Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe

Course No. 1878
Professor Felix J. Lockman, Ph.D.
Principal Scientist at the Green Bank Observatory
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Course No. 1878
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What Will You Learn?

  • how understanding the hydrogen atom led to the discovery of dark matter.
  • that interstellar space is peppered with organic molecules.
  • how radio astronomy contributes to our lives on Earth.

Course Overview

It’s easy to imagine the first modern humans staring up at the heavens in wonder, their eyes and minds dazzled by a beautiful band of light splashed across the night sky, the ever-changing moon so large and bright, and pinpoints of light in every direction. For a few hundred thousand years, our eyes were our primary astronomical tool, and we used them well. We catalogued and analyzed what we saw, filled in the gaps with powerful stories, applied what we knew of mathematics, and then invented complex tools of stone, metal, and glass to expand our knowledge. Everything we knew about the universe was based on light, that small part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by human eyes.

Then one day in the 1930s, a young engineer named Karl Jansky was assigned a task at Bell Labs: What were the sources of radio static that could interrupt transatlantic radio communications? After several years of work, he identified one source as radio waves coming from thunderstorms near and far… and another, from something at the center of the Milky Way. For the very first time, we had detected radiation below the visible part of the spectrum emanating from an astronomical object. For years, astronomers had been frustrated by interstellar dust that blocked their view and limited their

Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe takes you on a thrilling journey through the universe with stunning visuals and animations to explain the science of radio astronomy and its astounding discoveries. Your guide is Felix J. Lockman, Ph.D., of the Green Bank Observatory, an active radio astronomer whose great passion for his work is absolutely contagious. As Dr. Lockman explains, radio astronomy is not simply a conglomeration of theories with no practical application to our lives today. While radio astronomy has the potential to one day answer the question of extraterrestrial intelligence, it also allows us to more accurately tell time right here on Earth, study terrestrial plate tectonics, and even get smartphone directions to that great new restaurant.

All about That Hydrogen

Some of radio astronomy’s myriad discoveries can be traced to the structure of the hydrogen atom. In hydrogen, one electron is essentially in orbit around one proton and both have a property called “spin,” either up or down. The parallel spin “wants” to decay into antiparallel spin—much like two magnets “wanting” to be aligned north to south, or antiparallel. In jumping position from parallel to antiparallel, a photon of radiation is emitted.

This process is certainly not unique to hydrogen. What is unique is that at the dawn of radio astronomy, a scientist predicted hydrogen would emit this radiation at detectable radio wavelengths, and this prediction offered astronomers a new tool for studying the universe. Three teams of scientists from around the world worked to discover the signal, and there it was, exactly as predicted: with a frequency of 1420 MHz, a wavelength of 21 cm.

For more than a decade, hydrogen at 21 cm wavelength remained the only spectral line which radio astronomers could use for their research. Later, signals from other elements and even molecules were identified. Over time, as both theory and technology improved, radio astronomers made discoveries that completely changed our understanding of the universe. Just a very few of these discoveries include:

  • Jupiter’s radiation belts;
  • Galactic non-thermal radiation, now called synchrotron emission;
  • The birth rate of stars in the Milky Way and the galaxy’s rotational speed;
  • Sagittarius A, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way;
  • Dark matter;
  • Neutron stars, pulsars, and binary pulsar systems;
  • Gravitational radiation, as predicted by Einstein;
  • Cosmic background radiation, confirming the big bang theory;
  • Radio galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei;
  • Giant molecular clouds, the birthplaces of stars and planets; and
  • Complex organic molecules in interstellar space.

Radio Telescopes, “Seeing” the Invisible

While you might have an optical telescope in your backyard, you will likely never have a radio telescope. Radio telescopes are large—over 100 meters in diameter and beyond—because radio waves contain such a small amount of energy. For example, the signal from your cell phone measured one kilometer away is five million billion times stronger than the radio signals received from a bright quasar! Although each radio telescope is designed for a specific use and often looks very different from others, they are all based on the same physical principles. Each collects, focuses, amplifies, and analyzes radio waves. In Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe, Dr. Lockman takes you on an exciting virtual tour of radio telescopes. From the first handmade telescope built by radio astronomy pioneer Grote Reber to those on the drawing board for tomorrow, you’re right there with the scientists:

  • The Green Bank Telescope, West Virginia, where Dr. Lockman does his research. At 17 million pounds and with more than 2,000 surface panels that can be repositioned in real time, this telescope is one of the largest moveable, land-based objects ever built.
  • The Very Large Array (VLA), New Mexico. With its 27 radio antennas in a Y-shaped configuration, the data can be multiplied to form interference patterns, giving scientists a deeper and clearer look at galaxies than ever before.
  • The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), Chile. With an array of 66 radio antennas located high above much of the earth’s atmosphere, ALMA has revealed new stars and planetary systems in the making.
  • The Very-Long-Baseline Array (VLBA), with multiple locations. The VLBA includes telescopes located thousands of miles apart, all functioning together as one single radio telescope the size of the Earth, allowing scientists to peer deep into the centers of galaxies.

The Biggest Questions

Perhaps the most astounding of all radio astronomy discoveries is this: The dominant molecular structures in interstellar space are based on carbon. That is not what scientists had expected.

We have always labeled these molecules “organic” because life on Earth is carbon based. Now we know that the chemistry of the entire Milky Way is organic, not just our home planet, and it is likely that any extraterrestrial galactic life would be related to us, at least on the molecular level. Will we find other organic lifeforms out there? Radio astronomers don’t know. But they’re working on it, along with the study of many other objects and processes not yet understood. Dr. Lockman’s current research addresses hydrogen clouds in the Andromeda galaxy, the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way. Other radio astronomers are working to answer myriad questions about dark matter, fast radio bursts, and much more.

If the history of radio astronomy is any predictor, discoveries in these new research areas will lead to new questions, new technologies, more discoveries, and more questions. As Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe shows, the field is on the cutting edge of knowledge itself. “Astronomy, by looking outward, leads us to questions that reflect upon ourselves in very deep ways,” Dr. Lockman says. “Astronomical discoveries have changed the way we think.”

