The Ottoman Empire

Course No. 3160
Professor Kenneth W. Harl, Ph.D.
Tulane University
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Course No. 3160
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What Will You Learn?

  • numbers Learn why Sultan Suleiman I is considered one of the Ottoman Empire's most important political rulers.
  • numbers Make sense of the public - and private - politics of the grand Ottoman court.
  • numbers Appreciate the empire's many cultural contributions, including mosques and illuminated manuscripts.
  • numbers Examine reasons why the Ottoman Empire collapsed after the First World War.
  • numbers Ponder how the legacy of the Ottoman Empire continues to shape the Middle East today.

Course Overview

When confronting the future, nations and civilizations always look to the past for guidance, lessons, and a shared sense of purpose and meaning. For the peoples of the Middle East, that immediate past is the Ottoman Empire.

In the West, we often overlook the fact that the achievements of the Ottoman Empire at the zenith of its power matched those of contemporary Western Europe – as well as the other great Islamic states of Safavid Iran and Mughal India. According to Kenneth W. Harl, award-winning professor of Classical and Byzantine history at Tulane University, “the cultural achievements of Ottoman civilization still endure, and they speak of a wealthy and sophisticated Islamic civilization.”

It is by understanding the vast, dramatic story of the Ottoman Empire – from its early years as a collection of raiders and conquerors to its undeniable power in the 15th and 16th centuries to its catastrophic collapse in the wreckage of the First World War – that one can better grasp the current complexities of the Middle East, including geopolitical tensions between Turkey and its Balkan and Middle Eastern neighbors, the sustained political and cultural power of Islam, and the balancing act between religious tradition and cultural modernity.

What made the Ottoman Empire such a match with the empires of the early modern world? What, in fact, made this empire unlike any other in human history? What forces were responsible for shaping this brilliant civilization—and what forces led to its ultimate destruction? These are just some of the questions you’ll explore alongside Professor Harl in The Ottoman Empire. Over the course of 36 historically rich and enlightening lectures, you’ll investigate more than 600 years of history that cover the nature of Ottoman identity, the achievements and oddities of the Sultan’s court, and stories of confrontation and cooperation with the West. The result: a better appreciation for the ways in which the Ottomans created a unique way of life – and how that way of life echoes throughout Europe and across the Middle East. 

From “Sublime Porte” to “Sick Man”

To the emissaries of King Francis I in 1536, the Ottoman Empire was called the “Sublime Porte,” referring to the magnificence of the high gate within the empire’s grand Topkapı palace complex. More than 200 years later, Tsar Nicholas I referred to the empire— beginning to lose territory and power—as “the Sick Man of Europe.” Less than 100 years after that, the empire disappeared.

The Ottoman Empire guides you through the rise, flourishing, and fall of one of the most powerful forces in history in a way that makes historical themes and ideas easy to understand. Working chronologically from the empire’s medieval roots to its rebirth as the modern republic of Turkey, Professor Harl groups the lectures around a series of historical moments and themes.

  • An Empire is Born: You’ll get an in-depth look at how the Ottoman Empire was first created, and you’ll follow the learning journey it took up through 1632, during the reign of Sultan Murat IV. Along the way, you’ll meet rulers seldom equaled by any other dynasty, including Suleiman the Magnificent – who reigned from 1520 to 1566 and whose iconic rule is still hailed as the apex of Ottoman power.
  • The High Ottoman Empire: The classical age of the Ottoman Empire is commonly held as the time between 1453 and 1699. What were its political and religious institutions like? What cultural advancements were made? You’ll dive into two centuries of vitality and originality, covering everything from the imperial economy to Islamic building programs to the development of miniature manuscript paintings.
  • When East Met West: Central to the classical age of the Ottoman Empire was its complex relationship with its eastern and Western neighbors, from Safavid Iran to European traders, who both engaged with – and threatened – the traditional Ottoman order. You’ll consider how wars and treaties with the Holy Roman Empire, Venice, Russia and more shifted the balance of power that would pave the way for the empire’s ultimate decline.
  • Reform, Collapse, Rebirth: Starting in the late 17th century, the Ottoman Empire began its slow decline, collapse, and partition. After which, a rebirth occurred in the form of the republic of Turkey. Professor Harl unpacks the various historical forces responsible for this, chief among them the First World War and the leadership of Mustafa Kemal.

