Myths, Lies, and Half-Truths of Language Usage

Course No. 2212
Professor John McWhorter, Ph.D.
Columbia University
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Course No. 2212
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Course Overview

Is English broken? Do bad grammar, slang, and illogical constructions signal a decline in standards of usage? Do e-mail and text messages corrupt the art of writing? In short, is our language going to the dogs?

It's easy to think so, just as it's easy to listen to people speaking a foreign language and think that they're doing something more complicated and interesting than we're doing in speaking English. But English is complicated and interesting too. Consider the real truth behind these widespread beliefs:

  • English is in crisis: False. English has been undergoing fundamental change for centuries. Novelty and caprice have created not just slang but the very foundations of what we think of as the best parts of English.
  • Latin is more perfect than modern languages: False. By historical accident, Latin became the standard for grammatical rigor. But countless languages, including English, are Latin's equal in precision and expressive power.
  • Grammar should be logical: False. A double negative is unacceptable in standard English because it implies a positive. But many languages use it without misunderstanding, along with other constructions that defy strict logic.
  • Texting degrades writing: False. Text messages and e-mail are not crowding out other forms of language. Instead, they fill an important niche—informal writing—that until now had no adequate outlet.

The modern attitude toward English is filled with such misconceptions that obscure the true picture of what a marvelous language it is. Far from being a language in decline, English is the product of surprisingly varied linguistic forces, some of which have only recently come to light. And these forces continue to push English in new directions—in defiance of those who long for an age of formal perfection that never existed.

Taught by acclaimed linguist, author, and Professor John McWhorter of Columbia University, Myths, Lies, and Half-Truths of Language Usage dispels the cloud of confusion that clings to English, giving you a crystal-clear view of why we use it the way we do and where it fits into the diverse languages of the world. After completing these 24 lectures, you will think about how you use English in a new way, listen to others with discernment and fascination, and take joy in speaking such a wonderfully idiosyncratic tongue.

Dig beneath the Surface of English

Like an archaeologist sifting through clues to a vanished civilization, Professor McWhorter highlights the many features of English that sound normal to a native speaker but that linguists find puzzling and also revealing:

  • Meaningless do: The only languages that use do in the way English does (as in "do not walk") are the Celtic languages such as Welsh, which were spoken by people who lived among the early English and influenced their language in many subtle ways.
  • Fossilized mistakes: The little green legume often eaten with carrots was formerly called pease in the singular. The word was gradually misinterpreted as plural because of the final s sound, and a new singular form was assumed to exist: pea.
  • "Heritage" Old English: One of the mysteries of Modern English is that it resembles a heritage version of Old English. A heritage language is one learned imperfectly at home, typically by immigrant children who acquire a different dominant language.

Hear English with New Ears

In the first part of the course, you address historical mysteries about English. Your investigation begins 2,500 years ago with Proto-Germanic, the language that gave birth to the Germanic languages. From there, you trace the shifting path that eventually led to English—a Germanic language like no other—which lacks grammatical gender and practically all case endings and conjugation markers. "Something happened to English," says Professor McWhorter, and by the end of Lecture 9 you will have pieced together evidence from many different languages that explain our tongue's unique evolution.

In the second part of Myths, Lies, and Half-Truths of Language Usage, you focus on modern controversies about how English is used, which take on new clarity in light of the historical background covered earlier in the course.

These lectures give you a fresh perspective on the language, allowing you to understand it more fully:

  • Pronoun problems: "Billy and me went to the store" is considered incorrect, because the subject form, I, should be used instead of me. But then why does "Me and Billy went to the store" sound so much more fluent than "I and Billy went to the store"?
  • Lie/lay confusion: Lie and lay exemplify an old pattern in English, in which the vowel is altered to make an intransitive verb transitive. But as with another such pair, drink and drench (where drench originally meant "to force to drink"), the traditional lie/lay distinction is irreversibly withering away.
  • Dangling participles: "Driving through town, the crowds looked ominous" is deemed ungrammatical, because it suggests the crowds were doing the driving. But what about "Judging from her appearance, she was quite tired," which has the same construction but is widely accepted?
  • Terminal prepositions: The rule against ending a sentence with a preposition is largely the work of 18th-century clergyman Robert Lowth, who had so internalized the rhythms of Latin that he wished to impose a similar structure on English, which has a much more flexible relationship with prepositions.

