Life and Writings of John Milton

Course No. 305
Professor Seth Lerer, Ph.D.
University of California, San Diego
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Course No. 305
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Course Overview

There is no disputing that John Milton (1608–1674) is considered one of the supreme writers in the history of English letters, and indeed in world literature. "All things and modes of action shape themselves anew in the being of Milton," said the great critic and poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Yet, for a number of reasons, many modern readers are unaware of the pleasures of his often complex poetry and prose.

This lecture series examines the life and work of this English poet in order to understand the richness and depth of his poetry, its ways of representing 17th-century English life and culture, and its impact on later writers and on English literary history as a whole.

With these lectures by Professor Seth Lerer, winner of the Hoagland Prize for undergraduate teaching at Stanford University, you learn about Milton's works in all their fullness. This course is designed to be rewarding whether or not you have read Milton's works in the past.

Professor Lerer gives you both an introduction to Milton's achievements and a means by which you can cultivate your own thoughts and opinions about works including Paradise Lost and Areopagitica.

You also study:

  • Milton's early poetry
  • "Lycidas"
  • Political Milton
  • Paradise Regained
  • Samson Agonistes, and more.
Reading Milton Productively and Enjoyably

Professor Lerer describes his course as "an invitation to the modern reader to find ways of enjoying, appreciating, valuing, and even struggling through a poetry that says as much about human nature and political life now as it did over three centuries ago."

Professor Lerer illustrates the links that connect Milton's biographical and cultural milieux to the imagined worlds of his verse, frequently in the form of lively readings of the poet's works themselves in the appropriate English accent and pronunciation.

To understand the depth of Milton's poetry, it is necessary to learn about his personal struggles, spiritual aspirations, and political passions.

John Milton: A Brief Biography

Educated at St. Paul's School and Cambridge University, where he received a Master's degree in 1632, Milton aspired towards a career in the Anglican Church, but philosophical conflicts with Church doctrine and his own burgeoning interest in writing distracted him. Steeping himself in the classics as well as more contemporary writings, in 1638 he took a European tour where he met many of the major thinkers of the day, especially in Italy.

Milton already had a respectable portfolio of work, including poems "On Shakespeare" (1630) and "Il Penseroso" (1631), the lyrical elegy "Lycidas" (1638), and sonnets.

Milton then turned his considerable intellect towards prose—specifically political and religious pamphlets. Reflecting the turbulent times in which he lived, Milton attacked such controversial issues as Church reform, divorce, freedom of the press, the rights of kings and subjects, education, Christian doctrine, and government and constitutional reform, often using examples from his own life.

His growing Puritanism and political radicalism coincided with the rise of both in England and Milton increasingly cried out against tyranny, even writing a justification for the execution of Charles I.

During the Interregnum, when Oliver Cromwell held control after the execution of Charles I, Milton was rewarded for his tireless political pamphleteering. Parliament appointed him Secretary for Foreign Tongues to the Council of State (1649–1659). Though his poor eyesight eventually lapsed into total blindness in 1652, Milton carried on both his political and literary work with the help of aides.

Milton's political career ended with the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. He was fined and briefly imprisoned for his involvement. He then embarked on what would become the greatest achievement in his literary career, Paradise Lost.

A Poet of the Self

"Milton is a great poet of personal struggle and spiritual devotion, and the theme of this course is the place of autobiography in writing poetry shaped by political events and biblical narrative," says Professor Lerer. "Milton is a poet of the first person singular, a poet of the self, and this course illustrates the ways in which he places that self at the center of all his writings."

Professor Lerer also explains how the psychologically aware Milton used his own life story to elucidate ideas about authority and rebellion. You come to a detailed sense of the fluency with which he employs modern and archaic language in his rhetoric, as well as images and characters from the vast span of the Western tradition.

Nor do you overlook Milton's profound—and profoundly important—concern with religion, theology, and the authority of Scripture.

Professor Lerer offers you guidance to reading Milton while considering the sometimes formidable historical and literary references that are an important part of understanding his writings.

For all his lofty erudition, Milton treats basic, timeless themes:

  • Sin and judgment
  • Authority and revolt
  • Love and hate
  • Pride and humility
  • Ambition and failure.

Then too, his concerns about the nature of marriage, the experience of colonialism, and the problem of individual spiritual authority remain very much with us today.

"Milton's greatness has been awesome to some and stifling to others. One important concern of this course, therefore, is how literary criticsand how we ourselves—respond to Milton," continues Dr. Lerer.

In learning to feel the living pulse of Milton's world, you join generations of readers and authors, including William Wordsworth, T. S. Eliot, and Mary Shelley, who have taken inspiration from his genius.