People, Events, and Themes that Made an Empire

Befitting a story of such epic scope and grandeur, every lecture of The Ottoman Empire is a treasure trove of historical nuggets and fascinating insights into the people, events, themes, and locales responsible for shaping the story of this often overlooked empire.

Told with Professor Harl’s characteristic detail and insight, these and other topics are just a few of what you’ll find laid in these 36 lectures.

  • Rumi and the Whirling Dervishes. One of the central figures in the early spiritual transformation of Anatolia was Jalal-ud-din Rumi who, along with his followers, the iconic “whirling dervishes,” used Sufism to create a folk Islam linked to the mores of Anatolian village life.
  • Selim the Grim. An ambitious victor of a civil war in 1512, Selim earned his terrifying moniker, Yavuz (“the Grim”), after ordering the execution of all challenges to his rule, including his half-brother, his nephews, and his cousins.
  • The Sultan’s Deputies. Something of the Turkish sultan’s right-hand man, the grand viziers, after the mid-16th century, began to assume the foreign policy and administrative power from sultans, who found themselves more involved with spiritual and ceremonial matters.
  • Suleiman’s Wars. Not only was Suleiman I one of the Ottoman Empire’s most decisive, influential rulers, he also waged several fierce military campaigns against Safavid Iran (the empire’s main Eastern rival) that were less about territory and more about competing religious claims as to who would lead the Islamic world.
  • The Committee of Union and Progress. Between 1909 and 1911, the CUP dominated the Ottoman parliament as something of a shadow government ruling through repression. This is a political model that, Professor Harl notes, would be transmitted to the empire’s successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East.

A Fascinating Story Told by a Great Storyteller

Over the years, Professor Harl has been acclaimed by lifelong learners for his ability to untangle historical complexities and recreate the thrill of making historical connections. As a seasoned member of The Great Courses faculty, his expertise in the Classical and Byzantine eras (including scholarly work on classical Anatolia) makes him the perfect guide through centuries of fascinating history.

The winner of numerous teaching awards, including Tulane University’s Sheldon Hackney Award for Excellence in Teaching (on two occasions), Professor Harl has a preternatural ability to make the intricate layers and interconnections of an entire civilization’s history graspable.

A visually rich course, the video editions of The Ottoman Empire come complete with helpful maps that show the historic expansion (and contraction) of the empire; portraits that put a face with some of the many people you encounter in these lectures; photographs and illustrations of Ottoman architecture, illuminated manuscripts, and historic landscapes; and much more.

Welcome to a fascinating story of the triumph and tragedy, war and peace, intellectual progress and civil insurrection of a great empire that, for all its glory and grandeur, has left an important legacy that will shape the future of the Balkan nation-states, the Turkish Republic, and the Arab world – and those of us in the West as well.

