Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

Course No. 3588
Professor Bob Brier, Ph.D.
Long Island University
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Course No. 3588
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Course Overview

No great civilization continues to speak to us like that of ancient Egypt. But what is it about this ancient civilization that still captures our imaginations? What made Egypt special, allowing it to grow, in Professor Bob Brier's words, "from a scattering of villages across the Nile to the greatest power the world had ever seen"?

Professor Brier has designed this course to focus on the fascinating leaders of ancient Egypt. The information in this course is also covered in our more extensive course, The History of Ancient Egypt.

"My thesis in Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt is that what made Egypt great were the people—individuals who did great things," says Professor Brier. "By recounting the lives and accomplishments of the great ones of Egypt, we will present a history of Egypt spreading over 30 centuries. By the time we come to the last ruler of Egypt, Cleopatra, we will have peered into almost every aspect of ancient Egyptian life, seen what made Egypt great, and what finally brought about its downfall.

"My hope is that by the end of the course you will have a sense that you personally know the men and women who made Egypt the greatest nation of the ancient world."

A Great Teacher and Egyptologist

Professor Brier is an Egyptologist and specialist in mummies who knows the ancient Egyptians—literally—from the inside out. In fact, in 1994, Dr. Brier became the first person in 2,000 years to mummify a human cadaver in the ancient Egyptian style. This research was the subject of a National Geographic television special, Mr. Mummy.

Relaxed, matter-of-fact, and wryly humorous, he weaves into the stories of the great pharaohs the daily realities of Egyptian life. You learn, for example, that the origin of eye makeup was not due to vanity. Instead, makeup was ground on small, personal palettes and worn by every Egyptian for the same reasons modern athletes wear black eyeliner under their eyes: to absorb the sun's glare.

A Palette Launches 3,000 Years of Imagery

It is a quite different palette—that of Narmer, the king who unified Egypt—that marks our real introduction to Egypt's great rulers. Considered the first historical document, the "Narmer Palette" reveals images of traditions Narmer created that would endure for 3,000 years, including the double crown of Egypt and the "smiting pose" in which all pharaohs ever after would be shown.

Just as scholars look to the Narmer Palette as their earliest message from Egypt, it is the pyramids that perhaps serve that role for the rest of us.

The pharaoh Sneferu, seeking a suitable way to house his own burial chamber, taught Egypt how to perfect the pyramid, a structure whose origins lay in the need to protect desert graves from exposure by the wind. Professor Brier makes it clear, however, that pyramids were far from Sneferu's only achievements.

A Female Pharaoh Lost to History

One of Egypt's greatest rulers, the female pharaoh Hatshepsut, raised magnificent obelisks at the Temple of Karnak and built what Professor Brier calls "perhaps the most beautiful temple in all of Egypt," Deir el-Bahri. The inscriptions on the temple's walls are the first known depictions of sub-Saharan Africa; Hatshepsut was so powerful a king she was able to send a trading expedition there.

Ironically, most of the evidence of Hatshepsut's existence was systematically erased after her death; Egyptians simply did not want to acknowledge that a woman had been king.

Professor Brier continues with the tale of one of Egypt's most controversial pharaohs, Akhenaten, who tried to alter the three stabilizing principles of Egyptian society—the religious, military, and artistic traditions of the most conservative nation on earth—and almost destroyed Egypt in the process. Akhenaten's story left a legacy the ancients would attempt to erase. Ironically, this forgotten pharaoah would be the father of the most famous pharaoh in modern times: the boy-king Tutankhamen.

Tutankhamen: Murdered by His Successor?

The discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb by Howard Carter in 1922 is the most scrutinized episode in the history of Egyptology, and Professor Brier leads a fascinating exploration into the world of Egyptian tombs.

For those who love a good mystery, Professor Brier introduces his own theory that Tutankhamen was actually murdered by Aye, the vizier of Egypt, as part of a successful plot to gain the crown for himself.

