World War II: A Military and Social History

Course No. 810
Professor Thomas Childers, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania
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Course No. 810
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Course Overview

Fifty-five million people died in the Second World War, the greatest conflict in human history.

Fifty years later, these lectures ask and answer important questions about this war:

  • Might Hitler have been stopped sooner?
  • Should Roosevelt have foreseen Pearl Harbor?
  • Could more lives have been saved as the Holocaust became known?
  • Did Truman have to use the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
  • Did the Allies come closer to losing World War II than we would like to think?

The origins and expansion of the war in Europe and the Pacific are examined. Military and political strategies and failures are analyzed. Social and economic effects of the war are assessed.

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30 lectures
 |  Average 30 minutes each
  • 1
    The Origins of the Second World War
    In this opening lecture, Professor Thomas Childers puts the war into context, examining both its historical importance as the single largest event in human history and shaper of subsequent global events; and its origins, with emphasis on the role of the Versailles Treaty, the international system that emerged from the 1920s, and that system's subsequent failure. x
  • 2
    Hitler’s Challenge to the International System, 1933–1936
    A look at the rise of Hitler's Nazi party in Germany and the ideological and geopolitical wellsprings of his foreign policy, including a tracing of his step-by-step revision of the Treaty of Versailles and a look at the rhetorical style with which he presented his policies to both his domestic audience in Germany and the international community abroad. x
  • 3
    The Failure of the International System
    Why was the threat posed by German foreign policy—especially in the 1930s—not met? This lecture examines the differing dilemmas confronting France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States; as well as the major international crises of 1938 and 1939 as Europe moved relentlessly toward war. x
  • 4
    The Coming of War
    This lecture focuses on the implications of the Munich Conference, examining the ways in which it influenced Hitler's calculations, Stalin's assessments, and even the German military conspiracy against Hitler. The lecture concludes with an examination of the Polish crisis in the summer of 1939 and the stunning ramifications of the pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. x
  • 5
    Blitzkrieg was more than just a revolutionary military strategy; it was an economic and diplomatic one, as well. This lecture examines the reasons why this three-pronged weapon so appealed to Hitler, and then looks at the first use of the Blitzkrieg strategy in the war against Poland in September 1939. x
  • 6
    The German Offensive in the West
    The German Blitzkrieg in Western Europe in the spring of 1940 brought an end to the strange period of "phony war" that had prevailed in the west since September of the previous year. This lecture looks at English and French preparations for the anticipated attack and Hitler's daring strategy, as well as the "miracle of Dunkirk" and the sudden and unexpected fall of France. x
  • 7
    “Their Finest Hour”—Britain Alone
    In the summer of 1940, Germany stood poised for a cross-channel invasion of southern England. Professor Childers offers a close look at the plans for that invasion, Britain's preparations for repelling the Germans, and an analysis of both Churchill's strategic thinking and the naval and air assets his nation possessed. x
  • 8
    The Battle of Britain
    A successful invasion of England hinged on establishing air superiority over both the English Channel and the planned landing zones in southern England. The colossal air battle that began in July 1940 would rage into October and ultimately be won by the Royal Air Force. This lecture examines that crucial and decisive battle. x
  • 9
    Hitler Moves East
    The attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941—Operation Barbarossa—was Hitler's greatest military and political gamble. In this wide-ranging lecture, you'll learn the ideological and strategic reasons for this stunning gambit, and see the role Nazi ideology played in the conduct of German troops as they crossed into Russian territory. x
  • 10
    The Germans Before Moscow
    Despite an extraordinarily successful beginning of Operation Barbarossa that exceeded even German expectations, late 1941 saw the offensive dramatically slowed by unsettling logistical and weather problems. A close look at how and why this happened, with special attention to the extraordinary resilience of the Red Army as winter set in and the German offensive ground to a halt. x
  • 11
    The War in Asia
    Japan's invasion of China in 1937 was the climax of a two-decade evolution in Japanese foreign and military policy that began after World War I. Professor Childers analyzes Japanese designs on Asia, the strategic dilemmas presented by each strategic option, and the impact of events in Europe on Japanese calculations. x