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36 lectures
 |  Average 31 minutes each
  • 1
    Sublime Porte: Visions of the Ottoman Empire
    How should one consider the vast history of the Ottoman Empire? Professor Harl sets the stage for the lectures to come with a consideration of key themes in the empire’s journey from “Sublime Porte” to “Sick Man of Europe” – as well as the distorting images of Orientalism. x
  • 2
    Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor
    Ottoman sultans traced their origins to the Oghuz Turks of the Central Eurasian steppes, whose nomadic ways of life were transformed by Islam. Follow along as the subsequent Seljuk Turks evolve from raiders to conquerors–and spark conflict with Western Europe’s religious pilgrims. x
  • 3
    The Islamization of Asia Minor
    First, learn how the Seljuk sultans created an Islamic Turkish Anatolia, which would become the heartland of future Ottoman sultans. Then, explore Seljuk developments in architecture, decorative art, and religion – including domed mosques, medresses (religious schools), and “whirling dervishes.” x
  • 4
    Ottoman Sultans of Bursa
    Meet the sultans who transformed the Ottoman sultanate into an imperial state. Among these: Orhan, who made Bursa the state’s capital; Murad I and Bayezid I, who incorporated Asia Minor into the Ottoman state; and “the Thunderbolt,” who forged an empire of tributaries in the Balkans and Anatolia. x
  • 5
    Defeat and Recovery, 1402–1451
    The defeat of Sultan Bayezid by Tamerlane at the Battle of Angora revealed the fragile nature of the nascent Ottoman sultanate. Focus on the empire’s recovery under Mehmed I Çelebi and Murad II, who made the empire into a bureaucratic monarchy and defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Varna. x
  • 6
    Mehmet the Conqueror, 1451–1481
    Mehmet the Conqueror made the Ottoman sultanate a leading Muslim power by 1481. In this lecture, investigate his remarkable rule, which included the conquest of Constantinople, the remodeling of the Hagia Sophia as a mosque, and the construction of the grand, walled mini-city of Topkapı. x
  • 7
    Selim the Grim and the Conquest of Cairo
    In 1512, Selim emerged victorious from the ashes of a civil war and executed all challenges to his rule (earning him the sobriquet “the Grim”). Go inside Selim’s military campaigns against Iran, Syria, and Egypt, which helped make the Ottoman Empire virtually synonymous with the “house of Islam.” x
  • 8
    Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520–1566
    Suleiman the Magnificent presided over the zenith of the Ottoman Empire. You’ll learn how, during his 46-year reign, he expanded civil bureaucracy, waged a naval war in the Mediterranean against Habsburg Spain, and also altered the imperial succession–sowing what some historians consider the seeds of the empire’s downfall. x
  • 9
    Sultans in Topkapı, 1566–1648
    Turn now to a period of decline, most notable for the emergence of the harem as a powerful political institution. Meet sultans including Murad III, a patron of the arts (especially miniaturist painting) and Ahmet I, an ineffective 13-year-old who presided over the “Sultanate of Women.” x
  • 10
    The Sultan-Caliph and His Servants
    Ottoman sultans played two roles: as sultan/warrior and as the caliph of Sunni Islam. Here, unpack the role of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, including his relationship with the ulema (religious experts), his central administration (called the Porte"), and with his viziers." x
  • 11
    Timariots, Peasants, and Pastoralists
    Between 1500 and 1800, the Ottoman Empire spread across more than 1 million square miles–but economic activity varied from region to region. Discover how groups like pastoralists and the Muslim gentry (timariots) played their own critical roles in the drama and resiliency of the rural Ottoman economy. x
  • 12
    Trade, Money, and Cities
    Trade was vital to the Ottoman Empire – as well as a cause for its decline from “Porte” to “Sick Man of Europe.” Trace some of the empire’s most prominent trade routes, including the iconic Silk Road, as well as the British penetration of Ottoman markets in 1838. x