The next major subject in the series is Ramses II, or Ramses the Great. His 67-year reign was the longest of all the pharaohs, but the last two-thirds of that reign began with a treaty with Egypt's ancient Hittite enemy and bear little resemblance to his early years of war, conquest, and monument-building.

Ramses has been reputed to be the pharaoh of the biblical exodus. And though there is no archaeological evidence to support the story, Professor Brier offers some tantalizing connections to what we know of Ramses's actual life.

Nubia Tries to Restore Egypt's Greatness

After the death of Ramses, Egypt entered a long decline. As Egypt weakened, Nubian neighbors to the south, in what is now Sudan, grew strong. They eventually moved north taking control and trying to rebuild—primarily through the efforts of five great Nubian kings—the great Egyptian traditions they had seen crumble away.

Rather than conquer Egypt, they restored it. They celebrated Egyptian religious festivals and even took over some Egyptian burial practices. The first of these kings, a ruler named Piye, even built a pyramid, though it had been 1,000 years since the last Egyptian pyramid had risen from the desert.

From the Nubians, Professor Brier takes you into the Greek era of Egyptian history, beginning with the career of Alexander the Great. He discusses the three great events that marked his sojourn in Egypt: the declaration by the oracle at Siwa that Alexander's father was "the Sun"; his crowning as Pharaoh that the oracle's pronouncement made possible; and his creation of the city of Alexandria, which Alexander mapped out by dropping a trail of grain to show where the streets should go.

The Reign of the Ptolomies

The death of Alexander gave rise to the reign of a series of Ptolemies—15 rulers in all—beginning with Ptolemy I.

Running Egypt like a business, the early Ptolemies had some notable achievements, including Ptolemy I's building of Alexandria's Pharos Lighthouse and its extraordinary library.

The Ptolemies were unable to sustain their brilliant beginning. The last Ptolemy was Cleopatra, the enigmatic Grecian ruler who learned Egypt's language and tried to resurrect both the nation's religion and greatness. Her valiant attempts to save Egypt, with the aid of Julius Caesar, and afterwards with Marc Antony, were doomed. Egypt, no longer a nation, would become a Roman province.

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12 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    King Narmer—The Unification of Egypt
    This lecture discusses how Narmer, Egypt's first king, unified Upper and Lower Egypt and how the world's first nation came to dominate the Near East for thousands of years. x
  • 2
    Sneferu—The Pyramid Builder
    The founder of Egypt's "Fabulous Fourth" Dynasty oversaw the beginning of true pyramid construction, Egypt's rise to international power, and the establishment of artistic standards that would last for millennia. x
  • 3
    Hatshepsut—Female Pharaoh
    This lecture examines the life of one of the greatest individuals in Egyptian history, and discusses why her name was systematically erased from Egyptian records. x
  • 4
    Akhenaten—Heretic Pharaoh
    The reign of Egypt's most enigmatic and controversial ruler illustrates the consequences of attempting to alter all three of Egypt's fundamental societal pillars: religion, the military, and the role of pharaoh. x
  • 5
    Tutankhamen—The Lost Pharaoh
    This lecture details the fascinating events—including the first car wreck in Britain—that led to the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen. x
  • 6
    Tutankhamen—A Murder Theory
    Professor Bob Brier presents his own research suggesting that Tutankhamen was murdered, showing what can be learned from the autopsy of a mummy. x
  • 7
    Ramses the Great—The Early Years
    Ramses II ruled for 67 years and was one of Egypt's greatest pharaohs, warriors, and builders. x
  • 8
    Ramses the Great—The Twilight Years
    The last 40 years of Ramses's reign differed markedly from his glorious beginning. This lecture examines the changes in his personality, as well as the assertion that he was the pharaoh of the biblical exodus. x
  • 9
    The Great Nubians—Egypt Restored
    In the twilight of Egypt's history, the once-dominated land of Nubia fought its way north to defend Egypt from invaders. Under the new rule of five great kings, the Nubians restored much of Egypt's glory. x
  • 10
    Alexander the Great—Anatomy of a Legend
    The rule of Alexander began 300 years of Greek control of Egypt. This lecture examines the three major stages of Alexander's career: young general, pharaoh, and legend. x
  • 11
    The First Ptolemies—Greek Greatness
    This lecture examines the beginning of the end for ancient Egyptian civilization, beginning with the rule of the first Ptolemies, who ran Egypt "like a business" and whose great achievements were purely Greek conceptions. x
  • 12
    Cleopatra—The Last Pharaoh
    Although she was at one time probably the most famous woman in the world, Cleopatra remains an enigma. We reconstruct her history: before Caesar, after Caesar, and with Marc Antony. x