Paradise Lost alone could easily be the subject of an entire course. Here, however, Professor Lerer chooses not to restrict himself to this unique masterwork, but rather to make it manifest in the context of its maker's life and larger career, to give you a foundation on which to build your future enjoyment of Milton.

What You Will Learn

After an introductory lecture on Milton's life (Lecture 1), Professor concentrates on the first major poems Milton wrote: the ode "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," the Latin poem "Ad Patrem" ("To His Father"), and the famous elegy "Lycidas."

Lectures 2 and 3 invite you to read these poems closely for their aesthetic and personal meaning.

Lecture 4 looks at the political Milton.

Dr. Lerer next focuses on Paradise Lost (Lectures 5 through 10), Milton's great poem. He examines the human books of Paradise Lost: the sections that trace the creation and Fall of Adam and Eve, Satan's temptations, and Milton's own struggles with his poem (Books I, II, III, IV, and IX).

Each lecture focuses on the depth and details of a particular Book of the poem to illustrate Milton's literary technique, the drama of his poetry, and the philosophical and social themes he explores.

Lecture 11 looks at Milton's final major works, Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes, in terms of the major themes of Paradise Lost and of this course: the relationships of fathers and sons, the nature of social obedience, the heroics of moral choice, and the imagery of blindness, light, and vision (both physical and spiritual).

Lecture 12 illustrates the ways Milton had an impact on later literature, criticism, and teaching, especially the making of the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (1818) and on 20th-century debates on teaching literature.

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12 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    Introduction to Milton's Life and Art
    This introductory lecture places Milton's life and work in the contexts of the poet's own wide reading, his remarkable political life, and the contemporary events and institutions which shaped both Milton's public and imaginative worlds. It calls attention to the immense learning Milton brought to all his activities, while at the same time surveying the central social upheavals that marked 17th-century England. We will look closely at the inner narrative of Paradise Lost. x
  • 2
    Milton's Early Poetry
    This lecture focuses on two of Milton's early poems, which foreshadow major themes and idioms for all his major writings. The stanzaic hymn of praise, "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," written in 1629, is widely recognized as his first major English poem. The second poem is "Ad Patrem" ("To His Father"), written in Latin sometime between 1632 and 1638. These poems also stand as statements of what it means to be a poet in the world. x
  • 3
    The pastoral elegy called "Lycidas"—written in 1638—is universally regarded as the poet's first truly great poem. With its form taken from the classical elegy, its theme bearing on the nature of life and death, and its dazzling rhetorical displays, "Lycidas" has long been the benchmark of the Miltonic in literary study. For a poem of less than 200 lines with such a reputation bears witness to Milton's powers of compression and expression. This lecture introduces the student to "Lycidas:" its forms, its themes, its language, and its place in Milton's literary career. x
  • 4
    Political Milton
    This lecture surveys some of Milton's writings on political and social issues. The prose tract Aereopagitica (1645) remains a major statement on the need for a free press and on the pitfalls of censorship. We can see Milton struggling with the problems of patronage and power: problems that look back to his earliest reflections in the "Ad Patrem" and look forward to his struggle not with a literal or a political father, but a divine one, in Paradise Lost. x
  • 5
    Paradise Lost—An Introduction
    Paradise Lost is so rich, vast, and long, it can be approached in many ways. Our goal in this lecture is to inspire the student to read and appreciate the texture of Milton's language and to organize his or her responses along some key lines in Milton's larger literary project. The lecture also seeks to define Milton's epic technique, his notions of history, and some guidelines for a personal, individual experience of reading the poem. x
  • 6
    Paradise Lost, Book I
    This lecture surveys the sweep of Book I of Paradise Lost to explore how Milton creates both his great poetic voice and Satan's great malevolent control. It looks closely at the techniques of Milton's verse to see how he creates a world out of language. And it looks in detail at a clutch of individual words that will distill the tensions and the argumentative and literary effects of Milton's poetry. x
  • 7
    Paradise Lost, Book II
    Book II of Paradise Lost takes us from the political arguments of Hell through the weird and horrific journey Satan makes on his way to Earth. This lecture seeks to explain Book II as part of Milton's encounter with the past. It also shows how Milton exposes the inherent sexuality in allegorical romance, and in the process, how Milton effectively criticizes his poetic forebears. x
  • 8
    Paradise Lost, Book III
    Book III of Paradise Lost represents Milton's attempt to imagine the language of Heaven. Milton offers up a God, a Son, and a set of angels who speak. In so doing, he imagines the speech of unfallen individuals, and furthermore reflects on the nature of his own literary project. When the Son offers himself up to God as the redeemer of Mankind, he becomes something of a hero himself, and his heroic enterprise contrasts sharply with Satan's journey as we have seen it. x
  • 9
    Book IV—Theatrical Milton
    Book IV of Paradise Lost is perhaps the most poetically rich and critically challenging of all the poem's books. Among the questions Book IV asks are: What is the place of human artifice in describing the artistry of divine creation? How does Satan function as "artificer of fraud"? What does it mean to put a woman on the stage: that is, to place Eve as the central character in this drama of the Fall? x
  • 10
    Book IX—The Fall
    There are many ways to understand the Fall of Man. One way is to see it as Eve's tale; Book IV had placed Eve at the center of a complex and potentially already fallen Eden. Books V–VIII are where Adam is instructed in the nature of creation and the future of humankind. It is a story of amazement: of being trapped in a maze, of being astonished at the power of Satanic language, of being awed at Milton's poetry, of being struck by the profound consequences of the moral choice made by Adam. x
  • 11
    Late Milton—Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes
    Late in life, Milton devoted himself to two extended meditations on the nature of scriptural history and the closure of his own literary career. Paradise Regained offers in the epic language of Paradise Lost a story of Jesus' encounter with Satan. Samson Agonistes is a long poem in the form of a tragic play that retells the biblical story of its hero. But in its focus on Samson's blindness, and its emphases on certain images and idioms from Paradise Lost, Samson Agonistes becomes another major landmark in Milton's autobiographical journey. x
  • 12
    Milton's Living Influence
    Almost immediately after its publication, Paradise Lost achieved canonical status in English literature. Milton's impact on the literature and culture of the English-speaking world is second perhaps only to Shakespeare and the King James Bible. This lecture traces the key moments in Milton's reception and transformation. We read him today for his grandeur, his eloquence, his anger, his brilliance, and his sweep of mind. x

