Understanding Complexity

Course No. 5181
Professor Scott E. Page, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
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Course No. 5181
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Course Overview

Recent years have seen the introduction of concepts from the new and exciting field of complexity science that have captivated the attention of economists, sociologists, engineers, businesspeople, and many others.

These include

  • tipping points, the sociological term used to describe moments when unique or rare phenomena become more commonplace;
  • the wisdom of crowds, the argument that certain types of groups harness information and make decisions in more effective ways than individuals;
  • six degrees of separation, the idea that it takes no more than six steps to find some form of connection between two random individuals; and
  • emergence, the idea that new properties, processes, and structures can emerge unexpectedly from complex systems.

Interest in these intriguing concepts is widespread because of the utility of this field. Complexity science can shed light on why businesses or economies succeed and fail, how epidemics spread and can be stopped, and what causes ecological systems to rebalance themselves after a disaster.

In fact, complexity science is a discipline that may well hold the key to unlocking the secrets of some of the most important forces on Earth. But it's also a science that remains largely unknown, even among well-educated people.

Now you can discover and grasp the fundamentals and applications of this amazing field with Understanding Complexity. Professor Scott E. Page-one of the field's most highly regarded teachers, researchers, and real-world practitioners-introduces you to this vibrant and still evolving discipline. In 12 lucid lectures, you learn how complexity science helps us understand the nature and behavior of systems formed of financial markets, corporations, native cultures, governments, and more.

What Makes a System Complex?

What defines a system as complex, as opposed to being merely

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12 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    Complexity—What Is It? Why Does It Matter?
    Learn what the experts mean when they talk about "complex" systems. Discover why these networks of diverse, connected, and adaptive entities acting in interdependent ways are so powerful, and why understanding them is crucial to so many disciplines. x
  • 2
    Simple, Rugged, and Dancing Landscapes
    Using the concept of a mountainous landscape as both metaphor and mathematical object, you begin to grasp the ways in which concepts like "rugged" or "dancing" landscapes—where adaptation and learning are vital for survival—can be visualized even by nonmathematicians. x
  • 3
    The Interesting In-Between
    You develop your understanding of complexity's key components of interdependence, connectedness, diversity, and adaptation/learning. And you learn—by figuratively dialing the strength of each of these components up or down—why the proper balance between them is essential if a system is to be complex. x
  • 4
    Why Different Is More
    Variance and diversity have very different meanings in the world of complexity theory. Grasping that difference puts you on the way to understanding how complex systems achieve diversity and why diversity enables them to be both innovative and robust, maintaining functionality even when the system is disturbed. x
  • 5
    Explore Exploit—The Fundamental Trade-Off
    Actors in complex systems face a constant tradeoff. Do they exploit the knowledge already learned in past explorations to achieve a solution? Or do they continue to explore, seeking an even better solution? Learn the pros and cons of each, and how the best balance can be achieved. x
  • 6
    Emergence I—Why More Is Different
    One of the most fascinating ideas in complexity theory is that of emergence, the spontaneous creation of order and functionality from the bottom up, with no "central planner" putting them into place. You gain an appreciation of the two kinds of emergence and why each is a source of wonder. x
  • 7
    Emergence II—Network Structure and Function
    Continuing the discussion of emergence, you see how emergence applies to networks and why network theory has become such an active discipline. And you understand how modern complexity theory adds to the study of networks the previously ignored element of space. x
  • 8
    Agent-Based Modeling—The New Tool
    Agent-based modeling—in which computers model complex systems from interdependent agents—may be complexity theory's most promising tool. Its full potential hasn't yet been realized, but this lecture offers a taste of what it can already achieve in disciplines as disparate as fire prevention and disease transmission. x
  • 9
    Feedbacks—Beehives, QWERTY, the Big Sort
    Drill even deeper into the implications of interdependent agents as you focus on the idea of feedbacks—both the positive ones, in which "more creates more," and the negative ones, in which "more creates less." x
  • 10
    The Sand Pile—Self-Organized Criticality
    Complex systems often create large events. Using the example of how a single unscreened passenger in Atlanta delayed flights and passengers across the nation, you are introduced to one of the key concepts that explain how complex systems can be so powerful. x
  • 11
    Complexity versus Uncertainty
    There is a vast difference between thinking of events as "random" and recognizing them as the output of a complex system. Explore three conventional explanations of randomness before turning to a fourth—the interdependent rules-based analysis offered by complexity theory. x
  • 12
    Harnessing Complexity
    Although complex systems can't be controlled, we may well be able, with proper respect, to harness them. Learn why conventional decision theory doesn't work in complex environments and what a proper use of complexity theory might promise us instead. x

