Great World Religions: Judaism

Course No. 6103
Professor Isaiah M. Gafni, Ph.D.
Hebrew University, Jerusalem
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Course No. 6103
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Course Overview

What is the essence of Judaism? Is it the Ten Commandments, given by God to Israel at Mount Sinai? Or is it the totality of teachings in the Hebrew Bible? Or is it symbolized by something outside the Bible? However Judaism is defined, the beliefs, practices, attitudes, and institutions of Jews through the ages display a striking diversity, despite the fact that all would ascribe to a common heritage.

Professor Isaiah M. Gafni of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem addresses these and other issues as he explores the ever-changing 4,000-year-old saga of Judaism, one of the world's most ancient and influential religions.

More Than a Faith

Indeed, as Professor Gafni points out, Judaism is something more than a religion. Christianity and Islam are faiths, or systems of beliefs, that embrace diverse communities and ethnic groups throughout the world. Although Judaism also adheres to particular beliefs and practices, many Jews would nevertheless consider the designation of Judaism as a religion as far too narrow or confining a categorization.

Where Does the Term Judaism Come from?

Consider the origin of the word "Judaism":

  • In the Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament, what came to be called Judaism is practiced by a people that are referred to as the nation of Israel.
  • The Israelites believed their destiny was linked to a faith in God and to God's promise to give a particular land to the offspring of Israel's founding patriarch, Abraham, who lived around 1800 B.C.E.
  • Abraham had a son Isaac, who had a son Jacob, who had a son Judah.
  • King David, a descendant of the tribe of Judah, founded a dynasty that would rule over Israel for four centuries. The kingdom would ultimately go by the name of Judah.
  • The word appears for the first time in the Second Book of Maccabees, composed 1,700 years after Abraham, as the designation of a way of life maintained by those people linked to the land of Judaea (the Roman name).

Hence, from the beginning, Judaism meant a people defined by a place as well as an ethnic and religious heritage.

Judaism from Within

Throughout the course, you will study Judaism from within—as it was understood by its adherents in the past and by those who practice or identify with Judaism today.

The lectures cover the critical stages of Jewish history; the centrality of such books as the Torah, Talmud, Midrash, and Mishna; and the manner in which the Jewish calendar and Jewish law, or Halakha, define daily life.

The course also illustrates how Judaism reinvented itself by embracing the rabbinical tradition after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. and considers the thinking of such philosophers as Philo of Alexandria and Moses Maimonides, a 12th-century C.E. scholar whom Professor Gafni calls "the star of this series."

The final lecture turns to the issue of how Judaism deals with the outside world. How does it handle converts to Judaism? How does it manage its dual but potentially conflicting missions: to be true to itself as a people chosen by God, and to be a spiritual example to the world, a "light unto the nations"?

Digging Deeper into Judaism

These are some issues you will encounter:

  • Among many Jews today the Hebrew Bible is known by the Hebrew acronym TaNaKH, which is composed of the first Hebrew letters in each of the three component parts of the Bible.
    The first part is the Torah, or five Books of Moses, also known as the Pentateuch
    The second is Nevi'im, which is Hebrew for "prophets"
    The third is Ketuvim, Hebrew for "scriptures."
  • Judaism's calendar is arguably the most important unifying factor in what is otherwise a frequently fragmented religious community. The key to the calendar is that it is both lunar and solar. Months are defined by the period from one new moon to the next, while the year is adjusted with periodic "leap months" to keep it in accord with the seasons.
  • Judaism has no dogma or creed in the Christian sense. The most famous attempt at forming a set of principles was made by the philosopher Maimonides, replying to a convert's request with this 13-point list:
    1. The existence of God
    2. God's unity
    3. God has no corporeal aspect
    4. God is eternal
    5. God alone, and no intermediaries, should be worshipped
    6. Belief in prophecy
    7. Moses was the greatest of prophets
    8. All of the Torah in our possession is divine and was given through Moses
    9. The Torah will not be changed or superseded
    10. God knows the actions of Man
    11. God rewards those who keep the Torah and punishes those who transgress
    12. Belief that the Messiah will come
    13. Belief in the resurrection of the dead.

Even the most zealously practiced Judaism of today is radically different from the biblical representation of that very same tradition. Why? The break came with the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in the 1st century C.E. In the aftermath, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai created an alternative system based on a spiritual, decentralized, mobile leadership, without priests or a temple, and focused on prayer instead of animal sacrifice.

The idea of a Messiah has wielded enormous influence on much of Jewish history. The nature of this belief has been constantly in flux—from a restorative notion that envisioned a return to the old glory of Israel to a utopian image that encompassed all nations and pictured a total revision of the laws of nature, where animals that are natural enemies would become friendly neighbors.