A History of Defying Rules

These examples and many more in the course represent a few of the flash points in English's long history of defying rules, a process that occurs in all languages. In a vivid analogy, Professor McWhorter says that the effort to keep English the way it used to be is like trying to dry off the beach with a towel. One of the jobs of linguists is to pull back the camera and take in the big picture to see how languages naturally evolve, and to predict where they're going next.

As you discover in Myths, Lies, and Half-Truths of Language Usage, the evidence is all around you: in the speech you hear in public places and on television, in the always-innovative slang of the young, on the printed page and Internet, and in your own mouth. "Part of being a healthy society is being proud of one's language," says Professor McWhorter. In this exciting course, he gives you every reason to be a proud, informed, and more self-aware speaker of English.

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24 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    Alarm over the Decay of English
    Is English going to the dogs? Embark on an exploration of myths and controversies about our native tongue—where it came from, where it’s going, and its unusual place among the world’s 6,000 languages. Begin your investigation by looking at the purported epidemic of English abuse. x
  • 2
    Surprises in the Ancestry of Old English
    Trace the evidence that English derives from a language that was incompletely learned by invaders of northern Europe more than 2,000 years ago. Where were these people from? An analysis of sound changes in their language, Proto-Germanic, leads to an intriguing hypothesis. x
  • 3
    Not Exactly Anglo-Saxon
    How did Old English develop from Proto-Germanic? And why did people in Britain end up speaking the language of the Germanic invaders? Discover that the traditional explanation that English was brought to England by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in the 5th century A.D. is vastly oversimplified. x
  • 4
    Don’t Forget the Celtic Connection
    English has a more interesting history after the Anglo-Saxon period than was previously thought. See how the evidence is in grammatical constructions you use every day. For example, the reason you say “I’m building a house” rather than “I build house” traces to Celtic influences. x
  • 5
    From Insider Language to Lingua Franca
    Explore the general properties of human language to learn the place of English in the broad spectrum of different tongues. In the process, discover how to distinguish a language spoken by a limited number of people from one used by hundreds of millions around the globe. x
  • 6
    English as Easy German
    Starting with a simple sentence in German, peel away layers of complexity that don’t exist in English. Then uncover more evidence that English is unusual in the simplicity of many of its grammatical features, showing that something happened to pare it down. x
  • 7
    The Viking Conquest of English
    Trace the events that explain why Old English lost much of its complexity in the transition to Middle English. The agents of change were not the Norman French, who arrived in 1066, but the already established Vikings, whose Old Norse fused with Old English to create an abbreviated new language. x
  • 8
    How the Words of Modern English Emerged
    Starting with Celtic contributions to English vocabulary, explore the borrowings from Old Norse, French, and Latin. These have enriched English with a wealth of synonyms, allowing speakers to choose between alternatives such as the Anglo-Saxon hide versus the Latinate conceal. x
  • 9
    Black English—The Streamlining Continues
    Having seen that Proto-Germanic was streamlined into Old English, which was streamlined into Modern English, discover that Black English takes this process a step further. What some regard as bad grammar is language evolution, analogous to the shift from biblical Hebrew to modern Hebrew. x
  • 10
    Honored Conceits of Blackboard Grammar
    Begin a new section of the course that focuses on your own relationship with language. In this lecture, trace the origin of “correct” usage to Robert Lowth, an 18th-century bishop who wrote an influential textbook on grammar that is the leading source of prescriptivist rules still promoted today. x
  • 11
    Pronoun Fashions Come and Go
