Religions of the Axial Age: An Approach to the World's Religions

Course No. 6312
Professor Mark W. Muesse, Ph.D.
Rhodes College
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Course Overview

What could the beliefs and traditions of a Zoroastrian, a person of Jewish faith, a Buddhist, a follower of Confucius, or a Christian have in common? How do religions evolve over time?

This course offers a rare opportunity to relate your own spiritual questions to a variety of ancient quests for meaning and transcendence. In Religions of the Axial Age, Professor Mark W. Muesse shows you the historical conditions in which the world religions arose, while letting you see how they answered shared metaphysical and human dilemmas. He helps you think about specific traditions while pondering the common processes of religious development.

Not content to study religion merely from books, Professor Muesse has also observed and participated in these traditions in their native contexts, especially in South Asia. Thus his approach to the study of religion is not solely academic or historical but also reflects a deep respect for religious experience as it is felt and lived.

You will explore fascinating aspects of several major world religions at the time of their birth. Although Professor Muesse emphasizes the early religious traditions of Iran, South Asia, and China, he also shows how these compare, contrast, and contribute to contemporary Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

What Is the Axial Age?

Professor Muesse offers striking insights as he draws you closer to the period between 800 to 200 B.C.E., an era with notable parallels to our own. Using a term first coined by the German philosopher Karl Jaspers and recently popularized by the religious scholar Karen Armstrong, Professor Muesse calls this period the Axial Age because of its pivotal nature.

Through sacred texts, modern scholarship, and thoughts arising from his own personal experiences, Professor Muesse reveals what it meant to be a conscious, morally responsible individual in the Axial Age. For example, Confucius wanted to help politicians and civil servants do a better job of governing their countries; Buddha hoped to show men and women how to break free of suffering. You'll also examine the rise of Zoroastrianism in Persia (now Iran); Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism on the Indian subcontinent; and Confucianism and Daoism in China.

Zoroaster, Prophet of Personal Accountability

Was the Iranian prophet Zoroaster the first to conceive of the concepts of heaven and hell? Professor Muesse explains Zoroaster's vision of a blissful afterlife for those who sided with good, but a hellish afterlife for those who chose evil. Zoroaster may not have offered the first statement of an afterlife, but he may have been the first to hinge the eternal destiny of an individual to his or her worldly behavior. Moreover, for Zoroaster, humanity—and history itself—move in a direct, linear path toward a cosmic conclusion in which good ultimately triumphs, evil is annihilated, and paradise is established on Earth.

Zoroaster, who is also known as Zarathustra, taught that humans are responsible for the moral choices they make in a world where good and evil are locked in struggle. Zoroaster's apocalyptic vision may have been coupled with a bodily resurrection of the dead, in which those who had gone to heaven return again to Earth to continue life in physical form. If this were Zoroaster's belief, he would have been among the first—if not the first—to imagine such a fate.

The Wisdom of Ancient India

We're not the first people to ask the question, Is this all life has to offer? Professor Muesse shows us the longstanding centrality of this question in his extended exploration of the major religions of ancient India—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism—during their formative stages.

Our journey first takes us to the indigenous Indus Valley civilization, a culture focused on agriculture, goddess worship, and fertility, and its encounter with tribal nomads called Aryans, believed by most scholars to be from Central Asia No one is certain how this encounter took place, but the fusion of cultures and beliefs profoundly altered Indian religion and provided the basis for the Hindu family of religions.

Eventually, as urbanization increased and some orders of society became wealthier, men and women began to wonder whether life had something more to offer. They questioned the emphasis on ritual and expressed concerns about the authority of the priests. The Upanishads, composed by a counter-cultural movement of mystics and ascetics, address questions of life, death, and the meaning of both. This concern with the fundamental meaning of life marks the rise of classical Hinduism and coincides with the Axial Age's beginnings in India.

A central element in the evolution of Hinduism was the widespread acceptance of the concept of samsara, the belief that individual beings undergo a series of births, deaths, and rebirths governed by the moral principle known as karma. In fact, virtually every school of philosophy or sect of religion that arises in India's history—including Buddhism and Jainism—takes samsara as the fundamental problem of existence, and each in its own way seeks to address it. This new religious concern reflects and shapes India's entrance into the Axial period.

