Symphonies of Beethoven

Course No. 730
Professor Robert Greenberg, Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances
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Course Overview

Why is Beethoven one of the most revered composers in the history of Western music? Professor Robert Greenberg answers: "Beethoven possessed a unique gift for communication. He radiated an absolute directness that makes his music totally accessible. The sheer emotional power of his music is readily understood. His revolutionary compositional ideas are easily appreciated.

"And his nine symphonies are among the greatest achievements of the human spirit.

"They were revolutionary on every level: harmonic, melodic, rhythmic, formal, dramatic, self-expressive, and emotional. Beethoven led the charge to a totally new era. He threw out the restraint of 18th-century classicism and ushered in romantic self-expression. His symphonic offspring were the first statesmen of this new, musical democracy."

Beethoven's artistic progress is historically measured in three periods:

    1. The Viennese period, 1792–1802. Symphonies nos. 1 and 2 are composed in this decade. In them, Beethoven innovates within the Classical style.
    2. The Heroic period, 1803–1815. Symphonies nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are composed during this time. With these symphonies, Beethoven makes revolutionary breaks away from the Classical style.
    3. The Late period, 1820–1826. This period is dominated by the most revolutionary and influential composition of Beethoven's career: Symphony no. 9. Here Beethoven fuses all art forms into one monumental work and heralds a new era of unfettered musical expression.

Over the course of these 32 lectures on the history and analysis of Beethoven's nine symphonies, we see how he revolutionized musical composition and created works of unique beauty, power, and depth.

Beethoven and the Heroic Style

The first four lectures introduce Beethoven the man and his musical development up to 1808. To put his achievements into perspective, we examine Beethoven's early life, his physical and spiritual development, and the historical circumstances and prevailing musical style that influenced his development.

We study his seemingly unique approach to the piano, and his arrival and celebrity in music and piano-crazed Vienna, as well as his ill-fated lessons with Haydn.

We learn the basic tenets of the Classical style and how Beethoven stretched those rules in his first two symphonies. We start to understand Beethoven as a man of his time, a man shaped by his emotional demons and physical ailments.

The Viennese Period

Symphony no. 1: Beethoven as Classicist—Tradition and Innovation. These lectures examine how Beethoven pushes the envelope in his very first symphony.

Symphony no. 2: Beethoven at the Edge. It is 1802. After six years of progressive hearing loss, a distraught Beethoven pours out his agony and rage in a never-mailed letter. "As the leaves of autumn wither and fall," he cries, "so has my own life become barren." Yet even as he battles despair, he vows to his friend Franz Wegeler that he "will take fate by the throat" and "embrace the whole world." He writes his brilliant, lighthearted Second Symphony.

Symphony no. 2 has an extraordinary expressive and compositional range that puts it at the outer edge of the Classical style, even as it approached Beethoven's new heroic aesthetic, which was fully realized in Symphony no. 3 of 1803.

The Heroic Period

Symphony no. 3: The "New Path"—Heroism and Self-Expression. Symphony no. 3 (Eroica) marked Beethoven's coming of age. He built the whole of his subsequent output on it. It is the key work in Beethoven's musical revolution, a revolution precipitated by the crisis of his hearing problem.

Symphony no. 3 is a metaphor for the eternal struggle of the hero against adversity, a struggle with which Beethoven personally identified. In creating such a symphony, Beethoven provided for his adopted Viennese community a heroic, patriotic self-identity in which, in the face of increasing humiliation by the French, they could find emotional support.

Symphony no. 4: Consolidation of the New Aesthetic. In these four lectures, we track the chronology of Beethoven's fourth, fifth, and sixth symphonies and study the Fourth Symphony.

The framework of the Fourth Symphony is traditional, but it is filled with iconoclastic rhythms and harmonies that clearly mark it as a product of the composer's post-Eroica period.

Though a masterwork of the first order, Beethoven's Fourth Symphony had the ill fortune to appear between the epochal Symphonies nos. 3 and 5. It was a bad break, but certainly not one that should doom this effervescent and joyful symphony to semi-obscurity.

Symphony no. 5: The Expressive Ideal Fully Formed. How did the iconoclastic Fifth Symphony crystallize Beethoven's mature compositional innovations? He subjects form to context. He establishes motivic development as a fundamental of his art. He introduces the concept of drama into the formal layout of movements. He introduces the concept of primal, almost rock 'n' roll-like rhythm as a narrative element. And he decrees that music must, above all, be self-expression.