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Your professor

Scott E. Page

About Your Professor

Scott E. Page, Ph.D.
University of Michigan
Professor Scott E. Page received a B.A. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan and an M.A. in Mathematics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He then received his M.S. in Business and his Ph.D. in Managerial Economics and Decision Sciences from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He completed his Ph.D. thesis under the guidance of Stan Reiter and Nobel laureate Roger Myerson. He has...
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Understanding Complexity is rated 4.4 out of 5 by 117.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Difficult and profound ideas made clear I have bought a number of great courses over the years, and this has been my best experience. It boils down to me to the effective organization of the lectures, individually and as a sequence. Each lecture has a clear logical progression that is presented up front to the viewer and reinforced through the lecture. This is a difficult subject and I suspect that structure is in part what made it so easy to absorb multiple interrelated concepts. Furthermore, the lectures build on each other, slowly expanding the depth of your understanding of complex adaptive systems. I found the presentation to be very good. The use of visuals, anecdotes, examples, and practical implications were well placed and helpful. The lecturer's sense of humor and personality came through to me, and that connection facilitated my learning. Finally, the content was truly profound. In my view, you can't go back once you start thinking about complex adaptive systems. It has changed my view of social, political, and economic life, of individual agency, and resilience. This is the kind of intellectual stimulation that I seek from the Great Courses. I can't recommend it enough.
Date published: 2019-04-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Brain Food for the everyday Genius I purchased this DVD because of my admiration of Professor Scott Page. His voice is soothing, he smiles and has a very dry sense of humor. The content is overflowing with mystery and promise. Complexity was about a difficult subject delivered in the most engaging way! If there is truth in the idea that using the brain to understand difficult concepts strengthens the brain, then this subject will delight because the subject is worth discovering, knowing and understanding. Professor Page makes understanding, truly understanding, this difficult subject a forehead slapping discovery with a satisfying grin.
Date published: 2018-09-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Absolutely Fantastic! I have purchased a huge array of courses, and Scott Page is unquestionably one of the best professors featured in any of the courses I’ve purchased. Scott has a way of presenting complex concepts in a manner that makes understanding the content easy for anyone. Scott is a truly gifted professor, distilling the essence of the concepts down to a level that any reasonably intelligent individual can easily follow regardless of their background. I would highly recommend this course.
Date published: 2018-06-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great course I wasn't quite sure from the description if this was a course that would be useful, but it proved more than useful. It clarified ideas that were murky in my mind and I only wished I'd had it before I retired.
Date published: 2018-03-30
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An Example of Continuous Learning from Experience This course made me think! I am older, and have several decades of experience in the military and in the private sector. Although I have intuitively understood the difference between control and influence, this course put things in a much more useful perspective. I now understand why I had, and still have, so little control over my local environment. The phrase "we live in a complex world" now has context that it did not have before I took this course. I went through the course over several days, and used the time in between to reflect on my experiences and better understand the why of the outcomes. But it will also be extremely useful in moving forward in my current work on risk and resilience. If you are looking for specifics in mathematical models, you will not find it on this course. But it is an outstanding introduction to concepts, and how complexity affects our work and our lives. It gives me another useful lens through which to view the world.
Date published: 2017-02-05
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Complexity is not same as Chaos theory Am enjoying this even though I have to keep remembering what his metaphors mean. Understanding how to conceptualize this world is fascinating. Instead of study halls when I was a high school student in the public school I wish we could have had access to such learning experiences Ii would have been delightful to have spent my time learning rather than tolerating the luddites that tormented the teachers and the rest of us. I have advised two of my school districts board members about the Great Courses available for students and teachers in our county library system. This one on Complexity could certainly help keep the majority of kids tuned into something besides drugs.
Date published: 2016-07-24