  • 13
    Arabs under the Ottoman Caliph
    For 300 years, Ottoman Sultans ruled the majority of Arabs. How did “the Porte” successfully administer the diverse Arab provinces under its control? How did “the Porte” respect Islamic traditions? Why were the Arabs so loyal to the empire up until the early 19th century? x
  • 14
    Christians and Jews under the Porte
    Under the Ottomans, Christian and Jewish subjects were classified as dhimmi (“people of the book”) and were afford legal protection and the right to practice their faith. Explore daily life in some of the Christian and Jewish communities (millet) scattered across the empire. x
  • 15
    Sunni Islam and Ottoman Civilization
    Go deeper inside the details of Ottoman civilization. Among the topics you'll explore are the transformation of Turkish into a new literary language; the importance of calligraphy and miniaturist painting; intellectual developments in history and geography; and, finally, the cultural influence of the Sufis. x
  • 16
    Ottoman Constantinople
    What was Constantinople like under Ottoman control? Professor Harl shows how the empire became a veritable paradise among Muslim cities, with markets and mosque complexes, social activities and public spaces, and the grandeur of Topkapı, which you’ll see through the eyes of French Ambassadors sent in 1536. x
  • 17
    The Sultan at War: The Ottoman Army
    Sultans between the reigns of Murad II and Mehmet IV commanded one of the finest armies in Eurasia. Discover how the Ottoman imperial army matched Europe's best, how money was raised to meet the rising costs of war, why the Ottoman army suffered decisive defeats, and more. x
  • 18
    Sultan and Shah: Challenge of Safavid Iran
    The Ottoman Sultan and the Safavid Shah clashed frequently over strategic lands between the two civilizations. First, learn why Safavid Iran was the religious and ideological rival of “the Porte.” Then, examine five major wars the Ottomans waged against their rivals between 1514 and 1722. x
  • 19
    Sultan and Emperor: War in the West
    Visit the empire’s northern border in Europe to explore its military clashes with the West. Why was fighting in Central Europe so indecisive? Why did the Long-Turkish War prove so embarrassing for three sultans? How did “the Porte” come to ease tensions with the Habsburgs after 1605? x
  • 20
    Sultan and Venice: War in the Mediterranean
    Learn why Ottoman success at sea in the 1500s stemmed from Suleiman's strategic vision and the skills of his admirals. Along the way, you'll investigate Suleiman's war against Venice, the Siege of Malta, the Battle of Lepanto, and battles with another European naval power: Portugal. x
  • 21
    Köprülü Viziers and Imperial Revival
    Professor Harl reveals how a dynasty of Grand Viziers and bureaucrats rescued the Ottoman Empire from factions and court intrigue, then guided the empire through various crises between 1683 and 1699, helping to end the ruinous war against Venice, as well as end political instability within the House of Osman. x
  • 22
    The Empire at Bay, 1699–1798
    In this lecture, learn why the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz is a turning point in Ottoman history–another that marked the empire’s steady decline into the “Sick Man of Europe.” Central to this lecture: the Ottoman military’s engagement with a powerful new Christian foe: Catherine the Great. x
  • 23
    Napoleon Invades Ottoman Egypt
    France's occupation of Egypt from 1798 to 1801 compromised the restoration of Ottoman rule in the country. And, as you'll learn, Napoleon's invasion also marked the first instance of the Muslim Middle East's encounter with modernity and political reforms based on the principles of the French Revolution. x
  • 24
    Crisis: Muhammad Ali and Balkan Nationalists
    Learn how Muhammad Ali exploited the confusion in Egypt after Napoleon's departure and, in 35 years, became the first successful Muslim ruler to transform Egypt into the literary and intellectual center of the Arabic-speaking world. Also, consider several Serbian and Greek revolts that rocked the Ottoman Empire. x
