Medieval Europe: Crisis and Renewal

Course No. 863
Professor Teofilo F. Ruiz, Ph.D.
University of California, Los Angeles
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4.2 out of 5
43 Reviews
53% of reviewers would recommend this product
Course No. 863
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Course Overview

This course examines the crises of late medieval society (widespread famines in 1315-1317, wars, plagues, popular rebellions) and the manner in which, during the 14th and 15th centuries, men and women responded to these crises by formulating new concepts of love, art, religion, and political organization.

The emphasis throughout is not on a sustained political narrative. The aim of the course is to explore the structure of late medieval society and show how the society, economy, and culture were transformed and refashioned by the upheavals besetting Europe at the onset of modernity.

Thus, in tracing the response to economic, political, and social crises, we also chart the transition from the medieval to the modern world.

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16 lectures
 |  Average 44 minutes each
  • 1
    Europe in 1300—An Introduction
    Professor Ruiz sets the geographical, linguistic, and historiographical contexts for the course. Understanding how medieval men and women imagined their society and saw themselves provides insight on how they responded to the imminent crises. x
  • 2
    Europe in 1300—Rural Society
    Peasants were the group most dramatically affected by late medieval crises. We look at their difficult daily lives and crucial, but lowly, roles in society. x
  • 3
    Europe in 1300—Urban Society
    Focusing on the rise of towns and cities, we examine the sources of so much inspiring art and great learning that shaped society in the Middle Ages and years to come. The character of the bourgeoisie and state of popular culture are reflected in fundamental changes in value systems and religious beliefs. x
  • 4
    Europe in 1300—Church, State and Learning
    As the power of the papacy is envied and emulated throughout Europe, changes occur in the relationship between church and state. Professor Ruiz describes those changes while tracing the origin of political organizations and a political point of view that emphasized the state over the church. x
  • 5
    An Age of Crises—Hunger
    We study the great famines of 1315–1317 and their impact on European society in succeeding decades. Medieval governments are unable to deal with the consequences of widespread hunger—rising violence, crimes against property, high mortality rates, and a reduced population. x
  • 6
    An Age of Crises—War
    We discuss the Hundred Years War and its affect on social, economic, political, and cultural structures. We deal with the impact of military technology on society, the role of war, the rise of knightly orders, and the contradictions of war's savagery and chivalry's ideals. x
  • 7
    An Age of Crises—The Black Death
    The Black Plague had an enormous impact on Europeans in the mid-14th century. We consider the development of the church after the plague, violence against Jews and lepers following the spread of the plague, and the reaction of authorities to its onslaught. x
  • 8
    An Age of Crises—Popular Rebellions
    Many peasant and urban uprisings occurred as individuals at the top of society sought to maintain their positions in a time of vast economic and social dislocation. Those below, and those caught in the middle, often reacted with violence. x
  • 9
    Late Medieval Society—Politics
    Professor Ruiz introduces new political concepts formed in the late Middle Ages, including first steps toward the genesis of the nation state. Centralized monarchies emerged at the end of the 15th century in France and England as a result of crises that pushed thinkers and rulers to develop concepts of sovereignty. x
  • 10
    Late Medieval Society—Castile in the Fifteenth Century
    We see how the ideas and practices of government were put into service in the kingdom of Castile in Spain, and how age-old medieval institutions were utilized by the Castilian monarchy to organize the nation state. x
  • 11
    Late Medieval Society—Culture and Mentality, Part I
    We examine the birth of Renaissance culture in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries and its spread to other parts of western Europe. Beginning with Dante, we consider the transforming factors of Renaissance humanism and art. x
  • 12
    Late Medieval Society—Culture and Mentality, Part II
    Continuing the examination of the birth of Renaissance culture in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries, we consider new artistic models, aesthetic sensibilities, and a new spirit. x
  • 13
    Late Medieval Society—Love, Sexuality, and Misogyny, Part I
    Professor Ruiz discusses how concepts of love, sexuality, the body, and marriage were transformed by the crises of the late Middle Ages. Boccaccio's Decameron and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are studied for statements on love and sexuality. x
  • 14
    Late Medieval Society—Love, Sexuality, and Misogyny, Part II
    We discuss the Spanish Inquisition, the witch craze, and other examples of society turning against specific groups in its midst. x
  • 15
    Late Medieval Society—The Blending of High and Popular Culture
    We see how festivals, royal entries, and carnivals were used to expand the power and influence of nation states. The mix of certain elements of high and popular cultures in jousts, pas d'armes (passage of arms), and other public festivals were of great benefit to rulers of the day. x
  • 16
    The Beginnings of Modernity
    Professor Ruiz gives a rousing summation and provides a peek into the next era. The fall of Constantinople and subsequent reception of Greek Classical knowledge in the West, the disruption of trade routes in the East, and the voyages of discovery are all treated as dramatic transforming factors in European lives. x

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Your professor

Teofilo F. Ruiz

About Your Professor

Teofilo F. Ruiz, Ph.D.