  • 12
    The Japanese Gamble
    After four years of deteriorating relations between Japan and the United States, Japan unleashes a stunningly successful attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. This lecture examines the U.S.-Japan relationship, Japanese planning for the attack, and the ways in which American policy and security lapses contributed to the disasters at both Pearl Harbor and in the Philippines. x
  • 13
    The Height of Japanese Power
    In the wake of Pearl Harbor, the Japanese rolled to an unbroken series of triumphs that established their dominance in Southeast Asia and across the South Pacific, including British Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaya, French Indochina, the Netherlands East Indies, and the American Philippines. This lecture examines this high-water mark of Axis power, concluding with the surprising U.S. victory in the Battle of the Coral Sea. x
  • 14
    Turning the Tide in the Pacific—Midway and Guadalcanal
    Two extraordinary battles, one at sea and one on land, marked the turning point of the war in the Pacific. The first crushes the Japanese Navy and preserves the American position in Hawaii; the second marks the first defeat for Japanese land forces and sets the tone for the ferocious combat that would characterize Japanese-American combat throughout the South Pacific. x
  • 15
    The War in North Africa
    Though the Mediterranean Theater was merely a sideshow for Hitler, it loomed much larger in the strategic thinking of the Western Allies, though provoking considerable conflict within the Western command structure. A look at Hitler's missed opportunities and Great Britain's success in ultimately establishing among the Allies the primacy of her own strategic objectives. x
  • 16
    War in the Mediterranean—The Invasions of Sicily and Italy
    In addition to tracing the course of the campaigns in Sicily and Italy, with particular emphasis on the Anzio landings, the Battle of Monte Cassino, and the liberation of Rome, this lecture analyzes the politics of the war in Italy and the impact of the Italian campaign on the timing of the cross-Channel invasion of France. x
  • 17
    Stalingrad—The Turning Point on the Eastern Front
    A look at the German strategy and Soviet responses that marked the epic struggle for Stalingrad, which lasted from August 1942 until March 1943 and marked the turning point of the war on the Eastern front. After this crushing defeat, the Germans would be forced onto the defensive, and the Russians would begin their long agonizing drive to liberate their country. x
  • 18
    Eisenhower and Operation Overlord
    By early 1944, an Allied invasion of northwestern Europe was no longer in doubt; the only questions were where and when. The preconditions for invasion and the differences within the Allied camp over timing, command structure, and the final plan—along with the Germans' own calculations, problems, and limitations—make for a fascinating lecture. x
  • 19
    D-Day to Paris
    Defense of northwestern Europe had been left to Erwin Rommel, who argued that the key to a German victory was to defeat the Allies at the beaches—and especially to hold fast during those first 24 hours, "the longest day." This lecture traces the last agonizing stages of planning and launching the D-Day invasion, the course of the battle in Normandy and the bocage beyond, and the liberation of Paris. x
  • 20
    Operation Market Garden and the Battle of the Bulge
    This lecture examines the Allied plan to cross the Rhine in Holland, the reasons for its failure, and the daring German Ardennes offensive that became the Battle of the Bulge—Hitler's last gasp in the West that set the stage for the Allied advance into Germany in early 1945. x
  • 21
    Advance Across the Pacific
    The American strategy in the Pacific was a largely political compromise between the courses recommended by Douglas MacArthur and Chester Nimitz. The compromise allowed MacArthur to begin his long march back to the Philippines via the Solomons and New Guinea while Nimitz waged a bloody campaign of "island hopping" through the Gilbert, Marshall, and Mariana Islands. x
  • 22
    Turning Point in the Southwest Pacific—Leyte Gulf and the Philippines
    The Battle of Leyte Gulf—marking the first use of kamikaze fighters by the Japanese—was the decisive naval battle in the Pacific after Midway. It broke the back of the Japanese Navy and secured the American landing in the Philippines in December 1944, which raged well into the new year with massive casualties on both sides. x
  • 23
    The Final Drive for Japan—Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Fire-Bombing of Tokyo
    This lecture examines the battles for both Iwo Jima and Okinawa—the two climatic engagements in the final drive for Japan—and follows both the strategic considerations and bloody consequences of these two deadly confrontations. Fully one-third of all marines killed in the Pacific died on Iwo Jima, while one-fifth of all casualties suffered by the Navy in the entire war were sustained in the waters around Okinawa. x