    In a sentence such as “Tell each student to hand in their paper,” no ambiguity arises, but prescriptivists insist that the singular form of the pronoun be used: his, her, or his or her. Ponder that pronouns’ behavior is unpredictable and ever-changing in all languages. x
  • 12
    Wrong Then, Proper Now—and Vice Versa
    Turn back the clock to a time when proper forms of speech seem ungrammatical now, and what were considered blatant errors sound perfectly correct today. Among the authors you examine are the American colonial poet Anne Bradstreet and Charles Dickens. x
  • 13
    A Procession of Accidents and Fossils
    Roll up your sleeves for some language archaeology, tracing the origin of seemingly nonsensical features in English that once had a function. An example: the initial N in the nicknames Ned and Nan is the fossil of mine, the archaic form of my, as in “mine Ed.” x
  • 14
    The Pursuit of Logic in Language
    Consider the role of logic in language and why double negatives are the default in French, Russian, and many other languages, including every dialect of English except the standard form. Dangling participles pose a similar problem of seeming illogical while being rarely misunderstood. x
  • 15
    Clarity as the Logic of Language
    Investigate the illogicality of English by looking at everything from the use of the definite article, the, which is difficult to teach to nonnative speakers, to the blatantly ungrammatical “aren’t I,” which is the contraction for “are not I” and is preferred over the more logical “ain’t I.” x
  • 16
    20th-Century Fashions from Strunk & White
    Delve into two influential works that prescribe how English should be used: Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style and Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Both mix astute advice with overly fussy personal opinions. How do you decide which is which? x
  • 17
    The Kinds of Grammar You Don’t Hear About
    Explore features of the language that are off the beaten track of conventional grammar. For example, handbooks often decry the use of the passive voice, but it can be a powerful tool—as in passive expressions using got, which acts as a marker of misfortune. x
  • 18
    Linguists Uncovering Grammar We All Use
    Focus on fascinating discoveries about grammar in The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, an authoritative guide to usage written by linguists. Learn that English doesn’t have a future tense, and analyze the peculiar function of up in such expressions as “clean up.” x
  • 19
    Speech versus Writing—Different Languages
    Many languages have a huge gap between the spoken, colloquial form and what’s considered appropriate for formal or written communication. Trace the evolution of that gap in English by comparing how people actually talked in the past with how they expressed themselves on the page. x
  • 20
    Speechmaking—From Oratory to Plain Speaking
    Public speaking in English is currently trending toward a more informal style. Contrast speeches given in the old oratorical style with the more colloquial approach that took hold in the 1960s. Paradoxically, this loss of rhetorical polish has not meant a loss of eloquence. x
  • 21
    The Old and New Styles of Writing
    See how writing styles have changed by comparing typical school reading assignments in the United States from the beginning and end of the 20th century. Then search out the reasons for this marked shift. One clue is that Americans in the past often spoke of a fine style as “good English.” x
  • 22
    Got Poetry? Language with Spice
    Until recently, poetry had a central role in American culture. Why has this distinctive form of elevated language declined, and how has poetry itself changed? Chart this transformation in poets from Longfellow and Edna St. Vincent Millay to Billy Collins and Kurt Cobain. x
  • 23
    Why Texting Is Misunderstood
    Do the shortcuts and informality of e-mail and text messages represent bad writing? Probe this controversy in light of the unique niche filled by these new forms of expression. Until the advent of e-mail and texting, there was no truly conversational form of writing analogous to conversational speech. x
  • 24
    The Living Past and Future of English
    Drawing on what you have learned about the history of English, look ahead to its possible future course. Some things will stay the same; others will change radically. Close by analyzing a famous 20th-century sentence to chart the curious pathways to our modern tongue. x