Next, Professor Muesse takes you to northeastern India in the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.E., when many spiritual seekers had given up the comforts of home to seek enlightenment. They lived as hermits or apprenticed themselves to spiritual guides. Meditating and practicing ascetic disciplines, they sought a deep, internal understanding of reality's ultimate nature. You'll grasp the significance of the Buddha's life and thought as it emerged during this period. The Buddha advocated a strict if moderate regimen to break those habits perpetuating the illusion of selfhood and encouraging people to deny the world's impermanence. Learn about the Buddha's eightfold path to nirvana, a path that emphasizes the importance of acting ethically, developing virtue, and restraining both body and mind through the practice of meditation.

Like the Buddha, Mahavira, a founder of Jainism, achieved a visionary enlightenment after withdrawing from the luxury and temptations of the world. While he confronted similar issues, his own teachings gave innovative interpretations to the idea of the soul and karma. Jainism emphasizes the principle of ahimsa (doing no harm) and offers special practices for attaining personal liberation.

China and the Paths of Virtue and Nature

Our next stop is China, where we learn about Confucius and the mysteries of Daoism. Professor Muesse takes us inside China's earliest (pre-Axial Age) spiritual practices to give a context for the life and thought of Confucius—as well as Laozi, who was probably a fictional character invented by the philosophers of Daoism. Muesse explains that although Daoism arose in opposition to the ideas of Confucius, both systems of thinking can simultaneously coexist in the Chinese mind along with the ancient beliefs and rituals of Chinese folk religion and the later, imported wisdom of Buddha.

Confucianism and Daoism both draw a connection between public and private (state and family) harmony and governance. Confucius and his early followers, however, saw the cultivation of virtue as a cultural, human activity emphasizing study and ritual. The early Daoists aligned the self with a larger, ultimately harmonious natural order. They advocated accepting change as inherent to the way of nature. Eventually, Confucianism and Daoism were institutionalized and the philosophies of the founders went through considerable reinterpretation.

Professor Muesse's final lecture offers reflections on a central question of the course: What does the study of the Axial Age teach us about religion as a phenomenon in our lives?