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Video DVD
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  • Download 12 audio lectures to your computer or mobile app
  • Downloadable PDF of the course guidebook
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DVD Includes:
  • 12 lectures on 2 DVDs
  • 80-page printed course guidebook
  • Downloadable PDF of the course guidebook

What Does The Course Guidebook Include?

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Course Guidebook Details:
  • 80-page printed course guidebook
  • Photos
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  • Suggested readings

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Your professor

Bob Brier

About Your Professor

Bob Brier, Ph.D.
Long Island University
Dr. Bob Brier is an Egyptologist and Senior Research Fellow at the C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University. He earned his bachelor's degree from Hunter College and Ph.D. in Philosophy from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Professor Brier has twice been selected as a Fulbright Scholar and has received Long Island University's David Newton Award for Teaching Excellence in recognition of his achievements as a...
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Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 161.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great teacher Bob Brier is a greater teacher. Period. I just don't think anybody can dispute that with a good reason.
Date published: 2018-09-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from well presented I really enjoyed this class very much. Was very enlightening and entertaining.
Date published: 2018-08-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Quickhistory of the Great Pharaohs Over a span of several thousand years, Egypt had numerous pharaohs. This course highlighted the most important ones and told why these leaders were greater than the rest and what their impacts were on Ancient Egypt. I learned so much in preparing for a future trip to Egypt. This is a worthy course for anyone who wants to learn about Egypt but does not have a lot of time the other courses may require.
Date published: 2018-08-10
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Professor has an annoying speech pattern. Detracts from the content.
Date published: 2018-07-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from My husband and I had a wonderful experience listening to this. The professor is funny, incredibly clear and his lecture flowed logically from beginning to end. It's for beginners (as we are), but sparks an interest in learning more.
Date published: 2018-06-29
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Quite Entertaining The professor is entertaining, well-spoken and engaging in his historical knowledge.
Date published: 2018-06-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Continued my interest in Eygpt started long ago. Once I saw this offered at a reduced rate I had to have it. I've watched all the programs which I could find on TV, so this was a no brainer that this would be ordered. I loved his style of lecture -- no stuffiness here. He was down to earth and you could tell he loved his area of study. It was so appreciated that once through, I ran it through the following week in case I missed something. Glad that I ordered this one!
Date published: 2018-04-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Good driving audio Purchased the audio for use while driving. Enjoyable.
Date published: 2018-02-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from excellent title I am so happy I bought this. Now my mom is watching it!
Date published: 2018-02-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great introductory Course I thought the subject matter was very interesting. The approach taken in discussing the great pharaohs should be of value for anyone planning on taking a course on Egyptian civilization. Professor Brier did a masterful job of making his lectures interesting. The guide book is a valuable reference.
Date published: 2018-02-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from very engaging and educational It is obvious that the Professor really loves his topic and his enthusiasm is contagious. Dr. Brier has been there, done that and has brought back the t-shirt to show us. The Course is unfortunately short or maybe it just seems that way. It left me wanting more. In fact I will be ordering “the History of Ancient Egypt” taught by the same professor.
Date published: 2018-01-23