A Skilled Storyteller

An award-winning teacher and scholar, Professor Gafni is the Sol Rosenbloom Professor of Jewish History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he has taught for more than 35 years. He has frequently served as a visiting professor at American universities, including Harvard, Yale, and Brown.

Professor Gafni begins Lecture 1 with the following story:

"To present Judaism in a few short lectures is no mean feat, and I am reminded of a story that appears in rabbinic literature.

"It's a story of a potential convert to Judaism who approaches two rabbis. Their names were Hillel and Shammai, and he asks them, 'Teach me all of Judaism as I am standing on one leg.' Now, the first rabbi, Shammai, has no patience for such a frivolous request, and he bangs him over the head with a rod that he happened to have in his hand. The second rabbi, Hillel, answers him with one line claiming this is Judaism (I will not divulge that line until later in our first lecture), and then he says, 'Everything else is commentary. Now go and learn it.'

"I was reminded of that story because I wonder whether Shammai had not chosen the more prudent approach."

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12 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    What is Judaism?
    The goal of this course is to present Judaism as it is perceived by its adherents and practitioners. This opening lecture attempts a definition, or essence, of Judaism. The beliefs, practices, attitudes, and institutions of Jews through the ages evince a striking diversity, yet all would ascribe to a common heritage. x
  • 2
    The Stages of History
    This lecture begins delineating the stages of Jewish history and the evolving nature of Judaism. The major portion of this lecture addresses the earliest and formative stages of Judaism, those that serve as historical frames of reference for much of Jewish ritual and behavior and, in certain cases, as a model for a future restorative process. x
  • 3
    The Jewish Library
    The aim of this lecture is to describe the literary works, beginning with the Bible, that fashioned and constantly directed Jewish behavior. Other writings to be discussed include the Mishna and Talmud; midrashic commentaries and homiletic expansions of the Bible; and the phenomenon of responsa literature. x
  • 4
    The Emergence of Rabbinic Judaism
    If the faith and behavior prescribed by Judaism are derived from the Bible, why is the Judaism we encounter today so different from the biblical representation of that religious tradition? The answer will lead us to a discussion of the origins and tenets of rabbinic Judaism and the paths of Jewish religious expression. x
  • 5
    Jewish Worship—Prayer and the Synagogue
    This is the first of three lectures that sets out to describe the ways Judaism manifests itself in the lives of its adherents. This lecture addresses the emergence of prayer as a major means of religious worship. What do Jewish prayers contain? When are they conducted? In what language? Attendant to this discussion is a history of the synagogue, its design, and functions. x
  • 6
    The Calendar—A Communal Life-Cycle
    Judaism has a fixed calendar, accepted by all groups practicing Judaism, that determines holidays and is the most important unifying factor in a frequently fragmented community. After presenting the fundamentals of reckoning the Jewish calendar, this lecture goes through the year, stressing what, how, and why Jews celebrate. x
  • 7
    Individual Life-Cycles
    Judaism finds expression at all major stages of an individual's life. This lecture presents the major rituals and rites of passage that accompany boys and girls, men and women, from birth to death. In this lecture we look at questions about gender-specific obligations and distinctions in historical Judaism and recent changes in branches of the Jewish community. x
  • 8
    God and Man; God and Community
    As with so many aspects of Judaism, the perception of the deity cannot be reduced to one accepted creed. This lecture touches on issues of Judaism that have appeared throughout history: knowledge of God; God as creator or the God of Israel; free will, fate, and determinism; reward and punishment; and the afterlife. x
  • 9
    Philosophers and Mystics
    The first part of this lecture discusses Jewish philosophers of a variety of ages and cultural environments. The second portion is devoted to the mystical branch of Jewish thought, Kabbalah. The profound impact of the latter would be felt with the appearance of new forms of religious and communal organizations, with one major example being the appearance of Hasidism. x
  • 10
    The Legal Frameworks of Judaism—Halakha
    This lecture addresses the ideology of the legal system known as Halakha. Orthodox Jews recognize the divine authority of Halakha as a critical foundation of Judaism; others have either tempered this understanding or consider it outmoded. x
  • 11
    Common Judaism—or a Plurality of Judaisms?
    That there are many representations of Judaism has been a constant factor throughout its history. With the element of faith, Judaism also represents an ethnic community, which adds cohesiveness based on nonspiritual foundations. This brings us to a brief discussion of denominations in Judaism today and the current challenge to unity. x
  • 12
    Judaism and “Others”
    The biblical notion of the "election" of Israel by God has been a source of constantly changing interpretation. The idea of a universal salvation through adherence to Judaism is clearly absent. The ethnic component of Judaism did not represent an impenetrable barrier, and converts were happily accepted. This discussion brings us full circle, again addressing the questions raised in the first lecture. x

