Philosophy and Religion in the West

Course No. 625
Professor Phillip Cary, Ph.D.
Eastern University
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Course No. 625
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Course Overview

Acclaimed humanities teacher Phillip Cary explores thousands of years of deep reflection and brilliant debate over the nature of God, the human self, and the world. It's a debate that serves as a vivid introduction to the rich and complex history shared by the West's central religious and philosophical traditions.

Whether you're a believer, a seeker, or both, you'll find much to spark your deepest ponderings in these talks on the long and rich interplay between faith and reason.

>Different Systems of Thought Joined in a Search for Answers

Philosophy and religion ask many of the same questions:

  • What is the ultimate reality?
  • What can we know about it—or what should we believe about it?
  • How do our questions and thoughts, our hopes and fears, relate us to it?
  • Is this ultimate reality a person whom we meet, or an object that we contemplate?

These are questions no thoughtful person can evade.

They are enduring and perennial. And they are possessed of a history whose twists and turns have left their mark on almost every person on Earth.

To learn how these crucial issues have been discussed over the past three millennia is to enter the core of our intellectual heritage—to find the origin of some of our deepest perplexities and most cherished aspirations.

3,000 Years of Faith and Reason

A theologian who earned his doctorate in philosophy and religious studies at Yale, Professor Cary is now head of the philosophy program at Eastern University in St. David's, Pennsylvania.

He is the author of Augustine's Invention of the Inner Self, published by Oxford University Press, and the teacher of The Teaching Company's course Augustine: Philosopher and Saint.

Originally trained in both philosophy and English literature, he is the ideal companion on this journey to the heart of the spiritual adventure of the West.

It is a comprehensive journey—intellectually, philosophically, and spiritually—but one which requires no special background.

All you need to bring is your own curiosity as Professor Cary weaves any background concepts you need into the fabric of his 32 lectures.

By the end of this course, those insights will belong to you—and you gain a new or sharpened fluency in issues that include:

  • The historical interaction between philosophical traditions (such as Platonism) and religious traditions (such as Judaism and Christianity)
  • The philosophical origin of certain key religious concepts, such as the immortality of the soul, the Fall, and "going to heaven"
  • The attractiveness of ancient philosophy for Judaism and Christianity
  • The synthesis of philosophy and religion that characterized the "classical theism" of the medieval period
  • The significance of modernity for the history of Western religion
  • The most prominent philosophical criticisms of religion
  • The classic proofs that have been attempted of the existence of God
  • The reasons why many religious thinkers of the 20th century are suspicious of the alliances between philosophy and religion
  • The relationship of critical rationality and religious belief.
Witness the Origins of a Debate Still Underway

Under Professor Cary's guidance, you'll cover thousands of years of profound reflection and debate concerning the nature of God, the human self, and the world.

You begin your journey by exploring the roots of the philosophical tradition in ancient Greece, examining how Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and the Neo-Platonist philosopher Plotinus dealt with issues concerning God, the soul, and the nature of the cosmos.

You continue along the path with the two great Western religious traditions, Judaism and Christianity, and follow its turnings to philosophers and theologians who are alive and writing today.

In keeping with his commitment to "critical objectivity," Professor Cary urges students not to take his word as final on a topic, but to think it through independently.

Learn to Trace Common Themes and Complex Influences

In this questing spirit, you'll probe the ideas of dozens of towering and diverse thinkers, tracing unifying themes throughout the works of writers who so often are thought to have little save brilliance in common.

These include not only Socrates and the prophets but also Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Origen, Augustine, Aquinas, Maimonides, Luther, Calvin, Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Hume, Schleiermacher, Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Marx, Freud, Martin Buber, Karl Barth, and others.

And as Professor Cary takes you through their agreements and differences, you gain a precise and detailed grasp of how philosophy and religion—especially Judaism and Christianity, the leading spiritual traditions of the West—have long been intensely concerned with many of the same questions.

Surprising Interactions of Great Thinkers

This, as Professor Cary explains, has led them to interact in intricate and sometimes surprising ways:

  • You wonder along with him when he asks why the Platonic idea of the immortality of the soul has come so largely to displace the scriptural doctrine of bodily resurrection in Christian belief.
  • You ponder the remarkable but little-noted influence of Thomas Aquinas, the greatest of the medieval Catholic thinkers, on Martin Luther, the founder of Protestantism.
  • You probe the links between Kierkegaard's call for a Christian "leap of faith" in the 19th century and the secular Existentialism of Martin Heidegger in the 20th.
  • You consider whether Jacques Derrida's much-discussed Postmodernism has roots in the concept of the "Other" framed by the Jewish thinker Emmanuel Levinas.