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Pharaohs' Biographies In “Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt,” Dr. Bob Brier devoted single lectures to Narmer, Sneferu, the female pharaoh Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Alexander, the female pharaoh Cleopatra VII, the Nubian pharaohs as a group, and the Ptolemaic pharaohs as a group. Two lectures each were included for Tutankhamen and Ramses II. I know from other reading that there were nearly 200 pharaohs during the thousands of years of ancient Egyptian civilization, though; and while I enjoyed the course, I felt it was a bit too brief to cover the subject satisfactorily. In fairness, twelve lectures may have been all that Dr. Brier was engaged to present; and I admit that it is a plus that my appetite has been whetted and I want to learn more on the subject. I liked the professor’s basic premise that studying the lives and personalities of individuals was a better way to study this history in a short course than to focus on numerous dates and archeological facts meant to be memorized. He called it his “People Magazine” approach to Egyptian history, contending that this civilization owed more to impressive leadership by key individuals than primarily to the “the gift of the Nile” assumption that has been traditional since Herodotus. Dr. Brier was an unfailingly enthusiastic and encouraging speaker with impressive skill as a story-teller, one who wanted his students to enjoy what they were learning. I appreciated that he evidently gained much of his own knowledge beyond the “halls of academia,” having actively worked at sites in Egypt and having pioneered modern re-creation of ages-old mummification techniques. Accompanying visuals for this course were sparse and too-often repeated, in my opinion. Perhaps the challenge of illustrating points relating to the distant past could have been further addressed by adding in artists’ conceptions and computer graphics. Dr. Brier was certainly not shy about espousing novel theories about the history he discussed, even while acknowledging that other scholars might not be in agreement with him. For example, his personal take on why the Narmer Palette must have been carved by two different artists, and his theory about why Sneferu’s first pyramid was abandoned uncompleted, seemed to me to be fascinating and well-argued. On the other hand, his contention that Tutankhamen had likely been murdered, and his speculation that Ramses II might be the pharaoh mentioned in the Bible story of Moses, while both possibly true, struck me as less substantiated. Here again, a longer course might have given Dr. Brier time to back up the theories more thoroughly, even as a greater number of biographies could have left me more convinced that exceptional leadership explains the amazingly long run of success experienced by ancient Egyptian civilization.
Date published: 2018-01-15
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Good professor Great, but you might as well buy the full lecture series on ancient Egypt by the same lecturer. There is a lot of cross over and redundant subjects.
Date published: 2018-01-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Detailed and Insightful Analysis I used the book as research for a fiction project that is located in the Egypt/Sudan region and involvement by the lineage of ancient Egyptian kings, the intrigue associated with their lives and death.
Date published: 2017-11-21
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Pharaoh Fun! We so enjoyed this course and like all the Great Courses we've taken, it taught and entertained. This is a good basic overview of the Pharaohs and is well-presented. Would love another one by Prof. Brier.
Date published: 2017-11-18
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Interesting The lecturer is definitely passionate about the subject but I found a few minor inaccuracies.
Date published: 2017-11-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Course is too short! I've been interested in Egyptology since I was a little girl and I absolutely loved this course. The only problem is it's too short! The professor presents the material enthusiastically and you can tell he loves his subject. The course covers the most important pharoahs but I wish he had included some of the lesser rulers and maybe some of the not-so-great ones too. Twelve lectures is not enough to really cover 3500 years of history and culture. I hope Professor Brier does either a follow-up course or an expanded version.
Date published: 2017-09-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A fascinating story of ancient Egypt I've always had a deep curiosity about the pharaohs in ancient Egypt. This course opened up this era to me in a way that was very enjoyable. The Instructor is excellent!
Date published: 2017-08-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Interesting time gap connections I enjoyed Mr. Brier's energy. His theories on the way the Egyptians are connected through so many generations are obviously something he has investigated firsthand. This course is full of great stories.
Date published: 2017-07-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Fun and Informative Course! This is my first review of any the Great Courses lectures. I just finished the first DVD and loved Professor Brier's presentation style and information. He had an enthusiasm for his subject matter that made you want to keep on binge watching like a Netflix streak. I understand that this might be too brief of an introduction to the subject, but for me, it has whetted my appetite for a more in-depth course after I finish this one! I'd recommend the DVD over the audio version if that fits your needs.
Date published: 2017-05-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A great learning tool. I like the program so much. Bob Brier is great with the presentations of the Pharaohs and their contribution to the development of Ancient Egypt.