University of California, Los Angeles
Dr. Teofilo F. Ruiz is Professor of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. A student of Joseph R. Strayer, Dr. Ruiz earned his Ph.D. from Princeton University. Prior to taking his post at UCLA, he held teaching positions at Brooklyn College, the City University of New York Graduate Center, the University of Michigan, the School of Advanced Studies in Social Sciences in Paris, and Princeton University-as the...
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Medieval Europe: Crisis and Renewal is rated 4.1 out of 5 by 43.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Most compelling and vital audio history Prof. Teofilo Ruiz delivers centuries of our forbearers' lives - He grasps our very European DNA, and delivers to us our ancestors - with passion and precision. Turned inside-out, these centuries explode in our imaginations, with real flesh and blood, and unsettling new visions. (eg, cf. how the Black Plague revolutionized medieval monasteries and monks). Ruiz inhabits the universal motivators of greed and power quests as common denominators - and then the surprising efforts of religious or knightly leaders, to rein in brutality.. And his honest befuddlement at the Italian compulsion to be immersed in beauty - in everything. Rare, and ultimately, funny. Prof. Ruiz has an endearing lilting accent, which makes his lectures friendly. I missed his masterful storytelling, when the lecture tapes finished. For a few weeks I looked forward to kitchen tasks, during which his tales ruled the house. Fine job! A highlight of Great Courses!
Date published: 2015-03-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fascinating and profound The lectures are quite different in their orientation and perspective compared to almost all history courses I have taken under the TGC: with few exceptions the lectures are not narrative, but analytical in nature; and they focus on sociological and cultural evolutionary processes that occurred during the late middle ages (fourteenth and fifteenth century). They are definitely more on the rigorous-academic side of the spectrum than on the entertaining side. One fascinating topic that goes under the microscope was the chivalric role in war. Professor Ruiz analyzes the manner in which the diminishing role of the knights in combat in the hundred year war between France and Britain, was due to the most banal of reasons: the British king did not have enough funds to keep the knights occupied in a war of attrition in France over an extended period. The result was that he had to settle for using lesser Celtic long-bow warriors instead – because of budgetary constraints. The outcome was that the British could cut down the larger, and on the face of it grossly better trained French army, long before the two armies even came close one to the other to engage in knightly combat. The French suffered a series of stinging defeats and gradually realized that knightly combat, along with the long rigorous training that went with it were simply no longer effective in the battle field. This, naturally, caused a huge sociological upheaval since the nobility, whose primary duty was to fight, no longer had a differentiating advantage. The nobility had to reinvent themselves; and indeed they did so – as courtiers. Another no less profound analysis had to do with the sociological and economical after-effects of the black plague if the mid-fourteenth century. Professor Ruiz tells us that a huge percentage of the Western European population (between one half and two thirds) was obliterated. This had the demographical effect that there was now land in excess – and so its price decreased. At the same time labor was at a premium. The nobility and some parliaments tried to keep the price of labor down by legislation but the market dynamics were just too strong. The price of labor did in fact go up and the repercussion of the legislation was to cause peasant revolts such as the one thatoccured in Britain. Land could now more easily be had by those who were not by birth part of the land owning nobility. A new class of wealthy peasants developed as a result, and these quickly became employers of other peasants who were now not exactly serfs, but landless peasants all the same. Serfdom, as a consequence, disappeared almost completely from Western Europe. Many other profound processes are analyzed, including the changing attitude towards women, the changing of the political system, and the movement towards secularism. This is the second course I have taken given by Professor Ruiz, the first being "Other 1492". The first thing that is immediately evident is that the course is old. I am not sure exactly when it was produced but apparently some time during the Clinton administration (he makes reference to it). The lectures are formatted in forty five minute lectures instead of the current standard which is thirty minutes. I actually had a bit of a hard time with that – habits I guess… As a previous reviewer noted, some of the extremely negative reviews the course received were quite superficial, ranging from an aversion to the professor's accent (which I personally did not have a problem understanding and found quite charming), to anti-socialistic sentiment. I thoroughly enjoyed this course and Professor Ruiz's lecturing style. The whole course is a description of long, evolutionary, sociological processes of late medieval Western European society. This focus is really quite unique within the repertoire of TGC history courses, at least the ones that I have heard so far. It describes fascinating, subtle and pivotal processes in Western Civilization evolution, and the insights are really quite profound. This is certainly one of my favorite history courses so far in the TGC.