Again and again, as you explore the answers offered over so many centuries, you find yourself aided and encouraged to form your own conclusions about the great unfinished story of faith and reason.

And you see that it is a story that has always been close to the heart of our civilization, whether seen in its moments of glory or its times of anguish.

No matter which of the aforementioned categories you put yourself in—believer, seeker, or some combination of the two (if Professor Cary is right, they go together quite well)—this course is sure to enrich and inform your thinking to an unexpected degree.

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32 lectures
 |  Average 31 minutes each
  • 1
    Introduction—Philosophy and Religion as Traditions
    Thinking about philosophy and religion under the common rubric of "tradition" can be highly illuminating. Here's why. x
  • 2
    Plato's Inquiries—The Gods and the Good
    In Plato's early dialogue Euthyphro, Socrates tries to get the title character to think critically about the question "What is piety?" In later dialogues, Plato suggests what kind of things might supply an answer. His thinking will play an enormous role in Western religion. x
  • 3
    Plato's Spirituality—The Immortal Soul and the Other World
    Plato's philosophy is inherently religious and has had a deep influence on Western spirituality. x
  • 4
    Aristotle and Plato—Cosmos, Contemplation, and Happiness
    Plato and Aristotle attempted to trace the movement of the heavens back to a divine starting point or first principle. Aristotle conceived of God as Prime Mover and also as Divine Mind in which our minds participate. The world is thus inherently purposeful, naturally ordered toward the good and ultimately toward God. x
  • 5
    Plotinus—Neoplatonism and the Ultimate Unity of All
    Plotinus saw four levels of being, the lowest of which is the visible, material world of change, division, and death. Plotinus's spirituality is based on the desire for ultimate unity. x
  • 6
    The Jewish Scriptures—Life With the God of Israel
    In the religion of Israel, God is not a principle or concept, but a person. The ancient Israelites identified specific places where their God could be met and told stories about how he was met. The foundational story is told in the book of Exodus. x
  • 7
    Platonist Philosophy and Scriptural Religion
    Referring to the three levels of Plotinus's view of the divine, this lecture compares Platonist spirituality with biblical portraits of God and his people, and begins examining how these two traditions came to be combined in Western thought. Whether it is wise to combine them is a central and recurrent question for Jewish and Christian theology. x
  • 8
    The New Testament—Life in Christ
    In contrast to the Platonist view of the immortality of the soul, the New Testament speaks of the bodily resurrection of the dead, beginning with Jesus Christ. Hence for Christians, Jesus' body is the holy place where God is to be met: this is the root of the Christian teaching that Christ is God incarnate. x
  • 9
    Rabbinic Judaism—Israel and the Torah
    The religion we now know as Judaism arose after the Romans destroyed the temple in Jerusalem in 70 C.E. The resulting tradition focuses on the importance of Torah study as the "place" of God's gracious presence in Israel. x
  • 10
    Church Fathers—The Logos Made Flesh
    While the rabbis were forming orthodox Judaism, the Church fathers were forming the central doctrines of orthodox Christianity. x
  • 11
    The Development of Christian Platonism
    The early, more radical Christian Platonists focused on souls escaping bodies (Gnosticism) or falling into bodies (Origen). In orthodox Christian Platonism, however, souls remain embodied, receiving divine light from above or within. x
  • 12
    Jewish Rationalism and Mysticism—Maimonides and Kabbalah
    Jewish thought in the Middle Ages moved in two directions. Rationalists like Maimonides interpreted the Scriptures as a figurative expression (suitable for the many) of Aristotelian metaphysics. The mystical direction was represented by the texts of Kabbalah. x
  • 13
    Classical Theism—Proofs and Attributes of God
    The view of God that was worked out by medieval theologians and philosophers has come to be called "classical theism." x
  • 14
    Medieval Christian Theology—Nature and Grace
    The universe of classical theism is inherently good—not perfect like God, but oriented toward God. However, in the Christian version of that universe, human nature, which God created good, has been corrupted by the Fall and needs to be restored by grace. x