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Your professor

Isaiah M. Gafni

About Your Professor

Isaiah M. Gafni, Ph.D.
Hebrew University, Jerusalem
Dr. Isaiah M. Gafni is the Sol Rosenbloom Professor of Jewish History at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he earned his Ph.D. and has taught for more than 40 years. He was formerly the Director of the Mandel Center of Jewish Studies at the university and also previously served as Director of Graduate Studies at the university's Rothberg International School. He has been a visiting professor at numerous American...
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Great World Religions: Judaism is rated 4.2 out of 5 by 30.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from It Sets a Goal and Meet It Yes, the many reviewers who have deemed this course a good "starter" course are quite right. That is the goal and Professor Gafni reaches it. One should realize, by the way, that Professor Gafni (and I have friends who know him professionally) is viewed by his peers as one of the great contemporary Hebrew scholars. The organization of the course, as Professor Gafni envisions it, is completely logical, although it is by no means the only way to go about such a "Cliff's Notes" survey. It also does not assume a great knowledge base to start, which, as I can understand, is helpful for many. I would recommend, as others have referenced, Professor Gafni's 24-lecture course on Ancient Judaism (which, while more chronologically compressed, is deeper and is not part of a "set"). I would also recommend, if it can be located, the prior edition of "Great World Religions-Judaism" by Professor William Scott Green of the University of Rochester. His approach is just different and varied enough that it would provide an excellent complement to Professor Gafni's. Try your local library--you may get lucky.
Date published: 2013-01-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Great Starter Course This is one of the few times I have struggled to come up with a decent review title. I just decided to call this course what it is. This is "A great starter course". I grew up a Christian, and I can honestly say I knew almost nothing about Judaism, except that they regard Jesus as a prophet and not the Son of God. Professor Gafni does an amazing job of going over the history, life cycles and rituals, the Jewish calendar, and the spread of Judaism. He also describes emotional events, especially the Romans tearing the temple down and the Holocaust. The burning question I had was "Why do the Jews reject Jesus as the son of God"? Gafni seemed to be going over everything but that question, but he finally answered that question in the last lecture. I don't care in what lecture it's answered in as long as it is there. The only knock on this course was that Professor Gafni didn't have enough time to go into detail in some of the subject matter. It would have been nice to have had another lecture on the Jewish Calendar, but he did what he could with the time he was allowed. This course ended with me wanting to know more, which is good. I know Gafni also has a 24 lecture course which I might get. It seems like there are hundreds of courses I want to get, and time and money are an issue. That being said, Professor Gafni and The Teaching Company have at least done their part to convince me to explore Judaism further.
Date published: 2012-09-25
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Excellent Introduction to Venerable Faith This is a highly recommended introduction to and overview of the main tenets of Judaism. The Professor, whose erudition is clearly profound, explains the various different strands of Judaism and also an excellent overview of the history Judaism and includes enlightening lectures on the interaction with other faiths most notably Islam and Christianity. The Professor also devotes a very interesting lecture on the legal system and a seperate one on philosophy and mystics. The Professor also has a superb sense of humour and this makes the course even more enriching. The thematic approach is also helpful breaking down the course into distinct subjects within each lecture; the coverage of the jewish calendar for example was particularly illuminating. Great course!
Date published: 2012-06-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from SUPERB, ANIMATED INTRO TO JUDAISM Thanks to the in-depth knowledge and engrossing style of the lecturer, this course is an absolute essential as a first-class introduction to Judaism. Highest recommendation. As Dr Gafni explains so lucidly, Judaism is far more than a religion or faith: it is a culture, a way of life, an ethnic identity... and more. Here is a professor who uses his whole body to get his points across. His speaking style is excellent, plus he reinforces with hand gestures, body movements, facial expressions. I found his presentation to be rivetting and memorable. At appropriate times, his wit and fine sense of humour shine through, too. Even in just 12 lectures, a very valuable body of information is treated in some detail, including, for example, explanations of Hasidism, the Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism, and what may be an impending schism in Judaism. The lecture on the Jewish Calendar is a brilliant piece of teaching. So, an inspired teacher with a fascinating topic impeccably presented = 5 stars! I'm happy to note that Dr. Gafni has also recorded a 24-lecture series on Judaism for Great Courses: I eagerly anticipate watching that.
Date published: 2012-06-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Nice Introduction I listened to this course as one part of the five-part World Religion Course. It met my expectation as a nice introduction to Judaism. I don't believe it is long enough to do much else. I enjoyed the wit of the instructor. He was enthusiastic and organized in his presentations. He provided a quality bibliography. I would recommend this course as a nice introduction, but I hope that TTC would provide a longer, more complete introduction at some time in the future. Thank you for this nice introduction to Judaism.