Date published: 2015-03-23
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Difficult to understand He is difficult to understand, which matters a lot with difficult names and place names. Plus, there are no subtitles that many of the lectures have to give you definitions, quotes and spellings. There is no use of technology, such as graphics highlighting geopolitical areas.
Date published: 2013-01-25
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Not one of my favorites Another course I got from the library. This is an older course (I believe the publication date is 1996) and there are virtually no visuals-a map is shown at the beginning of the course and some visuals of text to highlight important concepts, plus a picture of a medieval document and that's about it. The professor speaks pretty rapidly, although the accent was not a problem for me. I found that I sometimes had trouble trying to decide where the material he was presenting really fit into the scheme of the course. The other thing about the professor's presentation is that there were times when I thought if I heard him say "That is to say" one more time, I was going to throw something at the screen! Although some of the lectures were quite interesting, others seemed to ramble. Overall, I think there are other courses in the History genre that cover the same material and that I have enjoyed more.
Date published: 2012-12-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Best Introduction to the History of the Middle Age The Teaching Company best History Course. Profesor Ruiz is a erudite and a great stoyteller.
Date published: 2012-10-18
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Not a Credible Course I have listened to perhaps 20 of the "The Great Courses" and have been at least satisfied, if not impressed with their presentation and content, although perhaps the musical chimes at the beginning of each lecture get a bit tiring. This was the first course for which I was highly disappointed. While some have commented on Prof.'s accent, I have worked in 165 countries and had no difficulty with the accent. My concern was much more the content and organization of the material, temporal distortions and factual errors. In some cases he doesn't seem to be able to remember which King he is talking about, and several times appears to use the wrong name. It is hard to tell though because he appears to jump from the 13th century, to the 15th, back to the 13th, to the 18th, the 14th, all without informing the listener of the shifts. For example, in Lecture 9 he uses the phrase "Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute!", used by Robert Harper in 1798 regarding the French, and revived by Thomas Jefferson a few years later, regarding the Barbary Pirates, as a way of explaining taxation for defense in the 13th century. Yet, the payment of tribute was rampant during the Middle Ages and the unattributed quotation leaves the mistaken impression that 13th-century King's were seeking to avoid paying tribute. In Lecture 7, the professor states that "rents fell by 100% and even 200%". I have no idea what he means by that! If rents fell 100% they would be in zero. If they fell 200% does that mean the landlord is paying the tenants what he use to collect? I doubt it! Does he mean they fell 50% or maybe 75% to a half or quarter of their original value? Maybe. I do agree with other critics that the misapplication of communist terminologies to the Middle Ages, is a needless distraction, and is often not even the proper use of communist terminologies, such as calling stagnation a "dialectic"-because it moved forward and backward. Dialectic is not a synonym for oscillation! These are just a few examples. The errors and the bias become so significant that I have little confidence in some of his perhaps more interesting statements. For example, In chapter 9 the professor claims that during the 13th and 14th centuries the Kings were collecting taxes in order to pay for standing armies. Previously I'd understood that the first standing army in Europe, since the Roman legions, were in Spain at the beginning of the 16th century, funded by the wealth Spain was gaining from the New World. Given the other errors and bias, I find it impossible to accept the professor's claim, although, if true, it would have profound implications on post 1500 European history. Finally, the organization of the course is poor. For example, a lecture on famine, another on the Black death, another on war, and another on politics all for the same period of time with the result that there is a great deal of repetition. The poor organization is, I suspect, the reason, as other critics have noted, he finds it necessary to repeatedly say that he will cover the subject in much more detail later. Also as previously noted, I also suspect that some of these issues are not covered in more detail later. In some instances they seem to be retold in the same words and in the same level of detail at another point. I have no doubt that Prof. Ruiz is passionate about his field and has done some groundbreaking work using original records from the Middle Ages in Spain. However, the scope of the course seems beyond his academic expertise. As a result, I do not find some of his statements to be credible. This is the first time I have felt that way with a product from The Teaching Company. In summary, I do not recommend this course and would suggest that it be withdrawn as an offering to be replaced by a course with more substance and credibility.