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24 lectures
 |  Average 31 minutes each
  • 1
    Radio Astronomy and the Invisible Universe
    Even on the clearest, darkest night you cannot see more than five percent of the light from our home galaxy, the Milky Way, because of the blockage of light by dust. Fortunately, the 20th century brought us radio astronomy, the study of radio waves that travel through the dust, opening our eyes" to a universe we had never imagined." x
  • 2
    Thermal Radio Emission: The Planets
    Take a tour of our neighboring planets via their radio emissions and learn how scientists infer their temperatures and energy sources. You'll be shocked by the difference between their images in reflected sunlight-the images we're familiar with-and their appearance when we "see" the radio energy they emit on their own. x
  • 3
    The Birth of Radio Astronomy
    When young engineer Karl Jansky was tasked to find natural radio sources that could interfere with commercial transatlantic radio communications, radio astronomy was born. His work, and that of backyard astronomer Grote Reber, led to the discovery of synchrotron radiation. But it would be decades before scientists understood what these earliest radio astronomers had detected-cosmic rays and magnetic fields. x
  • 4
    The Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen
    Not long after the birth of radio astronomy, a Dutch student used what was then known about the physics of atoms to determine that if hydrogen existed in interstellar space, it would produce a specific spectral line at radio wavelengths. In 1951, the line was detected at 21 cm, exactly as predicted. At that moment, our understanding of the universe forever changed. x
  • 5
    Radio Telescopes and How They Work
    Radio telescopes are so large because radio waves contain such a small amount of energy. For example, the signal from a standard cell phone measured one kilometer away is five million billion times stronger than the radio signals received from a bright quasar. Learn how each of these fascinating instruments is designed to meet a specific scientific goal-accounting for their wide variation in form and size. x
  • 6
    Mapping the Hydrogen Sky
    Before there were stars and planets, before there were galaxies, there was hydrogen-and we still have more hydrogen today than any other element. Understanding the quantum physics of this simplest atomic structure, and using the Doppler shift and models of differential rotation in the Milky Way, astronomers have made myriad astounding discoveries about the universe. It all starts with hydrogen. x
  • 7
    Tour of the Green Bank Observatory
    The Green Bank Observatory is located within the 13,000-acre National Radio Quiet Zone straddling the border of Virginia and West Virginia. Come tour this fascinating facility where astronomers discovered radiation belts around Jupiter, the black hole at the center of our galaxy, and the first known interstellar organic molecule, and began the search for extra-terrestrial life. x
  • 8
    Tour of the Green Bank Telescope
    At 17 million pounds, and with more than 2,000 surface panels that can be repositioned in real time, this telescope is one of the largest moveable, land-based objects ever built. The dish could contain two side-by-side football fields, but when its panels are brought into focus, the surface has errors no larger than the thickness of a business card. Welcome to this rare insider's view. x
  • 9
    Hydrogen and the Structure of Galaxies
    Using the laws of physics and electromagnetic radiation, astronomers can weigh" a galaxy by studying the distribution of its rotating hydrogen. But when they do this, it soon becomes clear something is very wrong: A huge proportion of the galaxy's mass has simply gone missing. Welcome to the topsy-turvy world of dark matter-which we now believe accounts for a whopping 90 percent of our own Milky Way." x
  • 10
    Pulsars: Clocks in Space
    In the mid-1960s, astronomers discovered signals with predictable periodicity but no known source. In case these signals indicated extraterrestrial life, they were initially labeled LGM, Little Green Men. But research revealed the source of the pulsing radiation to be neutron stars. Learn how a star with a diameter of only a few kilometers and a mass similar to that of our Sun can spin around hundreds of times per second. x
  • 11
    Pulsars and Gravity
    A pulsar's spin begins with its birth in a supernova and can be altered by transfer of mass from a companion star. Learn how pulsars, these precise interstellar clocks, are used to confirm Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves by observations of a double-neutron-star system, and how we pull the pulsar signal out of the noise. x
  • 12
    Pulsars and the 300-Foot Telescope
    Humans constantly use radio transmission these days, for everything from military communications to garage-door openers. How can scientists determine which signals come from Earth and which come from space? Learn how the 300-foot telescope, located in two radio quiet zones, was built quickly and cheaply. It ended up studying pulsars and hydrogen in distant galaxies, and made the case for dark matter. x
