informative Though I was familiar with some of Haydn's music, I came to this course without much knowledge about the man. Professor Greenberg has hit another home run with me in his informative biography/introduction. Haydn lived a fascinating life, full of surprises. Unlike so many other "great artists," he may have been (as Greenberg suggests) one of the most well-adjusted and happy of the great composers. It is refreshing and encouraging to hear of Haydn's serenity, graciousness, and generosity of spirit. Other than his apparently unhappy marriage, he had a great life, and would have been a pleasure to know. Greenberg also does well in introducing an overview of his music. I look forward to sampling some of the pieces I have not heard before. I'm a huge Greenberg fan and have listened to many of his series. He is his usual self here (enthusiastic, humorous, engaging, occasionally corny), and always interesting to learn from.
Date published: 2019-07-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Master composer, master presenter Professor Greenberg has been called “The Elvis of music history and appreciation” (a designation that evidently pleases him greatly), and he certainly is. In this course he is enormously entertaining, but the content is also great—historical context, lots of biographical goodies, information about the music (but clearly at a freshman level theory-wise), and plenty of musical examples. This was an extremely enjoyable course.
Date published: 2019-07-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Hayden is one of my favorites, and i really enjoyed learning more of his life. His music seems so happy to me, and I found that he had a really happy nature- perfect match!
Date published: 2019-07-06
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