Date published: 2012-09-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Superb Presentation This is by far the best history course I've ever taken and it's taught by a passionate charismatic, very erudite professor. You can't ask for anything more. I was impressed that it was so intellectually stimulating rather than being 'dumbed' down as some other TC offerings are. Yes, some lectures are hard but isn't that the whole purpose here, education rather than entertainment, or if we're lucky both in the same presentation? The fact that he covers the social history rather than political history as written by the 'winners' is a definite plus, so much more interesting and informative than conventional courses. Some reviewers called him a communist, he is not, but even if he was - can we not entertain a different point of view? And can we not then make up our own minds? Or are we stuck in the rhetoric of the 50's. And what other history course includes discussions of Dante, Boccaccio and Chaucer as a guide to the way society deals with illness and other slings and arrows of 'history'? His lecture on Dante alone is worth the entire course. I would like to see him teach a course on the Golden Age of Spanish Literature & Art, Cervantes, Goya, the poets, etc. With his insightful observations and passionate love for his subject this would be a mind-blowing presentation. In all other respects, I agree wholeheartedly with Silberg whose review is among the ones at the top. This course is one to watch again and again there is so much to absorb and to enjoy. Professor Ruiz is one of the very best lecturers in the Teaching Company roster, along with Daniel Robinson and Elizabeth Vandiver. I would like to see more by him along the lines I've already suggested to the Teaching Company. He sets the bar so high it's difficult to know who and what to watch following his courses.
Date published: 2011-11-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Unique Perspective This is the second course from Dr. Ruiz that I have taken ( The Other 1492). I love his approach to the subject and the unique perspective he gives to the material. Bravo!
Date published: 2011-03-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Really understanding Medieval Europe! I just finished listening to the audio of this course and wanted to write some words about how great it is. Professor Ruiz really knows the subject well, and this course helped me have a much greater understanding of this time period and its pivotal nature in history. He tackled a huge subject and made so many good points -- I know I will want to listen to his lectures multiple times to digest all he said. I came away with so many insights into what life was like during the time period discussed. I wish he had been able to have more time. Having enjoyed this course, I am encouraged to look up his other Teaching Company courses, and I certainly will give them much higher consideration when deciding which courses I can afford to purchase. I think Professor Ruiz is really gracious to offer to answer any questions we may have if we write him care of The Teaching Company. How many professors are willing to give of their time in this way? To be fair, I will admit that Professor Ruiz has an accent, but I believe it is well worth the slightly extra effort to understand him (it did not take me long to get used how he speaks) in exchange for all the benefits of this course has to offer. I applaud the efforts of The Teaching Company in capturing and preserving lectures such as these for many to benefit from.