  • 13
    The Big Bang: The Oldest Radio Waves
    Learn about techniques to separate signals originating in receivers from signals originating from outer space. Using a unique antenna located in New Jersey, we'll see how two radio astronomers with curiosity, persistence, and some manual labor, detected the faint radio signals from the big bang, the oldest electromagnetic radiation that can be detected. It tells us of conditions when the universe was young. x
  • 14
    H II Regions and the Birth of Stars
    Have you ever looked up to Orion on a dark winter's night and noticed a fuzzy patch near the center of the constellation? You're looking at the Orion nebula, a nursery" where stars are born every year. Learn why ionization occurs in these H II regions and how this hot plasma produces some of the most beautiful objects in the sky." x
  • 15
    Supernovas and the Death of Stars
    Chances are you would agree with astronomers that gravity is the single most important force or event shaping the world as you know it. But the second most important? That would be supernovas, and nothing you know would be here without them. Learn how super-massive stars can explode at the end of their lives, releasing energy that outshines 10 billion Suns. x
  • 16
    Radio Stars and Early Interferometers
    When radio astronomers discovered a sky full of small radio sources of unknown origin, they built telescopes using multiple antennas to try to understand them. Learn how and why interferometers were developed and how they have helped astronomers study quasars-those massively bright, star-like objects that scientists now know only occur in galaxies whose gas is falling into a supermassive black hole. x
  • 17
    Radio Source Counts
    Radio source counts have led to great discoveries about the universe, even though each individual radio source isn't fully understood. Between massive black holes and starbursts, scientists relying in part on astronomical surveys now believe galaxies can have different evolutionary tracks and histories. And the universe itself? It seems to be not only evolving, but evolving through stages. x
  • 18
    Active Galactic Nuclei and the VLA
    The need for a new generation of radio interferometers to untangle extragalactic radio sources led to the development of the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico. With its twenty-seven radio antennas in a Y-shaped configuration, it gives both high sensitivity and high angular resolution. The VLA provided a deeper and clearer look at galaxies than ever before, and the results were astonishing. x
  • 19
    A Telescope as Big as the Earth
    Learn how astronomers use very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) with telescopes thousands of miles apart to essentially create a radio telescope as big as the Earth. With VLBI, scientists not only look deep into galactic centers, study cosmic radio sources, and weigh black holes, but also more accurately tell time, study plate tectonics, and more-right here on planet Earth. x
  • 20
    Galaxies and Their Gas
    In visible light, scientists had described galaxies as island universes." But since the advent of radio astronomy, we've seen galaxies connected by streams of neutral hydrogen, interacting with and ripping the gasses from each other. Now astronomers have come to understand that these strong environmental interactions are not a secondary feature-they are key to a galaxy's basic structure and appearance." x
  • 21
    Interstellar Molecular Clouds
    In the late 1960s, interstellar ammonia and water vapor were detected. Soon came formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and the discovery of giant molecular clouds where we now know stars and planets are formed. With improvements in radio astronomy technology, today's scientists can watch the process of star formation in other systems. The initial results are stunning. x
  • 22
    Star Formation and ALMA
    With an array of 66 radio antennas located in the high Chilean desert above much of the earth's atmosphere, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a radio telescope tuned to the higher frequencies of radio waves. Designed to examine some of the most distant and ancient galaxies ever seen, ALMA has not only revealed new stars in the making, but planetary systems as well. x
  • 23
    Interstellar Chemistry and Life
    Interstellar clouds favor formation of carbon-based molecules over any other kind-not at all what statistical models predicted. In fact, interstellar clouds contain a profusion of chemicals similar to those that occur naturally on Earth. If planets are formed in this rich soup of organic molecules, is it possible life does not have to start from scratch on each planet? x
  • 24
    The Future of Radio Astronomy
    Learn about the newest radio telescopes and the exhilarating questions they plan to address: Did life begin in space? What is dark matter? And a new question that has just arisen in the past few years: What are fast radio bursts? No matter how powerful these new telescopes are, radio astronomers will continue pushing the limits to tell us more and more about the universe that is our home. x