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24 lectures
 |  Average 31 minutes each
  • 1
    What Was the Axial Age?
    During the years from 800 to 200 B.C.E., unprecedented developments occurred in four centers of civilization: West Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and the northwestern Mediterranean. Individuals were faced with an array of issues stirred up by increased urbanization, political instability, and the emergence of self-consciousness. x
  • 2
    The Noble Ones
    The people in northwestern India and eastern Iran were closely related, spoke similar languages, and held common religious beliefs. This lecture explores the culture and religion of Indo-Iranians prior to their split into two separate groups. The foundational scriptures of Hinduism and Zoroastrianism give us a glimpse of the Indo-Iranians' gods, moral and social structures, cosmology, and rituals. x
  • 3
    The World of Zoroaster
    As Indo-Iranian nomads learned horsemanship, chariot warfare, and the use of bronze from the Mesopotamians, they began stealing cattle and robbing nearby settlements. Zoroaster, one of the founders of Axial religions, addressed the violence of his time by urging respect for order and teaching that humans must assume moral responsibility for their choices. x
  • 4
    Zoroaster's Legacy
    Zoroaster anticipated others by linking destiny with morality. He imagined history moving to a final conclusion in which good triumphs over evil. Those whose lives were aligned with the god of good would be rewarded with happiness; those who served the god of evil would be annihilated. His teachings live on in other religions. x
  • 5
    South Asia before the Axial Age
    From Iran, we move to South Asia and the pre-Axial culture of what came to be India. First we examine the indigenous Indus Valley culture, whose religious practices focused on goddess worship and fertility rituals, then the migration of the Indo-Aryans to the Indus Valley, bringing with them a world-view and a set of rituals based on their scriptures, the Vedas. x
  • 6
    The Start of the Indian Axial Age
    This lecture focuses on pre-Axial Vedic ceremonies and what they accomplished. The rise of the Upanishads—composed to help provide answers to emerging questions about life, death, and their significance—marks the beginning of classical Hinduism and the start of the Indian Axial Age. x
  • 7
    Death and Rebirth
    A key element in the evolution of Hinduism was the acceptance of samsara, the belief that beings endure a series of births, deaths, and rebirths. This lecture explores the development of these major concepts. x
  • 8
    The Quest for Liberation
    In the Axial Age, Indian men and women renounced the material world in search for enlightenment. This search took a variety of forms and expressions, giving rise to the religious practices often associated with Hinduism. Roots of Buddhism and Jainism can also be traced to this quest. x
  • 9
    The Vedantic Solution
    Quest for liberation focuses on knowledge of ultimate reality and the self. The Upani-shad's general viewpoint is that the soul is invisible and immortal, never created or destroyed, and separate from both body and mind. To realize the Absolute entails penetrating reality's veil and acknowledging the identity of the self and ultimate reality. x
  • 10
    The One and the Many
    Realization of the soul's identity and ultimate reality requires a deep, existential understanding acquired through practices such as meditation and asceticism. Hindus who found asceticism too austere worshiped personal deities that manifested reality in a myriad of knowable aspects. x
  • 11
    The Life of Siddhattha Gotama
    One seeker of liberation was a man named Siddhattha Gotama, who later be­comes known as the Buddha, or En­­lightened One. Discover both the histor­ical and mythic aspects of his biography, this lecture traces Gotama's life from his birth into aristocracy through his practice of asceticism and, finally, to his determination to seek liberation by the Middle Way. x
  • 12
    "I am Awake"
    After Siddhattha Gotama practiced the Middle Way and mindful meditation to become fully awake, he began teaching the Four Noble Truths, the first concerning the nature of suffering. The Buddha saw suffering as a pervasive mark of all existence, even though life mani-fests moments of pleasure and happiness. x
  • 13
    Why We Suffer
    The Buddha's First Noble Truth identifies the disease as dukkha, or suffering. This is caused by desire—the Second Noble Truth—occurring, in part, because we attribute permanence and substantiality to impermanence. Buddha viewed humans as interconnected, changeable energies, called the Five Aggregates of Being. x
  • 14
    The Noble Path
    The Third Noble Truth is that one does not have to suffer. The end of suffering is nirvana, a reality beyond ordinary experience but can be realized in life. The Fourth Noble Truth shows that to end suffering, follow the Noble Eightfold Path. x
  • 15
    From Buddha to Buddhism
    This lecture looks at the institutionalization and spread of the Buddha's teachings through Asia, and the gradual transformation of those teachings into a full-scale religious doctrine with rituals, symbols, icons, and a creed. Buddhism coexists with veneration of the gods and has weathered a number of doctrinal disputes. x
  • 16
    Jainism
    According to its adherents, Jainism is an eternal religion. Like Buddhism, it rejects the authority of the Vedas and Upanishads but accepts karma, rebirth, and reincarnation. Central to its tenets are ahimsa, not harming living beings; satya, truth-telling; and belief that the world and humans follow evolving and declining patterns. x
  • 17
    East Asia before the Axial Age
    After a glance at the mythological pre-history of China, the discussion moves to the Shang dynasty. Religious concepts include the need to maintain harmony through sacrifice and tribute to the gods; the intertwined nature of heaven and Earth; and belief in ancestors, ghosts, and divination. x
  • 18
    The World of Confucius
    During the Zhou period, political instability led to the chaotic Period of Warring States, in which minor kingdoms vied for hegemony while men of learning sought solutions to the political and moral issues. Against this backdrop, we meet Confucius, perhaps the most influential figure in Chinese history. x
  • 19
    The Foundations of Confucianism
    Confucian thought is not founded on a particular vision of the divine but, rather, on human potential. Confucius taught how to use religious rituals to address moral and political concerns. Applying the Mandate of Heaven to his own work, he connects politics with family values, and filial obligations with service to others. x
  • 20
    The Cultivation of Virtue
    Confucius believed being good was the fundamental purpose and objective of human beings and widespread cultivation of virtue was vital. He advocated moderation, self-awareness, humility, study, material detachment, and ritual dignity and reverence. x
  • 21
    Early Confucianism and the Rise of Daoism
    This lecture surveys thinkers following Confucius: Mencius, who held that human nature is fundamentally good but needs cultivation; and Xunzi, who held that amoral human nature requires moral training. Daoist philosophers saw themselves as providing an alternative to Confucianism. x
  • 22
    The Daodejing
    After the Bible, the Daodejing is the text most translated into English. This lecture explores root metaphors in this mysterious text, including water, emptiness, and the way of nature. This text uses the concept of the Dao to convey not only an ideal way or path but also the way of nature. x
  • 23
    Daoist Politics and Mysticism
    The Daodejing was most likely intended as a document offering political advice for effective governance. Widespread misery arises when governments act against the Dao of nature. Zhuangzi applied Daoist values to individual behavior. Later, Daoism developed ecclesiastical rituals and organizational structures. Daoism also blended with practices of Chinese folk religions. x
  • 24
    Reflections on the Axial Age
    The Axial Age marked when the self made its religious appearance as an important source for moral choice and also a self-centered and self-aggrandizing power. Sages of the period linked the self to concepts of ultimate reality, and religious priorities shifted from cosmic maintenance to personal transformation. The significance of these developments for human culture can hardly be overestimated. x