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Your professor

Seth Lerer

About Your Professor

Seth Lerer, Ph.D.
University of California, San Diego
Dr. Seth Lerer is the Dean of Arts and Humanities at the University of California, San Diego. Before taking this position, he was the Avalon Foundation Professor in Humanities and Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Stanford University. He also taught at Princeton University, Cambridge University, and Washington University in St. Louis. Professor Lerer earned his B.A. from Wesleyan University, a second B.A....
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Life and Writings of John Milton is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 30.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent! AUDIO DOWNLOAD This is a great, but all too short, introduction to Milton. After listening to Professor Lerer’s excellent TC course on Chaucer, I was eager for yet another course with him, as he is very well-organized and insightful, and an exceptionally good lecturer. What I greatly appreciated in this course is the treatment of Milton’s major works, not just the well-known ‘Paradise Lost’, and how they fall in together by Milton’s employment of recognizable “themes and tropes” over his long career. Professor Lerer identifies Milton’s sonnet ‘On his blindness’ as the “fulcrum” for understanding much of his writings. Key to this course is that Milton engaged in a “…the larger autobiographical project [over his] whole career -an attempt to understand what it means to be obedient: as a son, as a public figure, and as a man” (Course Guidebook, Page 51). Moreover, for Professor Lerer, Milton is “…a poet of the first person singular, a poet of the self, and this course illustrates the ways in which he places that self at the center of all his writings” (Page 1). Showing how this played out in Milton’s works is truly fascinating, enlivened by many extended quotations. I now have a much greater appreciation for ‘Paradise Lost’, though Professor Lerer wisely limits his analysis to Book I-IV, IX, and the end of XII. In those six lectures he opens up the masterpiece in so many important ways. I will not be able to read it again without thinking about the various voices employed, for instance Satan’s use of similes and God’s use of synonyms (“God is repetitious, Satan is allusive”, Page 23) or about Milton’s view of women, so jarring to modern sensibilities, as Professor Lerer compares and sees similarities between Eve of ‘Paradise Lost’ and Delilah of Milton’s final work, the play ‘Samson Agonistes’. I also have a better appreciation of Milton’s selective views on liberty of the press and censorship (concerned with pre- rather than post-publication censorship, “…a fundamentally anti-Catholic position in his writing…,” Page 21) of his famous tract ‘Aereopagitica,’ and his opinions on marriage in his divorce tracts. Professor Lerer starts the course with the admission that Milton has many prominent detractors, my favorite being Samuel Johnson, who said of ‘Paradise Lost’ that “none wished it longer” (Page 57), but this course ably rescues Milton for us in an expertly analyzed and contextualized manner. The last lecture is particularly well-done, covering Milton’s impact on the Romantics and sci-fi literature beginning with Mary Shelly’s ‘Frankenstein’. He also discusses criticism of Milton through recent times, including T. S. Eliot, C.S. Lewis, and Anglo-American feminists. In summing up Milton, Professor Lerer has this to say: “Regardless of our point of view, we can still read Milton today for his power and his provocations. Milton is a great writer of the human condition. But he is also a master of the English language, and whether we love or loathe him, he is there to be grappled with, enjoyed, argued against, worshipped, condemned, or simply awed by” (Page 61). This is another fine course by Professor Lerer, made even more useful by a nicely supportive guidebook. As fine as the course is, however, I recommend as a supplement Professor John Bowers’ lecture on “The Rebel as Hero – Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’” in his TC course ‘The Western Literary Canon in Context’. Bowers casts an even wider net concerning the influences on Milton and on his impact, making the case for Milton being “…a tyrannical father figure for later poets.” Highly recommended!
Date published: 2015-07-16
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Enthusiasm Is not Enough! In this series of 12 lectures, Professor Seth Lerer discusses at length the famous 17th century English poet, placing special emphasis on « Paradise Lost », an epic poem counting twelve « books ».. Professor Lerer appears thoroughly convinced that listeners will either passionately love or hate John Milton’s works. The notion that some may just remain completely indifferent does not seem to cross his mind. Specifically, he naively expects that long, theatrical quotations of poems _ some in Latin _ will contribute to arouse tremendous interest in his audience. Sadly, this course is a good demonstration that enthusiasm and scholarship do not suffice to be relevant to all.