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Your professor

Felix J. Lockman

About Your Professor

Felix J. Lockman, Ph.D.
Principal Scientist at the Green Bank Observatory
Felix J. Lockman, Ph.D., is the Green Bank Telescope Principal Scientist at the Green Bank Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation. He did his undergraduate work at Drexel University and received his Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Dr. Lockman’s area of research is the structure and evolution of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, with a special emphasis on radio observations of neutral...
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Radio Astronomy: Observing the Invisible Universe is rated 4.8 out of 5 by 98.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from First class complement to the astronomy Great Cour Felix Lockman is a jolly-good-fellow, a talented actor, and though not an academic he is most definitely a triple-A teacher. He explains things authoritatively and very clearly and the graphics he uses are very helpful. I would not recommend this as a first course in astronomy. It is best to have encountered the phenomena he describes before—Lockman will then help you to discover how we found out about the phenomena. And his message is that mostly we have not found out by directing our eyes to the sky (or to the eyepiece for that matter…) but by deploying a sixth or seventh sense, so to speak—by reception of radio-waves which are then converted to an ECG style chart or to a picture with colours. I am certainly not in the profession—far from it—and thus feel I cannot responsibly opine whether he rightly devotes so much time to talking about the various radio telescopes in existence in various locations on earth and beyond. I didn’t mind it and didn’t feel it was excessive. I found his explanations about how radio telescopes actually produce all this amazing info. a little bit difficult though clearly an indispensable part of the course and interesting physics too. The course made it concrete to me (a beginner) that we relate to radio-waves in a different, though analogous, way compared to the way we relate to light. Still this bit of the course remains somewhat hazy for me— I have digested 80% of the whole, not 100%, but this doesn’t matter 80% is quite filling! I didn’t mind his jokes nor did I mind his allusions to various moments during his professional life—he didn’t have to include them, because the material is so fascinating in its own right, but I respect his choice to put them in.
Date published: 2019-05-15
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Worth Reviewing More Than Once I enjoy reading and was highly expectant to see how this presentation stacked up with the many books I've read. Boy was I surprised! The visuals were very clear and Prof Lockman has the perfect cadence to keep from overwhelming the participant. I like that he periodically reviews important concepts and demonstrates how the various sections interact. This is the second of three Courses that I am viewing, and encountered one "glitch" that was absent from the first one. I just finished the 5th session and observed that the audio lagged the video slightly. I had to concentrate on listening rather than watching, but it wasn't a dealbreaker. I wonder if my DVD was an outlier. When I finish I'll evaluate whether it is worth making a complaint. I'm not there yet. I would like to order other Courses but still have the third to watch and several books to read. I will procure Courses on other subjects (the third Course I have is on the Stock Market).
Date published: 2019-04-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Terrific I have almost all TC courses in science, and there’s material here not found anywhere else. It ties many things together, the presentation is excellent. Since I live close to the VLA in New Mexico and the first time I visited I didn’t understand much at all. I am looking forward to going again soon now a hundred times better equipped.
Date published: 2019-03-04
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Still hungry Among the major changes to the company’s courses after 2015 was discontinuing the use of college professors in many of their courses and reducing the course level from first year college level to high school level. The content of this 2017 course is not really a high school level subject, so I was interesting to see how they were going to fit a pretty specialized and technical topic into high school level course. (For a science course, it’s easy to tell whether it’s high school or college level; if they use the Bohr model of the atom–the one that has electrons orbiting the nucleus, like a tiny solar system, as is done here–it’s high school level.) I was disappointed that he gave only a limited explanation of radio waves, which is the crux of understanding how radio astronomy works. I was left with more questions than answers on that topic (such as “Are there radio wave photons?”). Dr. Lockman, a scientific researcher and director of the Green Bank Observatory, alternates between technical presentations and the history of the field, hardware, and the professional life of a radio astronomer. His guided tour of the enormous Green Bank Telescope was pretty interesting. Dr. Lockman seems to be experienced in giving presentations to the lay public, and his non-threatening "ordinary guy" manner fits in well with the company’s current efforts to broaden the appeal of its courses by making them more television-like, less college-like. In the end, I learned a fair amount about radio astronomy, and was able to go over to Wikipedia to pick up some of the missing details. There are a number of impressive graphics in the course, including some of the remarkable new images from radio telescope arrays that look sharper than optical images from The Hubble. Just about anyone fascinated by astronomy will gain a basic appreciation of its topic from this course. However, those with a stronger background in science might leave this meal filling half-full.
Date published: 2019-03-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from excellent course This course is great. The presentations were excellent. Dr Lockman is 1st class. I highly recommend this course.
Date published: 2019-03-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Exceptional course Course was very well done and highly informative. I highly recommend it. The course was well laid out and engaging. Great intro to radio astronomy!