  • 25
    Tanzimat and Modernization, 1839–1876
    First, examine how the reforms of professional ministers led by Mustafa Reşid Paşa ushered in a massive reorganization (Tanzimat) of both the Ottoman State and Ottoman society. Then, consider how Tanzimat widened divisions within Ottoman society and failed to make the empire a member of the Concert of Europe. x
  • 26
    Defeat and Retreat: The Sick Man of Europe
    How did the Crimean War vindicate the reformers of Tanzimat? Why was the Treaty of Paris a strategic victory for “the Porte”—that came at a high price? What impact did the empire’s catastrophic defeat during the Russo-Turkish War have on its future with the Concert of Europe? x
  • 27
    The Sultan Returns: Abdül Hamid II, 1876–1908
    On December 23, 1876, Sultan Abdül Hamid II proclaimed the first Ottoman constitution. Eleven months later, it was suspended, along with its Parliament. Go inside this period of continued reform, which tied “the Porte” to an alliance with Germany and ultimately led to Sultan Hamid II’s downfall. x
  • 28
    Constitutional Reform, 1908–1913
    Turn now to the Second Constitutional Period, which raised hopes for imperial recovery and reform but ended with the domination of power by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Thus emerged a shadow government that became an unintended dress rehearsal for future one-party dictatorships. x
  • 29
    War in Libya and the Balkans, 1911–1913
    Discover why the Ottoman government was ill-prepared for both the Italo-Turkish War and the First Balkan War. Experience its stunning defeat by the improbable alliance of Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria. Learn why the Treaty of Constantinople almost assured the outbreak of another Balkan war. x
  • 30
    The Road to World War I
    Using recent research (based on Russian and Ottoman archives), learn why the Ottoman Empire entered the First World War. What role did the defeats of 1911–1913 play in the road to war? Why did Ottoman ministers negotiate favorable terms with Germany in exchange for entrance into the war? x
  • 31
    The Empire at Total War, 1914–1916
    Though it entered the First World War enthusiastically, the Ottoman Empire was not prepared for total war. In this lecture, focus on the empire's offensives against the Russian Caucasus Army and the Suez Canal, as well as its struggle against an impending British invasion in the Dardanelles. x
  • 32
    Ottoman Collapse, 1916–1918
    By 1916, the Ottoman Empire was fighting for its very survival. Professor Harl reveals the impact of the Russian Revolution on the war, the steady deterioration of the empire over the course of the fighting, and the army's ultimate collapse, which came suddenly and unexpectedly, in late 1918. x
  • 33
    Mustafa Kemal, Atatürk
    Meet the “father of the Turks”: Mustafa Kemal. By following his life and career, you’ll come away from this fascinating lecture with a well-rounded understanding of how he came to play such a decisive role in the modernization of Turkish civilization and the creation of the Turkish Republic. x
  • 34
    Casualties of War and Ethnic Cleansing
    The best estimate is that a total of 800,000 Armenians died between 1915 and 1921. In this powerful lecture, examine why the destruction of the Armenian community has come to be seen as the first in a series of similar events that would wreak havoc on the 20th century. x
  • 35
    The Emergence of the Turkish Republic
    Under Mustafa Kemal, Islamic tradition was seen as an obstacle to joining European civilization. How did Kemal and the Turkish Parliament approach the daunting task of transforming the imperial heartland into the Turkish Republic? How are Turks today wrestling with their Ottoman legacy? x
  • 36
    Nation-States, Islam, and the Ottoman Legacy
    Conclude with an insightful look at how the legacy of the Ottoman Empire still influences the Middle East–and will continue to do so in the future. Each of the empire’s successor states, you’ll learn, has its own perceptions of this legacy, and its own lessons learned from history. x