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Your professor

Mark W. Muesse

About Your Professor

Mark W. Muesse, Ph.D.
Rhodes College
Dr. Mark W. Muesse is W. J. Millard Professor of Religious Studies, Director of the Asian Studies Program, and Director of the Life: Then and Now Program at Rhodes College in Memphis, Tennessee. He earned a B.A., summa cum laude, in English Literature from Baylor University and a Master of Theological Studies, a Master of Arts, and a Ph.D. in the Study of Religion from Harvard University. Before taking his position at Rhodes,...
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Religions of the Axial Age: An Approach to the World's Religions is rated 4.7 out of 5 by 86.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent background before going in depth The instructor gives an excellent historical background leading up to the Axial Age. I have not finished the series at this point, but have been impressed by how clearly he presents the material and gives context. I had heard and read some about the Axial Age, but did not have a grasp of how the activities during these centuries were influenced by the prior times and how they dramatically affected later religions, even those of today. The presenter is easy to understand and does not bury the listener in jargon. This is a good course.
Date published: 2017-12-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Sympathy for the Devil; and old reasons to be nice I consider this offering to be a hidden didactic gem, by a presenter in his prime. The last lecture is a summary of the ideas of selfhood transformation, the explainations of the "ultimate reality", and the problems of religion; it alone is worth the cost of the course many times over. The presentation is sympathetic to the roots and ideas of various religions. It does present some of the harsh causes of some religious notions, and especially the personal but also the communal, changes due to new mindsets. There is a constant comparison process of world religions and leaders. Although there is no specific Judeo, Christian, or Greek coverage, comparative examples abound. For example, I never took Plato's Phaedo conversation about reincarnation seriously, but the comparison (by Muesse) to the Hindu is stunning. Muesse says he asks students what understanding was gained. For me, a main component is that the beginnings of all religions have some form of the "golden rule", ten commandments, and the beatitudes as lynchpins of virtuous moral selfhood (had to do some web work to verify this). The ultimate reality of "why" to be virtuous varies dramatically; and this is a great course to understand various first proposals. Also, I have a Christian (Methodist) upbringing, and missing was the discussion about change, growth, and "mystery" that many eastern religions extensively embrace. My own taste is to Paul Tillich (former chair at Harvard Divinity), and the text "The Courage To Be", as the best modern day example of religious philosophy, in a progression from what Muesse discusses. To Tillich, true nirvana is moral participation in the process of ever changing progress and growth. Tillich's morality of "courage and participation" is to never stop trying to progress, even in the face of harsh temporary setbacks. Muesse (also Harvard Divinity) mentions Tillich, but does not reference him in the Bibliography; post- axial, I guess. One question I have is the correspondence to physical training, and STEM (Scientific, Tech, Engineering, Math), that the axial age enabled. The Greek contribution (Olympics, Pythagorean music and math) and the Vedic/ Jain/ Buddhist (yoga, Tai Chi, martial arts, eventually our Western numerals and arithmetic). The interconnection of religious practice to technology and personal regimen is intriguing, and although Muesse mentions these as outcomes of organized religions, he does not dwell. The companion reader is very good, the bibliography and readings point to Amazon obtainable editions, and the internet resources have free material on all the axial religions, even Zoroastrian. Also, great free reading sources for the major religious works are specified under internet resources. A minor complaint is that there are no CC, closed captions, as there are on other offerings. One is expected to buy the $15 course transcript? Oh my! Sympathy for the devil, indeed...
Date published: 2017-09-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent! As always, Mark Muesse gives an outstanding presentation. His explanations are clear and thorough, including historical information, and interesting details. The obvious passion for his subject matter, along with his rich speaking voice provide an engaging experience.
Date published: 2017-06-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from good title This was a very good intro to religions we often ignore.