Date published: 2019-01-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from More insight Learning amazing new things. The more I learn, the more my ignorance shows. Am 78 years old and still love to learn. No other courses I have taken have covered this material.
Date published: 2018-12-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great learning experience I started watching this course a second time I love it!
Date published: 2018-10-21
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A very comprehensive, satisfying course! A comprehensive, in-depth, look at Radio Astronomy from a great teacher. I learned so much, and it was fun! No math to speak of, but good graphics, and solid real-world experience by a working scientist in the field. I just finished my second time through the lectures and I am sure I will return a third time – there are concepts here that you are just not going to learn in a general Astronomy course (although The Great Courses’ 96-lecture ‘Astronomy’ course, taught by Alex Filippenko is a wonderful also, there just isn’t time there to focus in any depth on Radio Astronomy). Thanks Dr. Lockman!
Date published: 2018-09-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Well done! For the many of us who have an interest in the subject, but know very little about it, this is a very worthwhile course. Prof. Lockman makes the more complex aspects of radio astronomy very easy to understand, and he has a pleasant presentation style. I should have gotten this course long ago.
Date published: 2018-08-13
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great explanation of radio astronomy Great explanation of radio astronomy and how it has expanded our understanding of the universe. Professor Lockman has great enthusiasm for the subject and provides an informative and entertaining review of the subject.
Date published: 2018-08-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Really a great course Dr. Lockman is an excellent teacher. The course material is well selected. Adds lot of information on astronomy in general and radio astronomy in particular. The tour of Green Bank observatory is an added bonus.
Date published: 2018-07-28
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Easy to understand I've only watched the first 3 sections. The instructor is very knowledgable and explains things in a way that is easy to understand, with diagrams, etc.
Date published: 2018-07-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very well presented, kept me engaged throughout. I had already watched several courses on astronomy and the history of the universe. This course was a great compliment, as I knew almost nothing about radio astronomy beforehand. The lectures are really well presented, and they made we want to binge watch.... A very good lecture series!
Date published: 2018-07-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fantastic Modern Astronomy Course This is really an excellent course. The professor (Felix Lockman) is enthusiastic about his subject, and does an excellent job of presenting the material. I don't believe you have to have much of a scientific background to enjoy this course. A familiarity with some basic science terms (such a centimeter and temperature) is about all you need. There are several graphs that are displayed in every lecture, but the professor explains all those very well, and even if you don't understand them, you will still learn a lot from the course. There are several fantastic space photos, of course. I think the course really gives a good idea of what an astronomer/astrophysicist does. The professor really makes it seem exciting and interesting. I particularly liked his lectures on the "walk through" of a radio telescope, telling you how they are built, and all the considerations that go into building such a structure. It was fascinating. I think you really learn a lot of basic astronomy (e.g., how stars form) besides just "radio astronomy". I think the video course is essential. I suppose you could get something out of the audio course, but you would miss so much, I think it would be a waste. The sophistication of the Great Courses presentation is excellent. The visuals that are produced during the lectures is impressive and very modern. 24 lectures, each around 30 minutes is just right. I highly recommend the course. The price was right also. Generally, I think you can get any course for around $2 - $3 per lecture (for the video download), if you watch out for sales. I should also mention - the accompanying course guide book is very valuable. The text content of each lecture is about 99% present in the guide book, and it also contains some pictures of slides from the lecture. Thanks, Great Courses, for doing that.
Date published: 2018-07-22
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Broad perspective This course is at its best when its discussing the science (astronomy) or technology (radio telescope design and operation) involved. It is at its weakest when examining various facilities around the world or arguing the instructor's view of the growing threat of interfering technologies (with which I happen to agree but it's a bit strident). All in all, this is well worth the investment for anyone interested in astronomy in general or how radio astronomy fits into the general set of technologies advancing astrophysics. Side note: the course content would be a shadow if itself without the video; the photos, diagrams, and such are tremendous.
Date published: 2018-07-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Video certainly didn't kill THIS radio star! When I first heard about this course, I went Radio Ga Ga. This was a subject I knew nothing about. Professor Lockman's style is likable and endearing. The information was presented in a detailed yet basic manner. What's more, on issues like "dark matter" science novices such as myself might be left in the cold. Professor Lockman presents the exact equations that scientists used to deduce that "dark matter" might exist. He then went through a bunch of candidate explanations for the observations, and then showed why most scientists settle on "dark matter" as the explanation for the observations. The course also has a tour of the Green Bank observatory and its radio telescopes, all the while explaining how these magnificent instruments work. Other physics courses were helpful in my understanding of these lectures, but Dr. Lockman's course can stand on its own for a beginner. Truly, this course will educate you on the Spirit of Radio.