Date published: 2012-04-10
Rated 3 out of 5 by from I Can't Recommend What I Can't Hear.... This is the most difficult of the Great Courses I have taken to date, and that includes dozens of courses, most of which have been hands down winners. This course might be a winner as well, but due to problems partly my own, I could not stay with the course long enough to form a universal opinion. So why am I writing a review? Because, my problem is that I have a hearing problem, and I want to inform other potential students who may also have difficulty hearing, of the potential problems they too, may have in taking this course. My problems were compounded by the fact that Professor Gafni's delivery style is to engage in "rapid-speak" followed by slow speak for emphasis I suppose, as well as his penchant for starting a statement in a boisterous voice, then quickly lowering his voice to almost a whisper, which again, I suppose was meant to underscore his point. At first I would stop the disc, back up to the beginning of that particular sentence, and listen to it again. Unfortunately, it got to the point of frustration such that I totally lost my ability to comprehend what the good Professor was saying. The parts I did understand only increased my frustration, because they reminded me that I wanted to know more. Normally when I order a course, I order a transcript book for just this situation. However, it turns out that such a book is not available for this course. Therefore, If I am to give my honest review of the value of this course TO ME, I have to rate it rather low because I did not received anywhere near the value from this course that I have from the other courses I have taken. My apologies to Professor Gafni if I have in any way offended him. My reason for writing this review, just as with other glowing reviews I have written, is to inform prospective students what I experienced given my set of circumstances. I would hope that anyone else having similar hearing problems, will benefit from my comments.
Date published: 2011-09-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from What Judaism is about Downloaded version. I have listened to this course as part of the World Religion courses. I found it to be interesting, informative and educational. It is not exactly what I expected. In all the other World Religion courses, there was a discussion of the history of the religion, along with the history of the people practicing it, plus their beliefs, daily practices, holidays, etc. Prof. Gafni mostly concentrates on the practice of the religion. He discusses in some details the rituals, the calendar, the life cycle of a Jew, with very little attention to the history of Judaism. Overall, the course was interesting and informative. I have learned a lot about the basic tenants of the religion and what the believers do to practice it. I would supplement this course with the Beginning of Judaism (by the same professor) and the Dead Sea Scrolls (by professor Rendsburg) to get a more historical prospective. In summary, a very good course that I would recommend highly.
Date published: 2011-07-22
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Very Disappointing This course did not come close to meeting my expectations. The content was mostly history and culture with very little on theology. The material was fairly superficial and did not delve into 'deeper' ideas or questions. The presentation was almost verbatim the same as of thin accompanying booklet abd certainly was not worth anything close to the price of this course even when highly discounted. After quitting this course, I re-read section of Huston Smith's book on Judaism and found it much more insightful and enlightening.
Date published: 2011-06-30
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Not too bad If you are looking for an overview of Judiasm then this is the course for you. That's what I was looking for so this course met expectations. I thought Gafni handled the material in a wonderful way and made me think about concepts I had not thought of before regarding Judiasm and it's relationship to Christianity. It is a short course but for a general overview, that is what one would expect. I wish the Teaching Company had more courses like this because they are affordable and pack a plethora of information into only 12 lectures.
Date published: 2011-05-19
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great Information, But I Wish It Were Expanded... Professor Gafni does an excellent job of answering some of the basic questions about what Judaism is, how it has developed over the years and how it's adherents relate to the outside world. One disappointment however, was that there are only twelve half-hour lectures included on this DVD. I wish that for future editions of this topic, TTC will allow Professor Gafni to expand on his topics and introduce new topics. Judaism is a rich traditions encompassing thousands of years of history and only six hours worth of lectures leaves me wanting more information. Overall, I feel that this course is a great buy when it's on sale and would recommend it to a friend.
Date published: 2011-03-23
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Exceeded expectations Excellent introduction to Judaism for those of us who have little prior knowledge on the history of the faith. This is a lot of material to cover in only 12 lectures, and so some topics are brief by necessity. Personally, I would like to have had more information on present day traditions of everyday Jewish life, but I can see there was hardly time to devote more time to that topic. The lecturer has a clear, expressive voice. I found the pace refreshingly brisk and the tone invited listening. OK, so a couple of times he stopped in mid-sentence to pick a more precise word than the one he had started to use, but I found this actually added to the point he was making as it indicated such careful specificity served a purpose in proper explanation. I bought the audio version of the course and do not feel that I missed anything from not having the video. The printed outline was very good and adds much to the lectures. I will be watching for more lectures by Professor Gafni. I’m very pleased with the purchase. Because I prefer to reserve a five star rating for truly spectacular courses, I will rate this course 4.5 stars.