Date published: 2015-06-29
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Smart and Passionate This is a very good course. The teacher is smart and passionate. And there is much of value in the teaching, especially in the time devoted to Paradise Lost. My problem with the course fundamentally is that it is merely a 12 lesson course, covering just six hours. While this brevity allows one to get a quick taste, it prevents the quite good professor from teaching as fully as Milton deserves. This is unfortunate. The highlights are there - to be sure. And, in a few samples, the student gets some rich substance. But, for my taste, it's too much skimming and general observations. Don't misunderstand. I have a high opinion of Professor Lerer. And, if you are looking for a brief excusion, this is a good one to take. I wanted a deeper dive, so I'll hold back on the 5th star.
Date published: 2015-06-29
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Content OK; presentation not so much I finally got around to reading the complete “Paradise Lost” in my mid-50s, and enjoyed it more than I thought I would back in my school days. This course looked like a good follow-up, and in terms of its content, it certainly was. Prof. Lerer is clearly knowledgeable and passionate about the subject. He brought up aspects of Milton’s life and poetry that I had never considered. I would have enjoyed hearing even more about the content of “Paradise Lost” rather than side issues (such as parallels between PL and Frankenstein) but overall I learned a lot. However, this was the first Great Course where I really struggled with the prof’s presentation. I listened to the audio version, and Prof. Lerer’s over-excited delivery sometimes went over the top. Even more of a problem was his sing-song phrasing, where the same few “musical” patterns of speech occur over and over again. I wish I could have just READ his material, or heard a professional announcer read it. I bought his Chaucer course at the same time but I’m putting it off for awhile.
Date published: 2014-11-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Thoroughly enjoyed Seth Lerer delivers a passionate, yet still academic, survey of Milton's life, works, and relevancy. At school I had sort of skimmed around Milton. I knew of him, but never studied him. I don't think that gap is filled entirely by the course, but I am sure on fire to go home, dig out that neglected copy of Paradise Lost, and dive in. :)
Date published: 2014-10-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Basis I somehow missed Milton in college (probably because I was taking Greek and Latin and getting a breather from the English language canon, perhaps unwisely) and found this course excellent. There is no substitute for reading Milton's own words, but Professor Lerer gave me the basis to get more content and enjoyment out of them. Would I have caught on first reading of Paradise Lost that Satan speaks in inversions and metaphors? No. That horrid means "bristly?" No. Entertaining, well organized and recommended.
Date published: 2009-08-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I'm overwhelmed to sure! I bought this course on sale, not knowing anything about Milton except his name, and more of a History than a Lit. major. I look forward to listening to this course again and again. I feel the need to pour over Milton's words after I get home because listening while driving is never enough. What a wonderful writer Milton was/is, we will not soon see his stripe again.
Date published: 2009-08-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Paradise Illuminated "Screw your courage to the sticking place" "A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse" "Luke, I am your father!" "I ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice Chianti" - writers tend to give their villains some of the most memorable lines none more so than Milton's Devil who states that it is "Better to reign in H%ll then serve in Heav'n." Lerer's lectures illuminating Milton's works, but focused mostly on Paradise Lost, are as memorable as the poet's epic. The lectures covering the themes, metaphors and analogies (the importance of Eve's tnagled hair) contained in Paradise Lost are indispensable, intriguing and inspiring not only because the work itself is genius but because of the dedication of a blind man (Milton) who composed this imposing poem through dictation absent his eyes to help edit his complex creation (a similar situation occurred with Joyce and Finnegan's Wake). The lectures are well worth the time to better appreciate the man and his works.
Date published: 2009-04-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Milton for those Who think they don't like Milton I purchased this lecture series before I began a course io Milton so I would have some background. He greatly enlivens Paradise Lost. I have listened to this excellent series twice, before and after taking the course. After these tapes I immediately purchased his equally fine lectures on Chaucer and the History of English language. Lehrer is widely respected scholar, great to be able to listen to him.