Symphony no. 6: The Symphony as Program. In this symphony, Beethoven elevates program music to a genre of substance.

While Beethoven warns us against too literal an interpretation of the sixth, Lectures 20–22 observe the progress of the symphony as it unfolds over a 24-hour (or so) period spent in the country. Along the way, we witness music that is metaphorical, metaphysical, meteorological, and downright descriptive as Beethoven paints both a physical environment and the emotions that environment inspires.

Symphony no. 7: The Symphony as Dance. In 1812, Beethoven broke off his affair with his "immortal beloved," Antonie Brentano, with all the grief and despair that entailed. His hearing also underwent a precipitous decline.

Yet, and perhaps because of these personal disasters, he was able to write the exuberant, dance-inspired Seventh Symphony.

Moreover, in this period Beethoven's fame and fortune were revived by the (unmerited) popularity of his battle symphony, Wellington's Victory. This work was inspired by Wellington's defeat of Napoleon in Spain and premiered at the same concert as Beethoven's Seventh Symphony.

Symphony no. 8: Homage to Classicism. The Eighth Symphony is full of raucous humor and brilliant wit. It was born amid Beethoven's ongoing grief for the loss of his beloved and the sudden return of his public fortune during the Beethoven revival of 1813–1814. The Eighth Symphony premiered in February 1814.

We see it as a loving look backwards to the Classical era by the composer who did more to destroy it than any other. Despite its classical pretensions, Beethoven's Symphony no. 8 is a thoroughly "modern" work, exhibiting all sorts of melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, and formal twists, turns, and puns that mark it as Beethoven's own.

The Late Period

Symphony no. 9: The Symphony as the World. In these lectures we learn about Beethoven's fall from public favor in 1815, the loss of his most loyal patrons, his worsening hearing loss, his disastrous possessiveness toward his nephew Karl, his consequent emotional decline, and finally his rebirth with the composition of his late-period works.

We see how the Ninth Symphony obliterated time-honored distinctions in its conception as a Gesamtkunstwerk, a work that embraces all art forms, including literature, song, and drama.

We pay special attention to the dual nature of the symphony: the "contemporary" struggle against darkness as described by movements 1, 2, and 3, and the vision of a utopian "future" described in the fourth movement.