Date published: 2017-05-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Pretty Good Course in Most Ways I listened to these lectures about nine or ten months ago, so I think I have had ample time to digest, so to speak, my reactions. Maybe "digest" is the wrong word; how about "reflect upon"? Yes, maybe that's better. At any rate, I thought these lectures served as a workable introduction to some of the religious traditions that don't seem to get all that much attention from The Great Courses (notably Daoism and Zoroastrianism). There is a new course on Confucianism, which I recommend, although I don't want to get sidetracked. I'll review that particular course in its proper place. Professor Muesse is genial and articulate and easy to follow. He seems to have somewhat of a regional accent, but I don't know what it is, and it's not jarring. I liked the presentation. So, I recommend this course. It will broaden your notions of world religions. At least that's what happened to me. I did have a sprained ankle while listening to this course, and that may have affected my opinions.
Date published: 2017-03-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great course I really enjoyed this course, which filled in a bunch of missing gaps for me and tied a key religions together.
Date published: 2016-09-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Absolutely Awesome As a student of Zoroastrianism, I noticed this course lurking shyly amongst the Great Courses catalog and decided to give it a try because all the rest of the course content looked fasciinating and I'd never heard the term "Axial Age" used to describe this period in time before. Well, am I glad I got this one - it's amazing. Prof. Muesse's choice of topics is great, his presentation is great, his personal manner is great. If you're a fan of ancient cultural origins, this one is definitely for you.
Date published: 2016-08-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Religions of axial age Contet and organization great Would have liked twice or three times as many slides and graphics to justify dvd price
Date published: 2016-08-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Religions of the Axial Age I felt like I learned more In the 3 or 4 lectures dedicated to Buddism in this course than I did In the 12 lecture course that is part of the religions of the world courses. This same professor also teaches the course on Hinduism in the religions of the world courses. He did a great job with that also.
Date published: 2016-08-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from IMHO I have taken comparative religion courses before but this was a whole new take on these religions (viewing them in the context of a certain time period). The instructor had a very nice voice, which made listening (I purchased the course in audio CD format) especially nice.
Date published: 2016-08-01
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Survey of Ancient Asian Religions, Nothing Unique If you have never thought about the origins of Asia's religions you will probably find this course interesting. There are other Great Courses that go into more detail. Professor Muesse tends to repeat himself saying the same thing several ways. I kept listing for him to make his point and move-on. I was disappointed that Greek and Hebrew religions were not included in lectures. There was no attempt to make cross cultural comparison explaining why and how all of these religions evolved at the same time in world history.
Date published: 2016-06-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent, and a lovely and deep subject The prof is humble and uses personal anecdotes from the western world to illustrate eastern tradition. Buddhism can be a slippery subject but in his hands becomes clear and usable. The discussion of Confucious illuminates a figure I've always wanted to know better, and one can see why China now migrates back to him after Mao.
Date published: 2016-06-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Profound! Education early in life has an easier time, as the slate is clean when new concepts are written down. Education late in life must locate a core concept to clarify in order to initiate a better understanding. This course did that for me and would seem to have the potential to do so for others!
Date published: 2016-06-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from In the beginning, man created religion... Audio download... For those considering purchasing, these lectures are a mixture of history and philosophy that explore the origins of the major religions practiced by most people today (though that might be a bit of a stretch for us in the west). The lectures cover the time period from about 800 to 250 BCE, and focuses in the central to eastern Asia part of the world...covering Zoroastrianism, Hindu, Buddhism, Jainism, Confucianism and Daoism, religions practiced by well over a billion people. As Dr Muesse adroitly weaves the history of the origins and philosophies of these beliefs, we get to compare and contrast those ideas with the religions with which we are more familiar...from the teachings of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, to those from Jesus, Mohammad and Judaism. What I found was, for the most part, the eastern religions are much more like a philosophical study of self...promoting ethics, empathy and morality over the worship of the supernatural. To try to live one's life for the sake of benefiting one's self (aka improving your karma), leads to the betterment of the whole of mankind. These are just my take-aways...you'll need to develop your own; but Dr Muesse gives you plenty of ammunition and lots more to think about...you'll want to revisit these lectures from time to time. Highly recommended, if you enjoy philosophical stimulation. The course is often on sale...wait for that coupon, as well, since it will improve financial karma.