Date published: 2018-07-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Radio Astronomy I never thought astronomy could be so much fun! Dr. Lockman presents the material in a simple to understand fashion. His personal anecdotes add a touch of humor to almost every lecture. If you ever wondered about the big bang, black holes, or other things out there, buy this course. It doesn't require knowledge of physics. He shows dazzling photos and shares his sense of wonder.
Date published: 2018-07-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A very enjoyable and informative course. After completing 9 lessons, I am very glad that I purchased this course and look forward the the remaining lessons. I like the completeness of the topic, including the detailed tour of the Green Bank Observatory. Dr. Lockman does an excellent job of keeping it interesting both with his manor, and with the right amount of detail. If you are at all interested in radio astronomy, don't hesitate to get this course.
Date published: 2018-07-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Astronomy's Third Eye Modern astronomers are not restricted to visible light, awesome as that is. They can detect electromagnetic waves at lower and higher frequencies--radio, microwaves and infrared on one side and ultraviolet and X-rays on the other. Radio waves have both thermal and non-thermal sources. I learned to my astonishment that EVERYTHING emits thermal radio waves that is warmer than absolute zero on the Kelvin scale. That means you and I, your pets and your blankets are all radio sources. Non-thermal waves (if I understood the point correctly) come from the interaction of particles with magnetic fields or ionized gas. Thanks to both kinds astronomers can detect dark matter, see through interstellar dust to watch stars form, watch streams of gas move from one galaxy to another (including the Magellanic Stream to our own Milky Way), find pulsars and quasars, and analyze organic molecules in interstellar space. The technology of radio astronomy is also highly impressive. Detecting waves from outer space, for example, requires working with extremely weak signals. How weak? The basic unit is the jansky, named for radio engineer Karl Jansky. One cell phone call has the strength of five million billion janskys, but radio astronomers are receiving signals at the strength of thousandths or millionths of a jansky. You’re probably familiar with the dish shape of most radio antennas but making them work properly requires giving them smooth surfaces that don’t absorb heat from the sun, directing incoming beams to the prime focus, amplifying the signal, and sorting out all the other noise they pick up. Astronomers can raise the angular resolution of the objects they study by combining two or more antennas into a single interferometer or array, such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico. An interferometer can have a baseline of any length, even longer than the planet is wide, so long as you can put the signals into phase with each other. There are some things I disliked about the course. There was too much emphasis, for my taste, on the technology and physics of radio astronomy and not enough on the findings; you may feel differently. Professor Lockman is particularly proud of his massive facility, the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia, and devotes two lectures to it. At least now I don’t need to visit it in person. Lecture 12 titled “Pulsars and the 300-Foot Telescope” says a lot about the telescope and little about pulsars. His explanation of interferometers was somewhat unclear to me even after I read the guidebook. Less defensible is the light blue-green background that makes the formulas and text in white letters difficult to see. I also dislike the new Great Courses packaging that puts all the DVDs or CDs onto a single knob rather than the pivoting leaves I’m used to. You have to sort through the disks to find the one you want or put back. I wish the guidebook had a glossary for technical terms or at least an index. On the other hand, I do appreciate it containing many photos and graphs. Overall, I give the course a strong recommendation. I hope the Great Courses considers adding a short course on X-ray astronomy as well.
Date published: 2018-06-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Course on Radio Astronomy When all the elements of a course are well done, you have a great course. Dr. Lockman is the right man to teach this course. He has a wonderfully engaging style and a sense of humor. He has been part of the astronomy community all his career. He was there when the first pulsar was discovered. He is a pleasure to listen to. One hardly needs to say that he is knowledgeable; he is a master of his craft. The material is just right. He starts historically, describing how radio astronomy began, including the bumps and accidents of a growing field. He continually presents amusing or informative personal anecdotes of the astronomers along the way. When describing the technology of radio astronomy, he begins rather simply, as he must because of the range of knowledge of his audience. Thus if you have taken science courses before, you know all about the electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler shift, black bodies and so on. But he builds gradually to the more complex aspects, from interferometers to antenna temperature, and much more. And of course, radio astronomy includes the physical nature of the sources of those radio signals. He explains the difference between thermal and non-thermal radiation, and what sources produce which. So he describes what types to expect from the sun and moon, and from planets like Jupiter. Then there are the HII regions, and finally, active galactic nuclei, Seyferts, quasars, and blazars. All of these are liberally salted with effective charts, diagrams and photographs. Finally, there are the technical aspects of the course. The Teaching Company has come a long way from the "brick wall out the window" lectures. Each lecture is prefaced with a little video of features from the course. The set is appropriately decorated. And I really appreciate the two on-site episodes where he takes us through the Green Bank facility. You see the nuts and bolts operation of a functioning radio telescope. There's a lot more, but you can enjoy that for yourself. This is an absorbing, intriguing, informative and well-presented course. It's hard to see it come to an end.