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32 lectures
 |  Average 45 minutes each
  • 1
    Beethoven and the Heroic Style, I
    Lectures 1 through 4 introduce Beethoven the man and his musical development up to the premiere of Symphony no. 6 in 1808. We look at his early life, historical circumstances, and the musical style that influenced his development. We follow his move to Vienna, his studies with Haydn, his thoughts on Napoleon, and the premiere of the Eroica Symphony. His hearing loss is examined as the catalyst of the new compositional path he will take. x
  • 2
    Beethoven and the Heroic Style, II
    Lectures 1 through 4 introduce Beethoven the man and his musical development up to the premiere of Symphony no. 6 in 1808. We look at his early life, historical circumstances, and the musical style that influenced his development. We follow his move to Vienna, his studies with Haydn, his thoughts on Napoleon, and the premiere of the Eroica Symphony. His hearing loss is examined as the catalyst of the new compositional path he will take. x
  • 3
    Beethoven and the Heroic Style, III
    Lectures 1 through 4 introduce Beethoven the man and his musical development up to the premiere of Symphony no. 6 in 1808. We look at his early life, historical circumstances, and the musical style that influenced his development. We follow his move to Vienna, his studies with Haydn, his thoughts on Napoleon, and the premiere of the Eroica Symphony. His hearing loss is examined as the catalyst of the new compositional path he will take. x
  • 4
    Beethoven and the Heroic Style, IV
    Lectures 1 through 4 introduce Beethoven the man and his musical development up to the premiere of Symphony no. 6 in 1808. We look at his early life, historical circumstances, and the musical style that influenced his development. We follow his move to Vienna, his studies with Haydn, his thoughts on Napoleon, and the premiere of the Eroica Symphony. His hearing loss is examined as the catalyst of the new compositional path he will take. x
  • 5
    Symphony No. 1—Beethoven as Classicist—Tradition and Innovation, I
    Lectures 5 and 6 examine the "new path" that Beethoven began with his first symphony. We see his innovations in the context of contemporary events. Symphony no. 1, Beethoven's great Classical symphony, is analyzed along with the musical style and the major musical forms of the Classical era. x
  • 6
    Symphony No. 1—Beethoven as Classicist—Tradition and Innovation, II
    Lectures 5 and 6 examine the "new path" that Beethoven began with his first symphony. We see his innovations in the context of contemporary events. Symphony no. 1, Beethoven's great Classical symphony, is analyzed along with the musical style and the major musical forms of the Classical era. x
  • 7
    Symphony No. 2—Beethoven at the Edge, I
    Lectures 7 and 8 analyze Symphony no. 2 of 1802. We see how this symphony heralded a heroic style that Beethoven fully realized in Symphony no. 3. Also discussed is the Heiligenstadt Testament, a letter he wrote about his personal crisis as he realized he was going deaf. We consider how Beethoven's development as a composer was affected by his fight with deafness. x
  • 8
    Symphony No. 2—Beethoven at the Edge, II
    Lectures 7 and 8 analyze Symphony no. 2 of 1802. We see how this symphony heralded a heroic style that Beethoven fully realized in Symphony no. 3. Also discussed is the Heiligenstadt Testament, a letter he wrote about his personal crisis as he realized he was going deaf. We consider how Beethoven's development as a composer was affected by his fight with deafness. x
  • 9
    Symphony No. 3—The "New Path"—Heroism and Self-Expression, I
    Lectures 9 through 12 focus on Symphony no. 3, the Eroica Symphony. This key work in Beethoven's compositional revolution resulted from his crisis of going deaf. Beethoven's struggle with his disability raised him to a new level of creativity. Symphony no. 3 parallels his heroic battle with and ultimate triumph over adversity. The symphony's debt to Napoleon is discussed before an analysis. x
  • 10
    Symphony No. 3—The "New Path"—Heroism and Self-Expression, II
    Lectures 9 through 12 focus on Symphony no. 3, the Eroica Symphony. This key work in Beethoven's compositional revolution resulted from his crisis of going deaf. Beethoven's struggle with his disability raised him to a new level of creativity. Symphony no. 3 parallels his heroic battle with and ultimate triumph over adversity. The symphony's debt to Napoleon is discussed before an analysis. x
  • 11
    Symphony No. 3—The "New Path"—Heroism and Self-Expression, III
    Lectures 9 through 12 focus on Symphony no. 3, the Eroica Symphony. This key work in Beethoven's compositional revolution resulted from his crisis of going deaf. Beethoven's struggle with his disability raised him to a new level of creativity. Symphony no. 3 parallels his heroic battle with and ultimate triumph over adversity. The symphony's debt to Napoleon is discussed before an analysis. x