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great Intro I understood essentially nothing about the study of complexity when I started this course. Complexity hadn't been invented yet when I completed my schooling! Professor Page by training is a mathematician who then focused on economics before moving to Complexity as a field of specialization. Despite his background, no math is really required to understand the concepts although if you have had zero about statistics you might have to re-watch certain parts or read the written materials. So this is a very good intro to the field for newcomers. Some things are of course skipped over. For example he briefly describes Gaussian or standard bell-shaped curves, and then skips to power-log distributions without any discussion of asymmetric or skewed-Bell curves. As should be evident from the description the course is 12 half hour lectures on 2 DVD discs. I found Professor Page a very good lecturer. He always started a lecture with an enthusiastic greeting that made me feel as if I were right in a classroom with him. He has a pretty good pace and a dry sense of humor. I always liked listening to the lectures. If I asked for anything more, it would be more visuals-for example, perhaps more visual displays of simulations for the evolution of different types of complex systems. The visuals included were all quite good, but a little infrequent. I would have enjoyed hearing about attempts to model more real-life situations, whether they succeeded or failed, to get a sense of how well the field is doing at modeling and predicting real-world problems like market crashes or the spread of a viral epidemic. Going in I really did not understand, for example, the difference between complex versus chaotic systems, or how either one related to "fractals". Exiting, I had a better sense of the difference and understood many other concepts in the study of complexity. One model presented will stick in my memory as emblematic of the course: the "Game of Life". Also, several excellent quotations. This is a nice intro! It could be worth following up with a more in-depth, maybe a 4 disc course if there is sufficient interest.
Date published: 2016-07-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent content and presentation It would be useful to look into the future and try to predict what applications this new science could possibly have. I am sure there will be many.
Date published: 2016-06-29
Rated 4 out of 5 by from It's over?! Interesting topic. Generally the professor does a good job presenting the information, if a bit dry. This course seemed like it could have used another 6-12 lectures, so 18-24 total. The 12 it has seemed to go by too quick and it "felt" like there was more that could have been covered.
Date published: 2016-05-23
Rated 5 out of 5 by from important subject Fascinating subject and lecture material! This one really held my attention. Of all the great courses watched so far, this one is tops on the repeat list as I think I will get that much more from a second viewing. Yes it is dense, but it allows for a much more realistic analyses of complex anything. Highly recommended and would really like more courses from this professor on this stuff!
Date published: 2016-03-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fast paced amalgam of several analytic disciplines I describe this course as a very rapid overview of multiple overlapping disciplines. As a minimum this course covers portions of applied statistics, industrial engineering, and operations research as its primary subject. If you include the illustrative examples, then the multi-disciplinary nature increases much more. If these primary subjects hold no interest for you and/or are beyond your ken, then I can see how you might not be too enthralled with this course. On the other hand, if you have a background in those primary subjects or are looking to gain insight into such analytics, then you will very much enjoy this course. I have a background in these primary topics and I gained much. I look to apply some of the concepts that Dr. Page imparts in my own applications. Dr. Page is clearly in command of the materiel and is an exceptionally able lecturer; however, I do agree with the other reviews lamenting the lack of graphics. Despite Dr. Page’s tremendous ability to create word pictures, nothing depicts abstract concepts like an actual picture. It is in this regard that having a background in the primary subjects really comes into play. If you don’t have a background in topics akin to operations research, then you will likely have a hard time “seeing” Dr. Page’s oral descriptions. If the Great Courses releases a 2nd edition of this course, that deficiency should be remedied.
Date published: 2016-01-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A good introduction to Complexity... I am not quite through this series, but I am enjoying it a lot. I like the speed and energy of it, though I understand the comments of others that it's going a bit fast. I am probably relatively well-read on the subject, but have done no other course work. So, while I'm not new to the material, I have enjoyed and learned from the lectures. In fact, I'm interlacing these videos with another course I'm watching, and the other course seems way too slow and repetitive in comparison. Dr. Page's course is shorter, but much more meaty, and I have tended to think of "rewarding myself" when I watch these after suffering through the other. My only problem with the lectures is the verbal examples. I understand the point he's trying to make, but to me the examples sometimes don't really illustrate it. For example: Ep 10 - Thermostats