  • 15
    Late-Medieval Nominalism and Christian Mysticism
    What spelled the beginning of the end for medieval thought? x
  • 16
    Protestantism—Problems of Grace
    Protestantism inherits the Augustinian conception of grace and wrestles with two problems that result from it. x
  • 17
    Descartes, Locke, and the Crisis of Modernity
    Modern philosophy is born amid a crisis of authority, especially religious authority. The moderns "turn to the subject," seeking the sources of belief and certainty in the self. x
  • 18
    Leibniz and Theodicy
    In Leibniz's panpsychism, every atom (or monad) of the physical world has a kind of "inner self" that is alive. Using his theory of monads, in combination with his logic of possible worlds, Leibniz constructs a theodicy (an attempt to answer "the problem of evil"). x
  • 19
    Hume's Critique of Religion
    David Hume was perhaps the most astute critic of religion in the highly critical period of Western history known as the Enlightenment. x
  • 20
    Kant—Reason Limited to Experience
    With the thought of Kant, the modern "turn to the subject" attains a new depth and fullness. He argues that the very possibility of experience (and, hence, of empirical knowledge and the natural sciences) presupposes certain subjective conditions. x
  • 21
    Kant—Morality as the Basis of Religion
    Kant set limits to theoretical reason in order to make room for practical reason. He argues that popular notions such as "duty" point toward a purely rational (a priori) foundation for morality, grounded in a principle of conduct that all rational beings recognize they should follow, regardless of inclination. x
  • 22
    Schleiermacher—Feeling as the Basis of Religion
    Religious thinkers after Kant wanted to find an approach to God based neither on theoretical reason nor on pure morality. What they found was feeling. This finding lies at the root of Romanticism and liberal theology. x
  • 23
    Hegel—A Philosophical History of Religion
    Hegel held that history unfolds dialectically, according to a divine and necessary logic. For Hegel, Christianity provides a powerful but mythical image of this process. x
  • 24
    Marx and the Hermeneutics of Suspicion
    Marx interprets cultural phenomena (including religion) in terms of the hidden interests they serve. Freud offers a psychological version of this. x
  • 25
    Kierkegaard—Existentialism and the Leap of Faith
    Søren Kierkegaard, the 19th-century Danish Christian famous for his notion of the "leap of faith," is also widely regarded as the first existentialist. His aim was to nourish authentic individual faith in the paradox of Christ. x
  • 26
    Nietzsche—Critic of Christian Morality
    Nietzsche is one of the few critics of Christianity bold enough to criticize its morality and propose his own substitute. x
  • 27
    Neo-orthodoxy—The Subject and Object of Faith
    Neo-orthodoxy reacted against the liberal Protestant attempt to base theology on religious experience and then branched off in two very different directions. x
  • 28
    Encountering the Biblical Other—Buber and Levinas
    The 20th-century Jewish thinkers Martin Buber and Emanuel Levinas draw upon concepts implicit in the Hebrew Bible to conceive of human relationships in ways that elude the Greek and German philosophical traditions. x
  • 29
    Process Philosophy—God in Time
    Process philosophy expresses the pervasive 20th-century dissatisfaction with the metaphysics of an unchanging God. As initially formulated by A. N. Whitehead, it was based on an ontology of events (where "what happens" is more basic to reality than "what is"). x
  • 30
    Logical Empiricism and the Meaning of Religion
    The modern "turn to the subject" reached a point of special intensity in the early 20th century. Yet logical empiricism in the English-speaking countries and phenomenology on the continent unraveled into various forms of "postmodernism." x
  • 31
    Reformed Epistemology and the Rationality of Belief
    "Reformed" epistemology is a recent philosophical movement that defends the rationality of religious beliefs. Here you'll learn about three of its leaders: Nicholas Wolterstorff, Alvin Plantinga, and William Alston. x
  • 32
    Conclusion—Philosophy and Religion Today
    Philosophy has often criticized religion, but also has often supported it. Here we ask why religion should be grateful to philosophy, and what religion offers that philosophy does not. x