Date published: 2009-04-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Paradise Lost and More I always knew that Paradise Lost was considered one of the essential texts in the canon of western literature, but I did not know why.But after taking this informative course on Milton and his world by Dr.Lerer, I have an appreciation for the author. The professor introduces us to Milton and his time. He shows that politics were a major force in the author's life and that he was greatly influenced by Puritanism.Dr. Lerer observes that Milton was often in conflict with authority whether that authority was his father or Cromwell and that this was a major theme in his writing particularly in Paradise Lost. Most of the course is a deep focus on Paradise Lost and it's importance. An important point of analysis is how the created entity, (Adam) rebels against his creator.(God) The final lecture on the legacy of Milton looks at how various works, particularly Frankenstein deal with the theme of rebellion against authority and one's creator. Dr. Lerer maintains that Milton captures the human condition and this course is a great introduction to this important author.
Date published: 2009-03-31
Rated 4 out of 5 by from A Pleasurable Experience... ...which is saying a lot when it comes to Milton. AUDIO CD: I picked up this course because I enjoyed Prof. Lerer's Chaucer course so much. Although Samuel Johnson said about Milton's Paradise Lost that none would wish it longer, the same cannot be said for this course. Prof. Lerer is so excellent a lecturer and insightful a teacher that 12 courses for Milton undershoots the need. I took a Milton course in college and enjoyed it, but Milton in Prof. Lerer's hands is a treasure. He explicates Milton's poetic art brilliantly, helping you see some of the amazing choices Milton made in using rhetoric and figures of speech in Paradise Lost. Although the course goes by too fast, I must say what is always great to say about a TTC course: It was much better than I expected.
Date published: 2009-03-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Outstanding Prof. Lerer is a wonderful lecturer. He has an in-depth knowledge which he conveys effectively and entertaingingly. To be honest and personal, I developed a great dislike for Milton when I had to do a term paper on him for an instructor who'd written her disertation on him. I haven't picked up anything by or about Milton in years. However, Prof. Lerer is such a fine lecturer that I decided it was time to become re-acquainted with Milton. I learned a great deal and highly recommend the informative and well organized course.
Date published: 2009-02-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from SUPERLATIVE. EVERY LECTURE IS A JEWEL. Poor Milton. Other than a few of his poems, most lit majors try to drive around Paradise Lost and his other major works and quickly move on to the 18th century. I was one of those! Being forced to read Paradise Lost in college was excruciating for me. Now I realize how foolish I was. PL is one of the greatest literary works produced by any culture. It is a towering achievement, a religious work filtered through the imagination of a creative genius who was blind! So many of the attributes devils have in other literary works were taken from PL. The description of Lucifer's fall and his words when he surveys his new surroundings---you will never forget them. Powerful, searing poetry that transcends the human experience. This teacher deserves medals for this presentation. One of the top 10 of the 60 TCC courses I own.
Date published: 2009-01-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Once again I have received the knowledge and understanding of the subject (John Milton) I was expecting.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Dr. Lerer is magnificent. He brought the exquisite beauty of Milton's poetry alive. His enthusiam and lax for his subject made his lectures a joy to listen to. His lectures are clean, well paced, well organized and the course outlines extremely well done.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I had a dismal experience teaching Paradise Lost before taking Prof. Lerer's course, but after taking it I was infected with his knowledge and enthusiasm and did a better job myself teaching it to my 11th grade students. Great Courses are a teacher's best
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I love The Teaching Company!
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The course booklet is a tremendous extra learning tool. Although the DVD and CD provides enough detailed material. Love it!
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Inspired me to read and re-read Milton's poems.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The division of chapters was interrupted near the end.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from This course is a perfect mesh with Seth Lerer's course on Chaucer.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An outstanding study of a difficuly author.
Date published: 2008-10-17
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