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  • 303-page printed course guidebook
  • Suggested Reading
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  • Bibliography

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Your professor

Kenneth W. Harl

About Your Professor

Kenneth W. Harl, Ph.D.
Tulane University
Dr. Kenneth W. Harl is Professor of Classical and Byzantine History at Tulane University in New Orleans, where he teaches courses in Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Crusader history. He earned his B.A. from Trinity College and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University. Recognized as an outstanding lecturer, Professor Harl has received numerous teaching awards at Tulane, including the coveted Sheldon H. Hackney Award. He has...
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The Ottoman Empire is rated 4.3 out of 5 by 94.
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Knowledegable Historian But Some Bias I have enjoyed several of Professor Harl's courses. He provides a ton of information. It helps to read the course guidebook for each chapter before going to the video to get the most out of each lecture. And his maps are very an excellent learning aid. One of area of criticism is his treatment of Armenian Genocide and Greek massacres. From my prior knowledge, it seems to me that he justifies or at least, minimizes these actions, by saying things like "Armenians and Greeks committed their fair share of massacres." It is now well known, that the scale of massacres, particularly against the Armenians, were genocide.
Date published: 2020-11-17
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Horrible! I’ve watched the first few lectures and I’m dizzy from the avalanche of names, dates, events without any explanations of them. How GC approved this course is surprising. I have about 100 courses and this one is seriously poorly executed.
Date published: 2020-08-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Presenter Learned much about a subject of which I knew little.
Date published: 2020-07-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from lecture + visuals = many hours of great learning My wife and I are both history buffs and have been exposed to Prof. Kenneth Harl on several subjects. I am particularly fond of his use of ancient coinage for visual aids when looking at rulers of the past.
Date published: 2020-07-21
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Mongols to NATO...what a trip! Aside from Dr Harl's rapid delivery and immense cast of characters, I found this course to be a fascinating look at a transitional time in history as well as a transitional place in the world...the crossroads between Europe and Asia. Turkey is often discounted as a not-quite-first-world country, yet it boasts of one of the most successful dominions, lasting nearly seven some ways, extending even into modern times. These lectures complement Harl's early sets, including Byzantium and Barbarians of The Steppes (also The Vikings) and help to mesh with lectures series dealing with Western European history. After listening to these lectures I have come to understand WHY the Ottoman Empire was considered the 'poor man of Europe', but understand more fully that, in many ways, its rich legacy has contributed greatly to the western civilization we enjoy today. Recommended, especially when Suleiman The Magnificent and Mehmet the Conqueror agree on a sale and coupon.
Date published: 2020-06-12
Rated 4 out of 5 by from a solid but unpolished history i feel like this course missed an opportunity to be truly gripping. if it had been told as a linear narrative, as a story unfolding, it could have shown what a great tale ottoman history is. instead however prof. harl takes a purely academic approach, in essence giving away the ending at the beginning of each lecture, and then bouncing around in both time and space as he recounts the details. first we’re here, then we’re there, then we’re back in the past, then we’ve leapt forward to the end. it’s perfectly possible to follow it all, but i found this unfocused presentation a little bit frustrating, and again and again i had to wonder how different the course would have been in the hands of a great storyteller. that complaint aside, you do get a solid presentation of ottoman history. i now understand the rise and fall of the ottoman empire much better than i did before, and there were several key points that transformed my understanding, such as the fact that the ottomans had been at war for years before world war I began, and they continued to be at war for years after it ended. other highlights for me included the systematic presentation of the first ten sultans, the close look at the conflict between the sultans and the safavid shahs, and the discussion of arabs in the ottoman empire. personally, i’m not a huge fan of prof. harl’s delivery, particularly in comparison with many of the newer courses which feature very polished speakers. he’s a bit too off the cuff, which i find makes for a rougher ride. i also found that he would usually not stop to explain new terminology: we just start talking about pashas and ghazis and timars without a sufficient pause to define what those are. furthermore, as is often the case in prof. harl’s courses, the guidebook varies considerably from what you get on the screen, to such an extent that it often amounts to a completely different presentation of the same material. the most disappointing part of this course was the lecture on the armenian genocide, in which the professor bends over backwards to excuse the turkish state of responsibility, ultimately refraining from even calling it a genocide. he repeatedly assumes good faith on the part of the turkish leadership; he plays both-sides-ism, as if anything the armenians did was even close to being on the same scale; he claims that all parties in WWI were committing similar atrocities; and he argues that we have to take into account that this happened in the middle of a world war, as if that were not equally true of the holocaust. at no point does he ask the obvious question, which is what did the turkish government think was going to happen if you marched hundreds of thousands of people into the middle of a desert? chillingly, his arguments could equally be deployed to excuse the japanese internment during WWII: it was wartime, the government was paranoid, states have always done this. now i’m not accusing prof. harl of arriving at this position out of any kind of ill will, but i might speculate that he’s spent more time talking about the subject with turks than with armenians. to be fair, out of 36 lectures this one was the only complete failure, but given its subject matter it was a particularly disgraceful one. now i don’t want all these criticisms to create the impression that this was a bad course: it wasn’t. it’s still a perfectly functional history of the ottoman empire, certainly more comprehensive than some, and will likely be very informative for most viewers, as it was for me. i just feel that the ottoman empire deserves a great course, and thanks to the unpolished presentation this one was merely good.
Date published: 2020-06-05
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Incredible linsight! I am almost done watching this course and have learned so much. He is a wealth of knowledge. I own about 50 courses and the course is one of my favorites. Sometime he trips over his words but that does not detract for the information he presents. Buy a video version of this course and not an audio because he uses extensive maps of the ebb and flow of the empire. You would be lost without the video. It is a big empire!
Date published: 2020-01-27
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Good Info. Broad coverage. But some weaknesses I've read a good number of the negative and positive reviews of this course. They both have their points. My wife and I have been to Turkey several times, so we had a rudimentary familiarity with the material that Prof. Harl is covering. I can sympathize with the complaints of some reviewers who had little prior knowledge and felt bombarded with rapid-fire facts. Harl does cover hundreds of years and several continents of territory, so I suspect he felt obliged to keep moving along at a brisk clip. We didn't mind that, and over time we were won over by Prof. Harl's passion for the history he was presenting. That said, we agreed with one of the reviewers who noted Harl's pronunciation of Turkish leaves a lot to be desired. My wife and I kept looking at each other and going "huh?" as names and terms were mangled. And yes, his speaking style is rather herky-jerky and the "ums" do build up over all the lectures. I even wondered if he is mildly dyslexic as some words got turned inside out or syllables were reversed in order. A word of caution: Much of the lecture series is devoted to military history. Sultans made moves to expand the Empire, had to defend it in turn, and the helpful maps are often showing the movement of troops or ships. We wished there had been more coverage of the cultural and daily lives of the Ottoman citizens and colonies. There was a fair amount, but only that. Still, I give this 4-stars because I think we got 4-stars worth of information and engagement out of the course. We are glad we purchased and watched it.
Date published: 2019-12-09
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