Date published: 2017-05-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fun courses. I bought this course for a very small price out of curiosity and not expecting much. It was great and fun.
Date published: 2017-05-10
Rated 4 out of 5 by from entertaining but shallow This is a very brief gloss of Ancient Egyptian history, but presented in a very entertaining form. I now want to get this professor's more complete course on the history.
Date published: 2017-04-04
Rated 4 out of 5 by from A River Runs Through It Professor Brier’s brief survey of ancient Egypt through the persons and personalities of a few Pharaohs is only partially successful. From the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Narmer to the suicide of Cleopatra some 3,000 years later, Professor Brier brings his chosen few pharaohs to life. He is enthusiastic about the individuals as he progresses from one to another, often providing reasoned speculation about their personalities and how they were most probably viewed by their contemporaries and by later Egyptian eras. Dr. Brier also does an excellent job of describing the tombs and temples built during the ruler’s reigns. I often felt that I was right with him as he told how he first came to see some of these wonders. He does cover most of the well-known pharaohs Narmer, Ramses, Tutankhamen, the Ptolemies and Cleopatra. I was surprised to note the inclusion of Alexander and pleased to learn about the Nubians and that Professor Brier presented much more detail about Akhenaten than I ever known. Clearly the course covers (and does it well) what one should expect from the course title and description. But still, I felt it strangely incomplete, perhaps because s detailed description of a pharaoh, his life and works and the time in which he reigned would sometimes be followed by a several hundred year gap. Professor Brier’s delivery was really first-rate, as he excitement and passion for this subject really came through. However the provided course material could have been improved by including additional maps (there is only one provided) that would illustrate and reinforce his presentation. Perhaps I would have felt differently had I chosen a video version. A final nit to pick is Dr. Brier’s statement (also written in the course book) that the Nile is the only major river that flows north. The Rhine River (among many others) is proff positive that Professor Brier did not get his PhD in geography. An editing error by TTC. This course inspires me to pick up a longer, more detailed course on Ancient Egypt.
Date published: 2017-04-03
Rated 4 out of 5 by from A new perspective on Ancient Egypt The course provided a whole new perspective on this ancient nation and its role in civilization. While some of the course material is guesswork and an attempt to reconstruct events, it gives a lot of information in an entertaining and interesting presentation
Date published: 2017-03-27
Date published: 2017-02-21
Rated 5 out of 5 by from This was so much better than I expected I picked up this course during a sale and it was primarily to fill in a huge gap in my knowledge of history. I expected to slog through multiple dynasties, dates, events, etc. In contrast to my expectations, this course was a huge treat and great fun while learning about some fascinating people and how their lives affected history. The instructor was excellent and made learning easy and interesting. It was like having a favorite uncle or neighbor take you aside and share some great stories about people who are worth knowing. Definitely worth it and more.
Date published: 2017-02-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Professor Briar is Fantastic I had already listened to Prof. Briar's course on the history of ancient Egypt before listening to this course, so a lot of the material covered in this course was also covered in the History of Ancient Egypt course. That said I do not regret purchasing this course. What I loved about the History of Ancient Egypt is the same thing I loved about this course as well, namely Professor Briars enthusiasm for the content he is lecturing on. Far from being a dry, colourless list of dates, facts and events Prof Briar brings ancient Egypt to life and makes the Pharaohs figures you want to know more about. Professor Briar masterfully brings the eccentricities, personalities and motives of the Pharaohs into the historical content I ended up wishing more evidence existed so I could understand the lives of The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt in even greater detail.
Date published: 2017-02-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Loved it! Great course! Bob Brier is amazing. He made ancient Egypt come alive!
Date published: 2017-01-29
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Good and worth buying but left wanting more I was expecting more all around, especially about Hatshepsut one of the greatest rulers and a woman... I got more out of didn't really go into as much detail as I would have hoped for for any of the pharaohs but did provide some good insights although not all of them I would necessarily agree with.
Date published: 2017-01-20
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