Date published: 2010-11-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Previous ReviewShould Be'Featured' InThis Company As someone who has occasionally felt it necessary to write negative reviews about some courses and lecturers, I am conscious of the need to respect the opinions of people who will take a negative view of a course, but the negative reviews on this course don’t past muster as serious critique (and that is being polite). 'ktbl381' from Washington tells he/she got a headache from the Ruiz accent. 'tr1strev' (from nowhere apparently) was so discombobulated by the Spanish inflections that he/she returned course after struggling mightily with a few lectures. SaraPA also found the Professor "utterly distracting and hard to follow". I can only conclude that these reviewers are going to find it very hard to get around in large parts of the US and Europe if they have trouble with an accent as mildly beguiling as that belonging to Professor Ruiz! I had assume that with the cold war over, there might be less anxiety about reds under the bed than before the fall of the Berlin Wall but ‘Delmelza’ is able to dismiss Ruiz as a communist; and 'OldTom' doesn’t like Ruiz because he uses words such as “bourgeoise”[sic] ‘kulak’, and ‘proletariat'. Ruiz, it is true, is mendacious enough to say that his history is about the people “on the bottom” – shocking! And he is unapologetic about discussing the subjugation of women and other ethnic minorities – outrageous! The distinguished Professor ought to be sent back to Cuba! And then there’s ‘Anonymous’ who wants to tell us he/she is a math major and that Ruiz isn't – one star for you Professor Ruiz! (I am going to go back over the lectures to find out where these errors of multiplication occur). A bit more seriously, ‘SaraPA’ reckons Ruiz didn't get around to talking about the important topics. I find this bewildering given that amongst the sally across economic, political and social events following the Black Death in 1348, Ruiz delves deeply into the transformation of human perceptions about their place in the universe, human love and sexuality. These struck me as pretty big and profound. With so many shallow, silly and offensive reviews about this course it is a blessed relief to read CebakaLaika's review just prior to my mine. There are also a few other fine reviews who capture what Ruiz presentation is really like (‘WashingtonReviewer’: Ruiz is “deeply engaged”; ‘HistoryBuff’: Ruiz "lifts the fog" on medieval Europe; ‘swarden’ refers accurately to Ruiz’s “trenchant, illuminating analysis” and 'msalvatore 'to Ruiz's “elegant explanation” – though he/she are obviously of Spanish extraction so no doubt ethnically biased to be sympathetic – please excuse the sardonic humour. ‘NYNM’ is right too in my view about the fact that accent actually adds to the presentation about medieval ‘Europa’!) . If you think you are someone who might have a problem with Ruiz’ accent get the video so you can watch him move his lips! Because otherwise you are going to be guilty of depriving yourself of genuinely adult education. Ruiz is someone who is not bound by a script. He knows his subject inside out and this allows him to delve deeply into the subject to draw out the profoundest implications of events in the way a lecturer like Arnold Weinstein does in literature, or Luke Johnson does in theology. In summary you can’t go past the words of ‘CebakaLaika’. After some wise words about getting into the accent he/she makes the telling point that Ruiz course is “more about education than entertainment.” Theirs is worthy of a ‘Featured Review’ spot in my view!
Date published: 2010-08-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Really good, but really hard First of all, let me state that NONE of my comments to follow apply to Professor Ruiz’s accent. Listen carefully to the first lecture or two and you will tune in to the nuances of his fluent and articulate English. The problem, if you can call it a problem, is that “Crisis and Renewal” is more about education than entertainment. The course is very disturbing because it provides detailed descriptions of how the common folk (as in people like us!) lived and died in medieval Europe. Life was hard, but somehow we survived, and the crises transformed us to what we are today. Professor Ruiz guides us through this transformation with understanding and obvious compassion for those who actually had to live through the Middle Ages. I came away from this course with a real sense of privilege and an appreciation for life as a middle class American in the twenty-first century. I have over thirty Teaching Company courses on mostly history and music, and “Crisis and Renewal” is one of the most difficult and at the same time, one of the most rewarding courses that I have. Don’t pass up Professor Ruiz’s marvelous and thought provoking course. It will keep you thinking for a long time.
Date published: 2010-05-28
Rated 1 out of 5 by from A huge disappointment If you like your history from a communist perspective, then this is the course for you , otherwise you'd do well to avoid this one.
Date published: 2010-03-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Middle Ages Explained I have listened to this course several times over the years - it was one of the first TC courses I bought. After hearing the TC's trilogy on the Middle Ages by Dr Daileader this course, which I always thought of as excellent, seemed even better. Dr D's course provides the story of the Middle Ages wonderfully told. Dr Ruiz gives an elegant explanation of the medieval period. This course enriches the understanding of both the medieval period and the times that followed. Some reviewer's found Dr R's accent distracting - I did not. This subject matter and presenation will enhance your knowledge the Middle ages and Western History. Like its topic this is a course that has aged well.