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Your professor

John McWhorter

About Your Professor

John McWhorter, Ph.D.
Columbia University
Dr. John McWhorter is Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University. He previously was Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. He earned his B.A. from Rutgers University, his M.A. from New York University, and his Ph.D. in Linguistics from Stanford University. Professor McWhorter specializes in language change and language contact. He is the author of...
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Myths, Lies, and Half-Truths of Language Usage is rated 4.4 out of 5 by 67.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from He wears his erudition lightly... How often do you come across a lecturer who laughs to himself during his lectures, not insanely, but in giggles at something he has just said or thought of? He pleads leniency in a field which often seems so stringent. Okay, granted. I've been a translator for well over 20 years now (how I wish I had come across these lectures earlier!), and none can succeed in translation without being a nit-picker, but now I can be a more correct nit-picker! Hurrah! To anyone with any interest in language(s), I recommend any and all of Mcwhorter's series. He's a gifted teacher, lecturer, and as mentioned above... he wears his not at all insignificant erudition, lightly.
Date published: 2019-06-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Atypical But Compelling Instruction Many thanks to Dr. John McWhorter for this Great Course! I learned much from it about linguistics generally, as well as about the identifiable roots and subsequent evolution of the English language. At one point, when the professor said, “English’s history is delightfully eccentric,” I couldn’t help but feel that the same could be said to describe his teaching style. So much erudition, insight, and lively wit were blended together in this course that I found myself unusually attentive as a student, not wanting to allow my mind to wander even briefly from what Dr. McWhorter had to say during each information-packed half-hour session. Nearly all of the Teaching Company’s presenters are impressively competent, but Dr. McWhorter stands out by being so especially engaging on a moment-by-moment basis that I could hardly turn my head to jot down notes. Course 2212 included these highlights: 1) There was a sense of reasonableness about the discussion of long-established understandings per scholarly consensus, as well as of Dr. McWhorter’s own speculations; in short, I considered him a convincing instructor. 2) Teaching by analogy was a strength frequently on display during the twenty-four lectures. 3) The professor presented unusual features from a great variety of languages, including some of which I had been completely unaware, quoting illustrative phrases exuberantly and even playfully. 4) Lecture 20 on “Speechmaking—From Oratory to Plain Speaking” was particularly helpful, with well-chosen historical texts and even audio “clips” put to good use. 5) The course stands as an excellent companion study for another of my favourites among the Great Courses, Dr. Anne Curzan’s “The Secret Life of Words.” 6) Though I suspect that Dr. McWhorter must occasionally have “touched base” with a teleprompter, his speech seemed largely extemporaneous, which I found refreshing. 7) The uncluttered studio set and the lecturer’s conservative attire never distracted from what was being said. 8) Catchy statements such as “Language morphs like a lava lamp,” while comical, were also so memorable that they encouraged me to recognize that language is a living process—that I do not need to feel dismayed every time I hear or read some variation from what I was taught decades ago in grammar school. Dr. McWhorter does not sound like a typical academic. His rapid, novel, digressive, and jocose manner of lecturing, which I have sincerely praised, might possibly seem off-putting to some other students or unsuited to some other topics. I feel obliged to include that “alert” in my review, even though I personally found his course to be an absolute joy. Perhaps when the teaching subject is word usage, a certain amount of “word play” is effective and not inappropriate. One quoted example should suffice to illustrate what I mean. When discussing special features of an extant language spoken only in a small area by very few in today’s world, the professor said, “The island of New Guinea is about the size of your living room . . . and there’s a different language every two feet.” I took that as light-heartedly humorous, though someone else might consider it derisive.
Date published: 2019-04-24
Rated 4 out of 5 by from An authoritative and instructive update I learned English grammar many years ago from a series of high school teachers, including one in particular who made a lifelong impression on me and imbued me with confidence that I understood the “right” way to speak and write our language. Like many of my generation, I have noted with dismay the “erosion” and “deterioration” of “correct” English since that time, particularly when it is spoken and with the advent of communication over the internet. This course provided what turned out to be a much needed corrective to my ingrained attitudes and supposed knowledge about the way English works. One of today’s leading authorities on the topic, Professor McWhorter summarizes in 24 concise and well conceived lectures how language works in general, how English has evolved, how its various applications and forms differ from each other, and how the latter represent not “better” and “worse” usages but different, equally valid, “correct” versions. I especially appreciated the lectures on time-honored sources like Stunk & White, on Black English, and on the status of texting and email with respect to appropriate English usage. A most instructive, well designed, and effectively presented course.
Date published: 2019-04-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fascinating! I understand that there are word nerds like me out there, and this is the course for us. I am of an age where my memory doesn’t work quite so well as it used to, so I’ll probably listen another time or two, and I look forward to it.
Date published: 2019-01-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Love it! This made me think about language in a whole new way. No hard and fast rules, but a constantly changing and developing process. I especially liked the lecture about texting. Very interesting and entertaining presentation. I bought two more courses by this professor.