don't work like that, Dr. Page! It was presented as if the AC and the heat alternate operation to maintain a constant temperature in a house. Careful... somebody might believe you. Actually, Dr. Page, there is usually a broad dead zone in such controls, so that the heat alone controls the temperature by alternating on and off states, and the resulting temperature curve is a saw-tooth pattern. If it's very cold outside, the on-states are longer and the off-states are shorter. On a warm day, the heat may not run at all, but the AC may not come on either unless manually switched. My Nests are currently in heat/cool mode with a pretty good dead zone where the system does nothing. I have had similar thoughts about some of the other examples, thinking that they really didn't quite apply. That doesn't wipe away the fact that I have enjoyed these lectures and gotten a lot out of them.
Date published: 2015-11-06
Rated 4 out of 5 by from I liked it, but with reservations When I finished the course, I felt that I had learned quite a bit. However, it could have been better. Professor Page is obviously very bright and well educated, and has an excellent understanding of the topic. However, his delivery speed is too rapid, and there is not enough time to consider what he is saying. I also found that so much terminology was presented so rapidly, that, especially after the first few lectures, I was quite confused. As one went on however, terms were re-presented and seemed to make more sense. When we finally reached the last 2 lessons, I felt I had a general understanding of what points he was trying to make. However, I also felt that the approach was broad brush, and there was not enough depth of information presented about any one area. It might have been better to have picked a specific area of complexity, and treated it more deeply. I also agree with some of the other reviewers that there were too few graphics, especially as compared with other courses, and this could have added to better understanding some of the concepts.
Date published: 2015-09-27
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Great content & examples, but not enough graphics A great course that covers a lot of the basics of complex systems, with clear and appropriate examples. The major drawback is a lack of graphics to illustrate all the points in particular the section on complex networks. It seems rather strange to teach complex networks, and their properties without showing any complex network image. It's like teaching someone how to paint with a canvas but no paint brushes...? Otherwise, good content and good speaker.
Date published: 2015-05-25
Rated 3 out of 5 by from nice overview, not enough graphics Complexity sounds like a subject that would have a lot of great visual aids to help understand, but this course was primarily a film of watching the professor talk. It could have been audio-only with little loss in comprehension, which id disappointing. I feel I learned something from this course, but would have learned the same amount if I had listened to it while commuting instead of spending 6 hours in front of the TV.
Date published: 2015-04-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent introduction to topic Professor Page presents a well-paced overview of the subject of complexity that was greatly appreciated by me because I had had little understanding of the subject matter. His use of analogies and examples helps one grasp the essentials of the topic. The course is definitely worthwhile viewing.
Date published: 2015-03-25
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Tangled metaphors are difficult to follow I believe that complexity science is a fascinating and important field, but this class disappointed me. The biggest problem was the style of teaching, which relies heavily on a wide variety of metaphors. I found the metaphors difficult to follow, but there was no alternative -- the lecture studiously avoids mathematics and theoretical terminology. Eventually I discovered that the provided Guidebook uses a more direct approach. Overall, I felt the course lacks depth. Great claims were made for complexity science, but the presentation did not present success stories to back up those claims.
Date published: 2015-01-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Understandable Introduction to Complexity Complexity is a very difficult concept to grasp, but it is a basic characteristic of our universe. This is probably the clearest exposition on the subject and is well worth the effort.
Date published: 2014-12-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Introduction This is an excellent introduction to the subject of complex systems. The professor does a very good job relaying an intuitive understanding and appreciation of the subject matter. I would love to see a follow up to this lecture with one that does get a bit deeper, but I guess I will need to refer to the recommended readings instead. As an aspiring biologist, I believe this should be a required subject for all biologists.
Date published: 2014-08-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great Course This is a great course but would likely be most enjoyed by a person oriented toward mathematics, economics or computer science. It is somewhat technical and challenging for those us more used to the "softer sciences". An engaging and understandable instructor. DVD is well worth the cost. Recommended !
Date published: 2014-05-04