  • 12
    Symphony No. 3—The "New Path"—Heroism and Self-Expression, IV
    Lectures 9 through 12 focus on Symphony no. 3, the Eroica Symphony. This key work in Beethoven's compositional revolution resulted from his crisis of going deaf. Beethoven's struggle with his disability raised him to a new level of creativity. Symphony no. 3 parallels his heroic battle with and ultimate triumph over adversity. The symphony's debt to Napoleon is discussed before an analysis. x
  • 13
    Symphony No. 4—Consolidation of the New Aesthetic, I
    Lectures 13 through 16 examine Symphony no. 4 in historical context and in its relationship to opera buffa. Symphony no. 4 is the most infrequently heard of his symphonies. We see how it represents a return to a Classical structure. Its framework is filled with iconoclastic rhythms, harmonies, and characteristic motivic developments that mark it as a product of Beethoven's post-Eroica period. x
  • 14
    Symphony No. 4—Consolidation of the New Aesthetic, II
    Lectures 13 through 16 examine Symphony no. 4 in historical context and in its relationship to opera buffa. Symphony no. 4 is the most infrequently heard of his symphonies. We see how it represents a return to a Classical structure. Its framework is filled with iconoclastic rhythms, harmonies, and characteristic motivic developments that mark it as a product of Beethoven's post-Eroica period. x
  • 15
    Symphony No. 4—Consolidation of the New Aesthetic, III
    Lectures 13 through 16 examine Symphony no. 4 in historical context and in its relationship to opera buffa. Symphony no. 4 is the most infrequently heard of his symphonies. We see how it represents a return to a Classical structure. Its framework is filled with iconoclastic rhythms, harmonies, and characteristic motivic developments that mark it as a product of Beethoven's post-Eroica period. x
  • 16
    Symphony No. 4—Consolidation of the New Aesthetic, IV
    Lectures 13 through 16 examine Symphony no. 4 in historical context and in its relationship to opera buffa. Symphony no. 4 is the most infrequently heard of his symphonies. We see how it represents a return to a Classical structure. Its framework is filled with iconoclastic rhythms, harmonies, and characteristic motivic developments that mark it as a product of Beethoven's post-Eroica period. x
  • 17
    Symphony No. 5—The Expressive Ideal Fully Formed, I
    Lectures 17 through 19 focus on Symphony no. 5 with references to its disastrous 1808 premiere and an in-depth analysis of the score. Beethoven is revealed as an extraordinary and unprecedented master of the art of developing entire movements from small, seemingly inconsequential motives. Symphony no. 5 also shows him to have a revolutionary concept of rhythm as a narrative element and a key factor in generating drama. x
  • 18
    Symphony No. 5—The Expressive Ideal Fully Formed, II
    Lectures 17 through 19 focus on Symphony no. 5 with references to its disastrous 1808 premiere and an in-depth analysis of the score. Beethoven is revealed as an extraordinary and unprecedented master of the art of developing entire movements from small, seemingly inconsequential motives. Symphony no. 5 also shows him to have a revolutionary concept of rhythm as a narrative element and a key factor in generating drama. x
  • 19
    Symphony No. 5—The Expressive Ideal Fully Formed, III
    Lectures 17 through 19 focus on Symphony no. 5 with references to its disastrous 1808 premiere and an in-depth analysis of the score. Beethoven is revealed as an extraordinary and unprecedented master of the art of developing entire movements from small, seemingly inconsequential motives. Symphony no. 5 also shows him to have a revolutionary concept of rhythm as a narrative element and a key factor in generating drama. x
  • 20
    Symphony No. 6—The Symphony as Program, I
    Lectures 20 through 22 discuss Symphony no. 6 as an example of pure expression, representative of Beethoven's love of nature and the countryside. We see how Beethoven elevated program music to heights it had not previously enjoyed, presaging the Romantic era's love affair with the genre. We examine how Symphony no. 6 is as different from Symphonies no. 5 and 7 as night from day. x
  • 21
    Symphony No. 6—The Symphony as Program, II
    Lectures 20 through 22 discuss Symphony no. 6 as an example of pure expression, representative of Beethoven's love of nature and the countryside. We see how Beethoven elevated program music to heights it had not previously enjoyed, presaging the Romantic era's love affair with the genre. We examine how Symphony no. 6 is as different from Symphonies no. 5 and 7 as night from day. x
  • 22
    Symphony No. 6—The Symphony as Program, III
    Lectures 20 through 22 discuss Symphony no. 6 as an example of pure expression, representative of Beethoven's love of nature and the countryside. We see how Beethoven elevated program music to heights it had not previously enjoyed, presaging the Romantic era's love affair with the genre. We examine how Symphony no. 6 is as different from Symphonies no. 5 and 7 as night from day. x