Date published: 2018-06-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Look to the sky I went through the 24 lectures in a weeks time. That says that I was very interested in the course not that I am a fast learner. The instructors enthusiasm for the material is evident as well as the love he as for the profession he has chosen. He is a charming intelligent person, someone you would like to be friends with. I wondered about the several lectures on the observatories and the radio telescopes but they are integral to the story that is told. This is an adventure story as well as an education. There are plenty of beautiful representations of the wonders of the universe as well as good explanations of what is happening in those pictures; among them the explanations of why we don't see those striking colors shown in telescopes using visible light. He has a sense of humor. He talks about things happening now, which I translate as things we are observing now, because as he explains, because of the vast distances involved, even at the speed of light what we see happened so long ago it is hard to comprehend. Millions of years ago is relatively recent compared to the age (specified in a lecture) of the universe. He closes with a reference to ALMA which was constructed c. 2013 and is one of the most advanced radio telescopes. As you will learn, each telescope is unique as is designed for specific tasks in tune with current advances in science and technology.
Date published: 2018-06-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Radio Astronomy - great course This is a great course and a wonderful complement to Dr. Fillippeno's course on astronomy. Dr. Lockman covers both the basic science and evolving technology of the electromagnetic spectrum as applied to astronomical observations. The tour of the Green Bank Observatory and visuals from other observatories across the globe help to explain the interplay between the science and the necessary technology. Dr. Lockman's presentation is conversational, enthusiastic; sometimes campy, but charming. You could imagine yourself in a classroom while viewing the course at home.
Date published: 2018-06-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Superb Course This has everything you could want in such a course: excellent coverage of the basic science (radio waves and receivers, the physics of various kinds of radio emissions, the cosmic sources of these emissions) along with detailed discussions of some of the groundbreaking discoveries and the instruments that facilitated them. A real plus in my mind is the very nice historical survey of the discipline, starting with Jansky in 1930 and finishing with the newest radio telescopes such as ALMA. Astronomy is a mind-boggling science and many of the lectures produce that powerful feeling. Lockman is a wonderful teacher: clear, careful in presenting complex material and delightfully engaging and funny. He works at the Greenbank Observatory and gives us a great tour of it, over two lectures. The graphics in the videos and the course guidebook are very well-prepared. I found the level of difficulty just right: scientific concepts were presented carefully, but usually by means of graphs or diagrams. This course, however, like other Great Courses I've watched, makes a pedagogical mistake: it will present an equation in the video, but not in the guidebook. It is easier to ponder and understand an equation in a book than in a video! This only occurred about 3 times in this course, but it seems to be a quirk in the way GC produces guidebooks. Still, this is a gem. Of the 15 courses I've watched, this is one of the 2 or 3 best. If you find star and planet formation to be fascinating, I recommend that you follow this course with Hazen's course on the evolution of the earth.
Date published: 2018-05-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A new look at the old universe This is one of the best Great Courses I have yet encountered. It has literally opened my eyes to new ways of seeing the cosmos. The instructor's personal stories really made the field come alive.
Date published: 2018-05-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very useful for someone entering this area of work From what we have viewed thus far, this series of presentations will be very helpful to my son who is going to be working in this area.
Date published: 2018-05-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great Introduction to Radio Astronomy I have a background that overlaps the quantum physics and signal processing used in radio astronomy and have been trying to keep current for my own interest. Even so, there were several things I learned from the course that I never saw in on-line articles. This course has something to offer even for people with strong technical/scientific backgrounds.
Date published: 2018-04-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great lectures with abundant informtion! I was interested in Radio Astronomy since I was high school student long time ago. Now with this excellent lectures, I was satisfied finally how important Radio Astronomy was and I enjoyed a lot by clear, understandable lectures.
Date published: 2018-03-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Engaging and very well organized!! Hi Dr. Lockman, Thank you for opening the bright windows to radio astronomy for me through “The Great Courses" As a retired electronics engineer, I found your course very engaging and well organized. In particular, I appreciated how your excitement towards the Science and Technology behind radio astronomy... There is a lot of innovation and discovery ahead! I am excited for all of you. Best of luck to you and your team... I hope to visit your area soon! Regards, Carlos Gutierrez Austin, Texas
Date published: 2018-03-29
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent course I have all the other astronomy courses with Great Courses, and they are all excellent. But I didn't know much about radio astronomy and telescopes. This course is fascinating! Some of the content is repeat of other courses, but only a small amount. I didn't realize how much current astronomy knowledge had been gotten via radio telescopes, what the differences were from optical scopes, and how incredibly useful they are. I really enjoyed this course!
Date published: 2018-03-13
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