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Phenomenal: Makes Complexity Easy This course is absolutely perfect for the nonscientist or nonmathematician who wants to acquire the concepts and framework of complexity theory. Professor Page is down to earth, engaging, and an excellent presenter who uses vivid, accessible examples from many fields of study. The ideas conveyed have already started to affect my thinking in my areas of concern. Bravo!
Date published: 2014-01-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I thoroughly enjoyed this excellent course and it left me wanting to hear more about the subject. Having covered the fundamentals of the subject in twelve lectures there was no time for actual case studies where the material was applied and how well it worked. I would love to see a followup course with 12 more lectures. I wish that anyone planning to go into politics would watch this course to learn that society is a complex system and that attempts to control rather than guide can bring disaster, no matter how well intentioned. For those of you who picked this course hoping for context for Dr. Strogatz' Chaos course be aware that the links between the two are tenuous and that this course is offered as a business selection, not a math or science one. That being said I am glad I bought this course. I found his discussions of entropy measures, power law distributions and emergence particularly fascinating. I had always felt there was more to Conway's game of life than meets the eye and it is awaiting the right person to dig into it. Dr. Page is a very trained and practiced speaker using hand gestures, movement and variations in speaking style to maintain interest. It comes across as natural for him, not forced.
Date published: 2013-12-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Good Overview Professor Page did a fine job in introducing me to the emerging and very current topic of complexity studies. It is NOT math-heavy but it will stretch your mind to comprehend all the tools which go into modelling complex systems. If you're not into this kind of stuff then steer clear, but if you want to be a bit better informed about this exciting and developing area of research then this course is recommended.
Date published: 2013-11-13
Rated 2 out of 5 by from You will learn that complexity is a complex area One should start by stating the obvious: it may be impossible to teach complexity to the general public unless a minimum level of math and stats is assumed. Having said that, or precisely because of it, I think this course does not achieve much. Even with the masterful presentation skills of Prof. Page, all you will learn is that there are ways to model problems that are not linear (e.g., given your hight, I can give a good estimate of your weight) nor chaotic (i.e., problems that are so hard that are almost impossible to work with). Problems that reside in the middle -- complex problems. The main concern is that without learning how to define these models (of complex events), it is impossible to critically study them. For instance, complex models are routinely used in economics. If we do not understand how these models are constructed, how can we become better informed citizens (with a better understanding of markets, or someone with a more scientific critical view)? I bought this course thinking that a minimal level of math was assumed and that I'd learn the basics of modeling complexity. I was very much mistaken.
Date published: 2013-11-11
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great Introduction to Complexity Science I really enjoyed this offering. Scott Page did a great job presenting. The principal strength of the program is providing a high-level review of complexity terms. I created a glossary from the materials and will use it as a springboard for further study in the field. My only substance suggestion -- have more graphics in the presentation. My only style suggestion - use a more modern backdrop for the lectures, the globe, fake window are dated for sure.
Date published: 2013-10-18
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very Good Start on a Complex Subject I really enjoyed this course and do recommend it to people who enjoy thinking about ideas. This isn't a "how to" course. It's a course that leads to thinking about the world from a different angle. Thinking about complex systems as being "adaptive" is interesting in itself. The mind is a wonderful playground and this course brings some new toys to the sandbox. I would not recommend this course to everyone I know. If you do not like to ponder ideas that integrate mathematics, philosophy, chaos and chance, this might not be for you. If you do like to have a conversational understanding about cutting-edge ideas then you'll probably enjoy the course. Complexity is a subject that could easily get lost in the weeds. It's based on mathematics. The math gives the tools to analyze complexity. The first task in designing a course like this is to determine what to cover in order to give a conversational understanding of the topic without going into mathematics which are sure to alienate most of the audience. Page handles this balance very nicely. If you look around the Internet, you'll find this topic is widely discussed and Dr. Page is at the center of many of those discussions. In this course, we get a top notch instructor who does not talk down to his students nor does he overwhelm with complexity. Page does as good a job as can be done to introduce this subject, keep it interesting and leave the learner with a sense of satisfaction. Happily, I came away with some practical application in my work. Yes, terrific course. Not for everyone, but if you are reading this, you'll probably enjoy the course.