  • 23
    Symphony No. 7—The Symphony as Dance, I
    Lectures 23 and 24 discuss Beethoven's Symphony no. 7 with references to the historical and personal events surrounding its composition. The essence of the symphony is seen to be the power of rhythm, and originality is seen to be an important artistic goal for Beethoven. x
  • 24
    Symphony No. 7—The Symphony as Dance, II
    Lectures 23 and 24 discuss Beethoven's Symphony no. 7 with references to the historical and personal events surrounding its composition. The essence of the symphony is seen to be the power of rhythm, and originality is seen to be an important artistic goal for Beethoven. x
  • 25
    Symphony No. 8—Homage to Classicism, I
    Lectures 25 through 27 discuss Beethoven's Symphony no. 8 of 1814, and refer to the personal and political events that affected Beethoven's life. We learn how Symphony no. 8, reminiscent of the Classical style, is a "modern" work, full of Beethoven's personality. Other topics discussed include the "Immortal Beloved" affair, Beethoven's deteriorating health, Napoleon's demise, Wellington's Victory, and the meteoric rise of Beethoven's popularity in 1814. x
  • 26
    Symphony No. 8—Homage to Classicism, II
    Lectures 25 through 27 discuss Beethoven's Symphony no. 8 of 1814, and refer to the personal and political events that affected Beethoven's life. We learn how Symphony no. 8, reminiscent of the Classical style, is a "modern" work, full of Beethoven's personality. Other topics discussed include the "Immortal Beloved" affair, Beethoven's deteriorating health, Napoleon's demise, Wellington's Victory, and the meteoric rise of Beethoven's popularity in 1814. x
  • 27
    Symphony No. 8—Homage to Classicism, III
    Lectures 25 through 27 discuss Beethoven's Symphony no. 8 of 1814, and refer to the personal and political events that affected Beethoven's life. We learn how Symphony no. 8, reminiscent of the Classical style, is a "modern" work, full of Beethoven's personality. Other topics discussed include the "Immortal Beloved" affair, Beethoven's deteriorating health, Napoleon's demise, Wellington's Victory, and the meteoric rise of Beethoven's popularity in 1814. x
  • 28
    Symphony No. 9—The Symphony as the World, I
    The last five lectures are devoted to Symphony no. 9, the most influential Western musical composition of the 19th century and the most influential symphony ever written. We see how this work obliterated distinctions between the instrumental symphony and dramatic vocal works such as opera. Also discussed are Beethoven's fall from public favor in 1815, his disastrous relationship with his nephew Karl, his artistic rebirth around 1820, his late compositions, and his death in 1827. x
  • 29
    Symphony No. 9—The Symphony as the World, II
    The last five lectures are devoted to Symphony no. 9, the most influential Western musical composition of the 19th century and the most influential symphony ever written. We see how this work obliterated distinctions between the instrumental symphony and dramatic vocal works such as opera. Also discussed are Beethoven's fall from public favor in 1815, his disastrous relationship with his nephew Karl, his artistic rebirth around 1820, his late compositions, and his death in 1827. x
  • 30
    Symphony No. 9—The Symphony as the World, III
    The last five lectures are devoted to Symphony no. 9, the most influential Western musical composition of the 19th century and the most influential symphony ever written. We see how this work obliterated distinctions between the instrumental symphony and dramatic vocal works such as opera. Also discussed are Beethoven's fall from public favor in 1815, his disastrous relationship with his nephew Karl, his artistic rebirth around 1820, his late compositions, and his death in 1827. x
  • 31
    Symphony No. 9—The Symphony as the World, IV
    The last five lectures are devoted to Symphony no. 9, the most influential Western musical composition of the 19th century and the most influential symphony ever written. We see how this work obliterated distinctions between the instrumental symphony and dramatic vocal works such as opera. Also discussed are Beethoven's fall from public favor in 1815, his disastrous relationship with his nephew Karl, his artistic rebirth around 1820, his late compositions, and his death in 1827. x
  • 32
    Symphony No. 9—The Symphony as the World, V
    The last five lectures are devoted to Symphony no. 9, the most influential Western musical composition of the 19th century and the most influential symphony ever written. We see how this work obliterated distinctions between the instrumental symphony and dramatic vocal works such as opera. Also discussed are Beethoven's fall from public favor in 1815, his disastrous relationship with his nephew Karl, his artistic rebirth around 1820, his late compositions, and his death in 1827. x