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Your professor

Phillip Cary

About Your Professor

Phillip Cary, Ph.D.
Eastern University
Dr. Phillip Cary is Professor of Philosophy at Eastern University in St. Davids, Pennsylvania, where he is also Scholar-in-Residence at the Templeton Honors College. After receiving his B.A. in English Literature and Philosophy from Washington University in St. Louis, Professor Cary earned his M.A. in Philosophy and Ph.D. in Philosophy and Religious Studies from Yale University. Professor Cary is a recent winner of the...
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Reviews

Philosophy and Religion in the West is rated 4.5 out of 5 by 48.
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Broad scope with complex content The scope of this course is extremely broad, covering western philosophy, Judaism, and Christianity from their beginnings to the present century – and all of this in only 16 hours of lecture! Suffice to say that the content is extensive. Prof Cary does a good job presenting in relatively few words vast concepts and ideas; individual sentences in his lectures can require hours of analysis and evaluation in order to begin to really appreciate and understand their content, like adding water to a compressed, dry sponge. The material is presented mostly in chronological order. Since it’s helpful to know the context within which ideas have been generated to fully understand the ideas themselves, this approach is helpful. Prof Cary then relates ideas in one lecture to ideas in other lectures, which was helpful. However, I would have preferred if the content had been organized by topic instead of chronologically. For example, one topic might be the problem of evil (which is the topic for another course I plan to take). This approach might have been more challenging to prepare, but could have provided more value for me. My purpose for taking this course was to better understand philosophy of religion, in order to help me arrive at my own perspective. The broad diversity of ideas presented in the course each try to describe reality from a different perspective, sometimes contradictory with another perspective and sometimes not. Ironically, upon completion of the course, I was most struck by the detailed and complex “castles in the air” constructed by individuals in their efforts to understand and explain metaphysics, religion, ontology, etc. I was impressed by, but not convinced by, the highly imaginative ideas they presented to rationally explain or justify what they already believed. While each perspective was grounded and “rational” in some respect, ultimate acceptance of a position seems to be primarily a matter of gut feel and emotions rather than reason.
Date published: 2018-06-01
Rated 4 out of 5 by from phliosophy and religion An interesting blend of 2000 years of religion and philosophy.
Date published: 2018-04-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Course for Thinkers This course, "Philosophy and Religion in the West," offers the viewer an opportunity to examine various philosophies regarding metaphysics (study of reality such as the nature of God, nature of ourselves, and nature of our world etc.) and epistemology (study of how do we know something) and the interactions of philosophical thought with Christianity and Judaism. Professor Phillip Cary concludes, at times philosophy has supported Christianity and at other times it has challenged Christianity. In examining philosophies, the listener/reader becomes aware of what the different philosophical traditions hold and the pros and/or cons of these traditions in contributing to our understanding of spiritual realities. Professor Cary's presentational style summarizes various philosophical traditions and Christianity and Judaism in an insightful and clear manner. Even though Professor Cary openly admits he is a Christian, he also said at the beginning of this course that he would remain objective in presenting the subject matter in a balanced manner. After completing this course, I conclude Professor Cary made good on this commitment. Furthermore, the course guidebook is easily readable for a course that has breadth and depth and reinforces the lectures so as to help the reader gain more clarity on a subject that deserves further review. Similarly, the glossary in the back of the course guidebook offers easy access to terms used in the course and assists in more readily understanding the course content. For these reasons, I strongly recommend reading the guidebook after listening to the lectures. Who can benefit from this course? 1. Those who seek truth on matters of ultimate reality. 2. Believers who seek a better understanding of the interactions between philosophy and Christianity. 3. Those who want to know whether Christianity is a reasonable faith. Is there a rational basis for believing Christianity?
Date published: 2017-11-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Refreshingly informative and substantial content We love the content and the presenter's style. Have watched thew videos mutliple times.
Date published: 2017-03-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The Title of This Course is Accurate This is a course about Philosophy and Religion in the West. Professor Cary sticks to this topic and doesn't start talking about astronomy or about the east or about what he had for breakfast. I wondered why this course wasn't titled Religion and Philosophy in the West, but then I stopped wondering about that and started thinking about something else. Now that I have the finished my short preface, I can get on with my review. This was a good course, wide in scope but informed and detailed. I recommend listening or watching this course with Hall's Philosophy of Religion -- the two make a good pair. I would say that Cary is strongest on Plato and early Christianity. He is weakest on Nietzsche, mostly because he seeks to explain Nietzsche by looking at his childhood and upbringing. The idea is that Nietzsche was raised by a bunch of pious women and that his entire philosophical enterprise was merely a belated rebellion against them. This strikes me as dubious, but I could be wrong. I'd never even heard of any of the figures mentioned in this course before listening to it, so that shows you where I'm coming from. Cary is strong on Kant, although I noticed that he did not explain Kant's metaphysics, which allowed Mr. Kant to retain his theism, as simply Kant's attempt to be a philosopher and a good boy without alienating his religious parents. Maybe I'm just skeptical about biographical criticism...probably because I don't have a biography myself. I used to have one, but I lost it. I think it's somewhere in Sweden. I listened to the audio, specifically the audio download, and I found it sufficient. That's because I close my eyes I paint an imaginary classroom on the inside of my eyelids. Early on Professor Cary says that he is a Christian. I seem to remember him saying that he came from a fairly conservative tradition. As I listened to this course, I didn't get the feeling that he was putting a slant on it with the possible exception of Nietzsche (see above), but then he was excellent on Hume. And unlike another reviewer, I liked his final lecture, which I found tolerant and espousing an idea that people who disagree can still talk with another.