Date published: 2013-09-27
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Complexity? Not So Much Here's what I learned in this course: Complex systems are diverse, interdepedent, connected, and adaptive entities. They are unpredicable, produce unpredictable events, and are robust. Examples are financial markets, doplomatic relations, and DVD players. Oh, and complex is not the same as complicated, and vice versa. And that's about it.. Usually when I watch a course from the GC catalog at some point I get what I call a "WOW" moment - a teaching moment or series of informative bits that tells me this course is viewer-worthy, that I'm getting a bang for my buck. I got no such feeling from this course. Understanding Complexity is also seriously lacking in graphics and detailed examples. It's pnly 12 lectures long but given the dearth of real life examples and how they interact, along with cliff notes that pass as graphics, it could be easily half the lengh. It's one of the Great Courses cheaper courses, but it's not worth the money.
Date published: 2013-05-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fantastic Course I am new to the science of complexity and found this course really opened my engineering mind to another way of viewing our complex world. Professor Page is extremely intelligent and knowledgeable in many fields. He has a great presentation voice. As it is an introductory course, there are a lot of definitions and concepts to learn. Through examples, Professor Page does this adequately. The professor also inspired me to research additional informaton on his many interesting examples.
Date published: 2013-04-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Motivational Speaker Talks about Complexity In 2000, my medical office had a non-linear record system that recorded medical complexity while using AI to generated linear output for interfacing with insurers, etc. Unfortunately, there was no Professor Page to convince the world of the importance of preserving the complexity of medical in an electronic record. So the grant to scale up the program was not pursued. Later, I was involved at a primary test site for the Army's new medical record system. Their system, like that of the current environment, was "top down". This prevents emergent behavior recognition while imprisoning complexity into linear templates. Such linearity works well on an insurance spreadsheet but does not tell a "medical story". As Prof Page says, "The first step toward effective action in a complex world is recognition". There are 2 TC courses on complexity: Page & Strogatz. Viewing Page as a motivational speaker makes the difference easier to grasp. Page is the best for RECOGNIZING complexity when you run across it. Motivational speakers are excellent at throwing out all sorts of scenarios. You won't follow his every association, but it's not important. When Page comes to ideas that hit home with you, grab them and run. To those who are concerned about the incompleteness of example development or graphics, I recommend Strogatz. Strogatz is absolutely essential if you are ever going to APPLY this stuff. Many reviewers note they now better understand such diverse topics as travel, medicine, economics, the war on drugs, political responsiveness, etc. Kudos to the reviewer who saw that artists would benefit from Page's course! Reflecting complexity is where artists are better equipped than engineers. We may one day see art better reflect the rich texture of the interlocking pieces that create our days. Some were concerned that evolution was being pushed. On p 47, Page nicely discusses the sophisticated constraints on complex systems like evolution: - Too much selection drives diversity towards pure exploitation; complexity requires diversity to prevent error, and "large tail" events are needed. Selection acting alone negates diversity when it is the sole event in evolution. - Careful goals & incentives are necessary for selection mechanisms - Interdependency means excessive efficiency pushes systems to critical states. Since all of these attributes must be constantly refined for every cellular subsystem as well as each species while evolution proceeds, Page shows us how constrained the process really is. CONS: 1. Replay of the DVD is sometimes needed. But the thin guidebook usually removes the "fluff” and emphasizes the important. 2. There were leaps here not justified by the text. One example: years ago, physicians felt that much of the brain served an integrative function. Jeannette Norden's teaching on the brain correctly asserts that we now know most of the brain is taken up with raw data gathering or a flexible coordination of basic services, not integration of iterated mapping interpretations. This leaves Page's assertion that consciousness emerges because of "brain complexity" a bit undeveloped. Page states: "In complex systems, space matters.... universities often leave space out". As the 18 pages of reviews [to date] suggest, complexity theory should be core curriculum for all university departments.
Date published: 2013-02-17
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Poweful concepts Powerful, new (to me) concepts. I wish it was a longer course so that Dr Page had more room to go into details of the models he presented. I am looking forward to listen Dr. Page's new course released by TC last year.
Date published: 2013-01-26
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