Date published: 2009-06-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A moving lecturer He is deeply engaged in his subject. It is very moving to hear him describe the Plague and suffering of lower classes. TC has excellent middle ages offerings as Daileader and Ruiz are so strong. I recommend Ruiz's Europe 1492 course as well.
Date published: 2009-04-16
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Far from the best I know some people had trouble with his accent but it didn't bother me at all; and i can't speak a word of Spanish. My problem was with the content of the course. Some of the problem is the lecturer's inability to understand basic math. Being a math major, this was a major concern of mine. I have listened to over 40 different courses and this is the one I liked the least.
Date published: 2009-03-19
Rated 1 out of 5 by from I would have to agree. I simply could not understand him well enough. I found myself constantly going back to try to understand a point he made. I ended up returning it after a few lectures.
Date published: 2009-03-09
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Just too hard to understand the accent I'm sorry, I'm sure it's good, but I got a headache from the accent. No offense!
Date published: 2009-03-08
Rated 3 out of 5 by from I'm a long-time Teaching Company user and really looked forward to this lecture. I found Professor Ruiz's access to be utterly distracting and hard to follow. It seemed like he'd spend a long time talking without saying anything. Things like "They thought the king was a felon. That is, that he committed a felony. It is a felony to do what he did." I never felt like we got to the meat of the subject matter. He also has a habit of stating "and I will talk about this in great detail later." When? I'm still not sure if he ever did get around to talking about all these important topics.
Date published: 2009-03-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from One of my favorites This is a course I listen to again and again, and I hear another facet each time. I can't help wishing that I'd had Dr. Ruiz's lectures available when I studied medieval and Renaissance lit. in college. He lifts the fog from a complex era in history.
Date published: 2009-02-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from All Ruiz Courses are Great We own many courses from the Teaching Company and T Ruiz courses are among our favorites. Great passion for the content and compelling lectures. Highest marks.
Date published: 2009-02-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Insightful Ruiz presents a nuanced discussion of the Middle Ages, using contemporary theory to comment on the times. He uses the themes of "crises" and "renewals" to understand social and political history of the day. His contrasts, such as rural/urban and high culture/popular culture provide a framework to help us think about medieval life (as well as topics such as love, sexuality and misogyny) Ruiz also has a charming way in his presentation, and enough of a Spanish "gentlemanly" accent to be even more convincing in his talk with us I have thoroughly enjoyed this, and all, of his courses.
Date published: 2009-02-03
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Not Up To Par In the decade I've been a customer, this was the first course I ever returned. I could have dealt with the instructor's accent although it was sometimes difficult to follow. However, it was his application of anachronistic Marxist terminology such as "bourgoise", "kulak" and "proletariat" to the Middle Ages that I found totally out of place. There are other courses on the subject that are much better than this one.
Date published: 2009-01-21
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Unbelievable course This is probably my favorite Teaching Company course to date, in terms of content, scope and subtlety. This is not 'medieval history 101' but trenchant, illuminating analysis of the period by a man who knows so much he seems to only have been transplanted to this era on a short visit! The drawback is in the DVD. It is an early TC course, and video presentation is not good. Not the good room, no maps.
Date published: 2008-12-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I found it not only interesting but thoughtful and well organized. he was able to provide a deep understanding of a very complex period.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Prof. Ruiz is very helpful, friendly & informative. Unfortunate, his accent & linguistic errors often detracted from the lectures
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I have now purchased five different courses, they've all been excellent. Professor Ruiz's encycopedic knowledge often held me spellbound.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Your courses are fascinating & enriching - first I took the courses in areas of interest, now I order courses reagrding topics I am unfamilar.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Incredible insight in to the mindset & personal lives of the people from this era. Well done Dr. Ruiz!
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Professor Ruiz's courses are smong any favorites from the Teaching Co. His thorough descriptions and attention to detail make the subject come alive in a very special way. The dignity of his manner and his sense of humor are truly engaging.
Date published: 2008-10-17
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Dr. Ruiz & Robinson are excellent teachers. I thoroughly enjoyed their presentations.
Date published: 2008-10-17
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