Date published: 2016-12-29
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Premise flawed This course is akin to listening to a review of a review of a review of its subject matter. One needs to have first read the source material (Plato, etc.) to gain even an appreciation of the lectures and this should have been stated as required reading up front. Otherwise, for all practical purposes, the lectures are just hearsay and one is just drinking the professor's Kool-Ade, since one is not making an informed consumption of the ideas presented.
Date published: 2016-07-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Faith Seeking Understanding: A Well-Done Overview This course provides an excellent, broad, nuanced, and balanced overview of the development of Jewish and Christian (primarily Christian) theology over the last few thousand years. The course is indeed primarily theology - that is, a study of belief systems from within a religious context - rather than philosophy of religion - that is, an examination of belief systems from an external perspective, one which attempts to be academically objective and which assumes no commitment to any religious belief. At the same time, it does a fine job of presenting and integrating those non-religious philosophical perspectives (especially Plato's, but many others' as well) from which Judaism and Christianity (primarily Christianity) drew throughout the evolution of their ideas and beliefs. And the course makes clear that this is a process of evolution - the religious beliefs which so many accept unquestioningly did not spring full-grown from the head of Zeus or any other god. They changed quite significantly over past centuries, and presumably will continue to do so over the centuries to come. A remarkable amount of material is covered, as a reading of the course description will make clear. Keep in mind, however, that as adroitly presented as this course is, no lecture series can do justice in 16 hours to millenia of complex, deep, and impassioned thought. This is an overview, an introduction, not an analysis in depth. Professor Cary is excellent - clear, organized, knowledgeable, and passionate about his subject. While he is forthright about his own religious orientation - he is a "conservative" Protestant, a Lutheran - he encourages his students to think for ourselves about the material, rather than accepting anything "on faith," and I found his presentation to be fairly balanced between competing points of view. It is only in the final lecture that he lays out some of his own core beliefs. Obviously, I recommend this course highly. But having said all that, I do have some serious concerns. I wish there had been more direct critique of the positions discussed, more analysis of reasons for and against accepting the arguments and beliefs. Some was provided, but more often a narrative was given of a view's development and history, and an explanation given of its meaning, without substantial consideration of opposing views. In particular, almost no consideration was given to the question of how one could determine if any given belief is true, of what actual connection it has with reality. Views were generally well explicated with regard to their meaning and internal consistency, but rarely with regard to why one should believe them, rather than take them simply as metaphors or made-up stories. A few examples among many are the concepts of Plato's forms, and of Plotinus' soul, divine mind, and the One. Yes, I realize religion is largely considered a matter of faith; this still leaves the question of why have faith in any given belief. And as in many other explications of Christianity which I have heard, I was struck by the remarkable lack of attention to Jesus's teaching, in favor of an almost exclusive focus on the need to believe that he died for our sins and was bodily resurrected. Finally, a particular concern of mine: Professor Cary starts his lecture on Nietzsche on the right foot by noting in no uncertain terms that, despite later intentional misinterpretations, Nietzsche hated anti-Semites and would have hated the Nazis. However, he then presents the standard, tendentious, and entirely mistaken view that "For Nietzsche the basic element of all life, even of all reality, is 'Will to Power.'" This is just wrong. Obviously I can't argue my point here, but if you have any serious interest in philosophy I urge you to read Nietzsche for yourself. He has great faults (he was horribly misogynistic), but his stress on humankind's responsibility for our own flourishing is wonderful, and his analyses of our lives, motivations, and beliefs are deeply insightful and often brilliant. So - a well-done overview of an important and fascinating subject, despite several serious deficiencies. I recommend it highly for any with an interest in religion, theology, or the philosophy which contributes to them.
Date published: 2016-05-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Not for the faint of heart Audio CD review. First off, this is not the course for you if you are looking for “light” entertainment -- you are going to be challenged to take it all in. Dr. Cary warns you of that upfront, and he is correct. However, this is the course for you if you are looking to understand the abiding philosophical and religious leitmotifs that that run the course of the western intellectual tradition. This course is so rich in factual and conceptual content that just writing a review of it is a challenge. Please be aware that everything I have stated so far is meant as the highest of compliments. That Dr. Cary can speak so eloquently, so fluidly, and so vividly about so much is a marvel. Dr. Cary has an almost unique ability to paint a word picture. I had fancied myself to be fairly well versed in many of the topics covered in the course, but Dr. Cary helped me to better see these topics in my mind’s eye. Every single lecture imparted a historical or meta-physical understanding I had not had before. Again be warned: while Professor Cary is an outstanding lecturer, these classes are “dense”. You really need to commit to these lectures so you can devote your full attention to them. This is probably not a class you want to listen to while driving.
Date published: 2015-12-11
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