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Your professor

Robert Greenberg

About Your Professor

Robert Greenberg, Ph.D.
San Francisco Performances
Dr. Robert Greenberg is Music Historian-in-Residence with San Francisco Performances. A graduate of Princeton University, Professor Greenberg holds a Ph.D. in Music Composition from the University of California, Berkeley. He has seen his compositions—which include more than 45 works for a wide variety of instrumental and vocal ensembles—performed all over the world, including New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Los Angeles,...
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Reviews

Symphonies of Beethoven is rated 4.9 out of 5 by 68.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An Oldie but Goodie My bias - I encountered Greenberg with his programs on KKHI in the late 80s. My dormant interest in music, particularly concert hall music, took off. I started with Teaching Co only because of his courses, and I try to get every one I can afford. That said, my problems with these are always with the production and never with the instructor or content. In this case, the course is old, so the production is unpolished, the audio mixing was poor (papers rustling during music clips), but the understanding of Beethoven's symphonies gained is simply terrific. Highly recommended.
Date published: 2018-09-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great stuff ! I am learning a lot about Mr. B's symphonies. These courses make listening so much richer !
Date published: 2018-08-31
Rated 2 out of 5 by from All Trees, No forest The scope of “The Symphonies of Beethoven” is that it includes the history and analysis of Beethoven’s nine symphonies, and describes how the composer revolutionized the classical concept of musical composition in his approach to form, rhythm, harmony, melody, drama, and self-expression. The goals and objectives of the course would be more helpful to the prospective audience if it included the prerequisites that would maximize learning. In this regard, after taking this course, preparation for understanding Professor Greenberg’s presentation requires background musical material not common in the general population, e.g., basics of musical form, rhythm, harmony, melody, and orchestration. Professor Greenberg provides in great detail the musical techniques and strategies Beethoven used in his symphonies, demonstrating the composer’s influence on the development of music composition. Professor Greenberg has created a method for describing the creation of music, called WordScore Guide™. Copies of it in the guidebook are used for the detailed exposition of each piece. Unfortunately, his copy is on 8.5 by 11 inch paper that does not easily fit on standard size notebook paper and detracts from its usefulness. As indicated in the course description, Professor Greenberg correlates extant sociopolitical developments and physical infirmities with Beethoven’s psychosocial response to them. This is a novel approach Dr. Greenberg has used in his other Great Course programs. Whether this is a valid causal relationship is arguable. Professor Greenberg’s detailed musical analysis that includes a notational characterization of the contents of every single symphonic measure is an outstanding achievement. To the uninitiated, it is distractive, like not seeing the forest for the trees.
Date published: 2018-08-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Informative and Entertaining What I love about this course are the insights into listening to the symphonies. I know some of the works very well but am now introduced to others. I have always had difficulties identifying all of the themes and Dr. Greenberg walks through the pieces and identifies them clearly. He is funny and so knowledgeable.
Date published: 2018-02-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Musicology at its finest! Beethoven's ninth symphony is to symphonic music as Tolstoy's War and Peace is to literature and da Vinci's Mona Lisa is to painting. Professor Greenberg brings to life the nine symphonies, and illuminates the differences among them. This is a tour d'force of musicology. In this course, one not only learns the music, but the variations in keys, and differences in cadence and rhythm. Professor Greenberg defines and uses musical terminology as it is written in the musical score by Beethoven, and uses it to describe variations in rhythm and transitions. For me, this was a course that I wanted to continue beyond its end. Beethoven was a craftsman of composition, and a master of using instruments of the symphony to evoke joy or despair. Principally, through changes in key from major keys to minor keys, he could produce serenity, flowing water, brilliant night skies, or inner turmoil, foreboding, and threat. This is my fifth course by Professor Greenberg. In retrospect, I would want this to be the third course in my musical series. I recommend first The Fundamentals of Music, followed by The Symphony. The Symphonies of Beethoven bring these first two courses together into a deeper musical education. From my perspective, other courses on opera, and on individual composers will have more meaning if taken after these first three courses. In summary, this is a marvelous course. Professor Greenberg is at his best!
Date published: 2017-12-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Another Greenberg hit! I now have studied Greenberg's series of lectures on Beethoven's sonatas, string quartets, and symphonies. Two semesters in a university school of music would not have been as instructive or enjoyable.He's a great teacher.
Date published: 2017-11-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Superb Teacher of Music I'm posting the same review for the many courses offered by Robert Greenberg I have taken. He is superb at explaining music, how it works and why it feels the way it does when you hear it. His courses greatly enhance my appreciation of the music, not just soon after taking his course but over the years thereafter. This is the best gif many fine courses I've taken from the Teaching Company.
Date published: 2017-05-28
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Good Course, Depending on Audience I bought the audio CD version of this course. I enjoyed it, but I would have been lost if I hadn't taken the "Understanding the Fundamentals of Music" course first. I'm a casual listener, not a musician. The course seemed to be aimed at both, there was a lot of information that was too detailed for me but enough that I understood to keep me interested. The DVD version might be better in that the teacher refers to note and staff measures in the course booklet. It might be easier if that is on the TV screen.
Date published: 2017-05-02
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