Date published: 2016-04-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Historically and spiritually rewarding Audio CD review I cannot recommend this course more highly. Anyone, regardless of academic background and inclinations, will benefit from it. Not only did it provide me the facts on an era for which I was largely ignorant, but it provided me a primer on the spiritual dimensions of the main eastern religions. It was exceptionally illuminating and rewarding in this latter regard. The subset of classes on Buddhism alone are worth the price of the entire course. Dr. Muesse is his normal homespun engaging self. I hold him in the highest regard as a teacher based on this and his other courses. I notice that some reviewers perceive him as being slow and plodding, but I cannot disagree with that perception more. I find him simultaneously insightful and funny. I assert that only a true master of such material can deliver it in such a manner. His examples, using himself as the self-deprecating object, are genuine and exceptionally effective as a didactic technique. They really bring the whole point of the matter home in an easy to internalize manner as I was able to map his examples to similar circumstances, thoughts, and feelings from my own life.
Date published: 2016-01-26
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Excellent topics, presentation a bit challenging OK, overall I really did like this course. We watched this about a year ago and the topics of the lectures are great. The professor is extremely knowledgeable, and presents the topics well. My only issue, which is the same as some other reviewers, is the professor's presentation style/delivery. He can, at time, speak slowly and in a very monotone manner, which makes it hard for the viewer to feel engaged. His perceived lack of excitement and facial expressions also can be detracting. Yes, I know, this sounds like a negative review, but...if these are issues for you, if you can persevere and get through the first few lectures, it's worth it. The course is very interesting, and in my case, I did find that I started getting used to his presentation style - I do like the fact that the Great Courses has so many different professors, and they all have different styles. For me, Professor Muesse so far has been one of the most challenging to get used to. But, if you are like me, you will. As a side note, once i finished this course I did purchase Professor Muesse's meditation course, and maybe he took reviews to heart since I saw a more engaging presentation style in that course and more facial expressions. I think this course would work as well in audio as video.
Date published: 2016-01-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Religions of the Axial Age - Excellent Most of my study with TGC has been with courses dealing with philosophy. I am interested in how we come to believe the things we do. When I ran across a group in Philadelphia who insisted the World would end on 7 October 2015 (and obviously it didn't) I wondered about what was driving that conviction and what was at the core of this belief. Clearly, their concern was about the imminent final judgement of the soul and its destination to an afterlife. So just where did these ideas come from? Who first started talking about 'soul' and 'afterlife' and 'final judgement'? How do people come to believe those things to be true? So I first undertook an on-line University course on this topic and then I purchased Professor Muesse's course on Religions of the Axial Age. What a brilliant presentation over just 24 lectures on such a complex subject! I absolutely loved his style of presentation, his deep knowledge, his capacity to integrate various concepts across religions and particularly his personal reflections to illustrate a point. So don't be put off by a few negative reviews of this course. As the Professor says, we will all get different things from this course but it certainly filled in some of the gaps for me (when combined with other studies) in understanding just how the concepts of the 'soul' and the 'afterlife' entered the human consciousness. But then of course the Daoists would caution against all claims to absoluteness and insist on the relativity of truth.
Date published: 2015-10-29
Rated 4 out of 5 by from good overview I was actually a history of relilgions major back in the 70s so I know something about this stuff, however it's been 4 decades and I've obviously forgotten a lot of it. This is a good overview, well presented, not riveting, but kept my attention; the professor is obviously personally and professionally a partisan but comes across objectively. Very well done, organized, professional. Not the BEST course I've listened to but certainly a good introduction, well done, and very recommended.
Date published: 2015-08-01
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Too slow, too little content The lecturer speaks so slowly and deliberately, with pauses between almost every pair of sentences, that my attention wandered. In addition, between his summary of what he had told me in the previous lecture, his preview of what he was going to tell me in the current lecture, and - at the end of the lecture - his summary of what he had just told me . . . he didn't actually tell me much at all! After listening to about one-third of this course, I gave up.