Date published: 2019-01-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from As always, amusing, informative, and right! This is my third course by McWhorter and one of his better ones delving into the mystery that is our language. After watching the series of lectures, I invested in the Cambridge Dictionary of Grammar. Any course that can convince you to buy a $250 book as a follow-up has to be good.
Date published: 2019-01-07
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Houston --- we have several problems ! This is my 3rd McWhorter lecture series. As with the previous, the lectures are quite entertaining, loaded with information & tidbits presented in a casual style. Clearly, the professor has an XL size volume of knowledge to draw on in his little grey cells! Some of his personal reminiscences, anecdotes and jokes fall a tad flat, though. Perhaps he's trying too hard to amuse, to be a cool guy. I'd prefer it if he left out most of the little personal stories. Unhappily, Dr. McWhorter has the inordinately annoying habit of elongating vowels in certain words -- particularly irritating in his frequent, relentless use of "aaand" for "and" which he uses as a connective; also to a lesser extent "aare" and "iiis", even "aas". Further, I wish he would use "farther" for the comparative of "far", rather than "further". Yes, I know "further" is frequently heard in this context, used even by BBC weather announcers! Now -- just a small comment here, but the Welsh word "un" (one) is pronounced EEN, as in "been". Dr. McWhorter's attempt to imitate the Boston accent of President John F. Kennedy was lamentably lame, outrageously disrespectful, downright insulting. Regrettably, McWhorter's opinion of himself as a master of accents is WAY beyond fact. Lecture 6 on "English as Easy German" was rather trying; I felt the Professor dwelt far too long, for example, on his points about the German "Come here little kitty" (must be one of his personal favourites). Also in this lecture, he absolutely went overboard with the "aaand", to the point that I felt so exasperated and downright angryI had to switch him off, and cool down. I know he's his own No.1 fan, just loves to dwell on his real-life encounters, and, regrettably, his air of conceit is ever-present. I disagree strongly with our lecturer regarding "Black English", also known as "Ebonics". It is NOT a language! It is a style of speaking English, with a very strong, often slurred, accent, a few different grammar styles, and some invented words -- or words used with a different meaning. I appreciate that Dr. McWhorter may feel personal ethnic pride in "Black English", but it is NOT a language. If you're going to consider "Black English" a language on its own, then you'd have to add, for example, Cajun English and Cockney English. We move on... while I fully accept the difficulties with English because "you" can be singular or plural, I feel that introducing "you all" as the plural is NOT a happy idea. At times, of course, it can sound logical and not awkward; e.g. when addressing a crowd on a specific matter, and asking "Do you all agree?" Difficult subject and I certainly cannot supply the ideal solution, sorry ! Interesting to note that there are a few English regional dialects that even today use "thou" and "thee". In one of them, there's a little quip poking fun at such speakers: "Don't thou thee-thou me! Thou thee-thou thissen and see 'ow tha likes it." Dr. McWhorter is a proponent of accepting as good English the style "Billy and me went to the store" or "Me and Billy went to the store". No! No! No! NOT acceptable: harsh on the ears and a crude mis-use of our wonderful language. It is also still basically representative of lower socio-economic groups -- and I realise cries of "snob" or "pedant" may be levelled! We were all taught that objects of the verb "to be" take the nominative case (I, we, he, she, they) in English (UNlike French, e.g. C'est moi), but I believe the battle has been lost there, so that "It's me" and "It's him" etc now have to be accepted. Must admit I never say "It is I" or "It is they" ! It's significant to note that the reviewers giving only one, two, or three stars to this course have received, overwhelmingly, thumbs up from others, indicating that the several heavy criticisms were valid. One reviewer, who gave four stars, stated "I think he cut sloppy English a little too much slack", with which I fully concur. Of the 24 lectures, I felt the last 6 to be decidedly the weakest; I recommend this course, despite my many concerns ~ there's a lot to learn, and as a speaker of three languages, with a smattering of a few more, I feel that these lectures are "keepers": I'll be watching them again in a few years (while trying to ignore all those infuriating "aaands"). I'm sure there could be substantially more VISUAL content ~ graphics, photographs, video clips, in addition to the text displayed.
Date published: 2018-12-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from my favorite professor I have a love affair with Great Courses, purchased hundreds of lectures. Professor McWhorter is my favorite, one may even say I have a bit of crush on him, and yes, I am comfortable writing this while my husband is sitting behind me. It is an innocent crush; often I listen to Prof. McWhorter’s lectures while running in the forest and walking my dog. I would walk in the house and demand my husband to listen to a lecture, they are not just profoundly well researched, they are funny, riveting, entertaining, and somehow down to earth. Professor McWhorter’s knowledge is vast, and he is well read, in that old-fashioned meaning of the expression, well read not only in his field, but well-read across multiple subjects and cultures. He sees the world holistically without biases. What can I say, please Professor McWhorter run for presidency! We need amazing human beings like you penetrating the ears and souls of the nation. I have listened to these lectures over and over again; I will gift them to my friends, they are simply brilliant. BTW – yes I am using an acronym… : - ) oh and a happy face! (you will get it if you listen to the lectures) I am usually not this gushy about things, I am from Eastern Europe, my comfort zone is criticism. Professor McWhorter is that good, I cannot come up with criticism.
Date published: 2018-11-06
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