Date published: 2010-09-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from GREAT WORLD RELIGIONS; JUDAISM Prof. Gafni started the lecture series by stating that it was impossible to give all the necessary information in 12 lectures. He did a fine job, making the information easy to understand and presenting it in a dynamic manner. Necessarily, there were some topics either covered only briefly, or left out altogether. I would have liked more information on Jewish belief in heaven and hell, and the role of Satan and angels. Prof. Gafni was quite clear in stating that Judaism is primarily about governing human behaviour on earth, but it is natural to compare the religion to others which are common in our society, where these beliefs hold an important place. Although modern, contemporary branches of Judaism were explained briefly, it would have been helpful to have more information about them, particularly about the rise and popularity of the Hasidic sect, whose numbers are becoming very numerous in Canada. Altogether, an excellent course which left me wanting more.
Date published: 2010-01-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Succeeds This course succeeds in its challenging goal of providing an introduction to a major religion in only 12 lectures. I've completed the whole "Great World Religions" series and, unlike some other reviewers, thought this was the best of them. Professor Gafni gives the sense that he has spent a lifetime explaining Judaism to Gentiles, with notable attention paid to topics we (Gentiles) are most likely not to grasp and find most interesting. In many of the other courses in the "Great Word Religions" series I got the sense of being given a compressed version of a much longer course. By contrast, these twelve lectures on Judaism were properly paced, building up recurring themes in a manner to make the most of the course's short format. I enjoyed Gafni's style of presentation. Another reviewer here mentions the difficulty in following him on audio alone, a point I can appreciate. If you want to take the course, I advise buying the DVD's. Gafni has an animated speaking style that works much better when you can see him. If you can't see him, you'll miss his enthusiasm and authenticity. Rating: 4.5 stars
Date published: 2009-10-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Fascinating, "24-7" Total System I purchased the audio version. I recommend the course, but feel that Dr. Gafni's speaking style is not quite as polished as the other professors in the Great World Religions series. His voice is clear, and he has the right pace, but has occasional glitches where he has to change a word or two. Compressing 4,000 years of Judaism into 3 hours is a monumental task, but the Professor does an admirable job, especially in light of the fact that Judaism can't be reduced to a single, universally acceptable creed, and also considering that we're dealing with a people as well as a religion. The course (which I will listen to again soon) was also valuable in helping me, as a gentile, better understand the holidays, rituals and the all-important calendar of the Jews in my life. For many, this indeed is a 24-hour religion, a total belief system, encompassing the secular and the sacred.
Date published: 2009-07-12
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Good Course, but Not the Best in the Series This course is good, and I definitely enjoyed Professor Gafni's presentation of the material. I would have liked more discussion of modern Judaism, and felt the course could have benefitted from being longer.
Date published: 2009-07-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An Excellent Way to Start Learning About Judaism This is a wonderful course covering the whys, hows, and whats of Judaism. As a Christian, it is fascinating to see how another religious system looks at the scriptures we have in common. In particular, it is interesting to learn the Jewish perspective on the relationship between God and humanity. For example, the law is a gift from God to Israel. It is theirs to do with as they see fit. As Professor Gafni explains, if a group of Rabbis were arguing about the interpretation of the law and God sought to put in His two cents they would tell Him to but out. Of course, the insights extend to other relationships and the manner in which scriptures are used and to which they are adhered. Professor Gafni explains in a way anyone outside of Judaism can understand and appreciate just how it developed, changed and splintered over thousands of years. The student will understand the rabbinical tradition, the challenges Jews have had to overcome to maintain their religion and the strong philosophy that sustains it. Gafni teaches you with enthusiasm and humor. His words will resonate within you.
Date published: 2009-04-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The jew I would love to talk to ! Mr Gafni's presentation of judaism is really enlightening for a non jew. It is an overview for sure, but what else can be done in so few half hours ? You start from there, and it's up to you if you like the topic !
Date published: 2009-03-03
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Good survey but not Introspective I expect most non-Jews wanting to understand Judaism will find the content of this course interesting as I did but like me I expect they will be left with the nagging feeling that Professor Gaffni has left little time to reflect with any real depth on the place of Judaism in the world today.
Date published: 2008-12-28
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