Date published: 2015-02-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fantastic Course The course was everything I'd hoped for. It provided vital context for material I've read and guided me to new content.
Date published: 2014-12-31
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Neat dude. This is my second course with Dr. Muesse and he's super. Love his outfits and the sincere interest and subtle spiritual sensitivity that is implicit in his lectures. As another reviewer notes, in his own way he "conveys a depth of spirituality that i find deeply engaging." I loved the way he tied all the religions together by tracing man's search to understand the self and its connection to the universe. This was just what I needed in my quest to understand the world religions and their impact. Thanks.
Date published: 2014-11-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Wonderfully Informative Religion Course This was my first Great Courses religion course and it was wonderful! A great presentation by Dr. Muesse on such a pivotal time period in the history of world religions. I especially liked his multiple personal anecdotes as they related to his experience of the course material. Coming from a background in Christianity, I had only minimal knowledge of the other religions addressed in this course. My interest has been peeked and after listening to these lectures I will be delving into other lectures on world religions beginning with a course on Buddhism. I opted to go with the audio download format and that worked fine for me. This was the first course that I purchased the transcripts to go with, but may be the last as I think that the course summary provided is enough to jog my memory on certain topics. Bottom line, and excellent course!
Date published: 2014-11-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Religion of the Axial Age For me much of the content was new. The prof spoke at a pace and tone that was easy for me to follow. It was as if we were chatting at a table while sipping coffee. I have viewed over 40 of the courses and this was one of the most enjoyable to experience. Some lrcturers have tried to hasten their speech to cram in too much too quickly, a few have largely read their lectures. Some failed to speak distinctly at times. This prof talked in a conversational tone that was pleasant to hear. The content in my case was just what I was looking for. If you are interested in the topics covered, this lecturer does an excellent job.
Date published: 2014-10-13
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Typical Muesse -- A Total Disappointment This is yet another example of Great Courses being snow-jobbed by Mark Muesse. It is boring beyond belief demonstrating once again that a preseumbly smart guy can be given the opportunity to present something that supposedly fires his passion (but does it, really??) and still make a hash of it. Boring boring boring. Dodgy in the extreme. Don't waste your money or your time. It is regrettable that Prof. Muesse has become GT's go-to guy on all things South and East Asian religious, because he can't lecture, is stiff as a board, and doesn't seem to know very much. Isn't it time GT expanded its stable of experts in this area and perhaps got a couple of folks in who both care about some of the topics that Prof. Muesse has colonized and have some real, first-hand, scholarly knowledge? BTW, the auto-censors at Great Course decided that the original version of my review title, which used the word "parc" (spell it backwards) contained "profanity." Sorry, but I believe calling poo "poo," which is what this course is. And by the way also, I am not a "hater," but I am profoundly disappoineted in this course, and can't understand why a commerical outfit like GT, which is not in any way committed to the concept of tenure, continues to use such a disappointing and underperforming prof.
Date published: 2014-07-31
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Audio is not the best way to experience this cours I have LOVED all of the great courses that I purchased from Great Courses. This was course was the only disappointment that I have encountered so far! The approach taken in this course is innovative and informative. However, the presentation of the material didn't meet my expectations. I listen to these lectures to make a work commute more engaging and interesting. With just the audio material, this particular course was not very engaging. While video material does not meet my needs or my budget, I wonder if this is a stronger course on video. I wound up returning this particular course for a refund so I could purchase a course that I could still enjoy on a long drive.
Date published: 2014-07-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Useful for Understanding Any Religion Religions of the Axial Age predate Christianity and Islam. Yet, many of the concepts of the meaning of life, the fate of man after death, and the place of the individual in society were thought-provoking prior to establishment of Christianity and Islam. Professor Muesee illuminates the ideas and emerging philosophies of these ancient thinkers, and makes them relevant to contemporary religions and philosophies. Dr. Muesee's fluency with his subject is evident through his examples and illustrations of ancient thought, along with continuation of these religions into the modern age. His knowledge brings credibility for the listener's self-analysis of the relationship between religions of the Axial Age and one's own religion.
Date published: 2013-12-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Thought Provoking Dr. Muesse's lectures are well organized and very clear. I learned a lot from this course.
Date published: 2013-10-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from 5 stars in all respects ~~ a brilliant course DVD REVIEW: What a fabulous course! Professor Muesse is a master teacher and in this series explains perfectly the astounding religious developments during a critical 600 year period in the eastern half of the world. Something very unusual and special occurred in the world in 800-200BC, affecting religion and philosophy, with wide repercussions that continue down to this day. But how was it that so many areas in the east were affected by new thinking, at the same time? This is Dr Muesse's area of high expertise. While most of us have at least a basic knowledge of "Western" religions including Judaism (which is not considered in these lectures), those of the East are not so familiar and seem to be rather exotic to us ~~ it is here that Dr Muesse places his focus, explaining how thought about man's existence and future in the cosmos was changing and developing, resulting in an an almost unbelievable expansion and blossoming of new concepts in religion, concentrated in a reltively shirt time span and in a specific area of the world. This is a Great Courses series that has strong appeal for those interested in eastern religions and philosoph, especially given that the professor is so dynamic, scholarly and enthusiastic; Dr Muesse is one of a handful of top, gifted lecturers who make learning a true pleasure ~~ exciting and memorable. One of my favourite courses, absolutely brilliant...the highest recommendation.
Date published: 2013-04-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Meaningful and Renewing I have taken three courses by this intelligent, insightful, honest, and compassionate human being. I can not recommend him highly enough. He brings enlightened perspective, and balance to those of us who become disillusioned and disoriented. Human bias, dogma, ego - often unintentional - attach themselves to spiritual thoughts and practices over centuries. His review of the ideas and practice of sages, themselves, in their own times, clarifies, refreshes, and renews. It reawakens one to the meaning and opportunities life offers. As these sages elucidate, an honorable life has innate and joyful meaning and purpose. Dr. Muesse presents us with clearly and wonderfully articulated gifts!
Date published: 2013-01-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Enlightening Course The purpose of listening to the course for me was two fold 1. Gain an excellent overview of the axial age impact on world religions a) I have a deep love of history, intellectual history and spiritual issues. I knew of the axial age but had never devoted any time to specifically study it b) the course is wonderful and covers-subject to the qualification below- the profound impact the sages and figures between 800-200BCE have had on humanity through the way their views shaped the development of all major workd religions 2. The second purpose of the course was to augment my spiritual knowledge and experience of the divine a) listening to the wonderful insights of Confucius, the Buddha, Zoroaster etc served to re-emphasise the importance of living a virtous life through the development of character and seeking wisdom b) these reminders of how great sages lived lives striving to reach deep understandings of human nature and ultimate reality boosted my soul within and inspired me to learn more about their works This was the third course I have taken with professor Muesse (Hinduism and Confucius, Muhammad, Jesus and the Buddha are the others)and he is simply first rate. His voice commands respect and also in its own way conveys a depth of spirituality that i find deeply engaging. I particularly enjoyed the final lectur when the Professor shared some of the ways the study of this subject has deepened his understanding of wisdom and the mystery of the universe. QUALIFICATION: I have given only 4 stars for content as i think the course should have been 36 lectures to allow coverage of the other areas where the axial age's contribution to religion/philosophy was also profound. This includes the impact on Judaism-including the exilic period/Babylonian captivity as well as Greece and the rise of philosophy from the pre-socratics, pythagorus and of course Plato, Socrates and Aristotle. The Professor opens the course by referring to the fact that these two areas clearly had hugely important developments occur during the Axial Age and refers to other TTC courses where one can leanr more about them. That is fine but I submit, particularly given how brilliant Professor Muesse is, that 12 additional lectures to cover these two areas would have made this just about the perfect 10 out of 10 course. Nevertheless highly recommended!
Date published: 2012-11-24
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