  • 24
    War in the Air
    World War II introduced a new dimension in warfare: strategic bombing. This lecture traces the evolution of air doctrine, the strategic and moral choices made by the allies, the course of Anglo-American air operations against Germany (and, to some extent, Japan) and the air war's contribution to the ultimate Allied victory over Germany and Japan. x
  • 25
    Hitler's New Order in Europe
    A powerful examination of the evolution of Nazi racial policy from the boycott of Jewish shops at the beginning of the Third Reich in 1933 to the gas chambers of Auschwitz between 1942 and 1945. The lecture includes the ideological origins of Hitler's anti-Semitism, how his ideas were translated from the pages of Mein Kampf to the killing fields and gas chambers of Eastern Europe, and the factors that influenced the degree of Allied response to Nazi mass murder. x
  • 26
    “The Man’s Army”
    The creation of the U.S. armed forces was itself one of the most astonishing accomplishments of the war. The massive military force ultimately required to win a two-front war fought on land, sea, and in the air simply did not exist in 1939 with the U.S. armed forces. This lecture explores both the development of that fighting force and the day-to-day life within it, analyzing the military as both a social and an ethnic melting pot, including the role of the African-American fighting man in a segregated military. x
  • 27
    Daily Life, Culture, and Society in Wartime
    Within only two years, the American economy was forced to become the "Arsenal of Democracy". This lecture examines the role of both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and private entrepreneurs in making that happen, the changing social composition of the work force that resulted, including the massive entry of women into war industries, and the significant social problems that surfaced, especially the positions of African- and Japanese-Americans. x
  • 28
    The Race for Berlin
    A look at the final phase of the war in Europe, including the race for Berlin between the Anglo-American troops who had crossed the Rhine and the Russians who were driving through Poland, and Hitler's suicide in his bunker on April 30, 1945. Professor Childers also analyzes the controversy concerning Eisenhower's decision not to rush on to Berlin, "allowing" the Russians to take the city and setting the stage for the Cold War. x
  • 29
    Truman, the Bomb, and the End of the War in the Pacific
    In the summer of 1945, with Germany defeated, the FDR deal and signs of war weariness emerging in the United States, President Truman faced the prospect of a bloody invasion of Japan. This lecture explores the political, military, and moral implications of President Truman's decision to use the new atomic bomb in hopes of forcing an early Japanese surrender. It includes the background of the firebombing raids on Tokyo and other Japanese cities, as well as the actual missions against Hiroshima and Nagasaki. x
  • 30
    The Costs of War
    In this concluding lecture, Professor Childers evaluates the outcome of the war, its meaning in both a global political and military context, and its historical significance. But its real focal point is on an appraisal of the enormous costs of war at a human level, illustrated by the experiences of a single American family. x

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  • 128-page printed course guidebook
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Your professor

Thomas Childers

About Your Professor

Thomas Childers, Ph.D.
University of Pennsylvania
Dr. Thomas Childers is Sheldon and Lucy Hackney Professor of History at the University of Pennsylvania, where he has been teaching for over 25 years. He earned his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Tennessee and his Ph.D. in History from Harvard University. Professor Childers has held visiting professorships at Trinity Hall College, Cambridge, Smith College, and Swarthmore College. He is a popular...
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World War II: A Military and Social History is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 149.
Rated 4 out of 5 by from I first explored the course on Great Courses Plus. I lived through WW II in Europe being in the middle of it I didn't see many of the details that were masterfully presented by Thomas Childers. I would recommend the course to all but in particular to young people who have no idea of WW II history but should learn from its horrible consequences.
Date published: 2018-09-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very informative I've watched 3 lectures so far, and it's nice to get an informative account of what happened. He discusses events from the French/Russian viewpoint and the German view. I've never gotten a systematic account of this war, so I appreciate learning about it as things developed.
Date published: 2018-09-13
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Iworld War I; a Military and Social History I am in the process of listening to this. I have a severe hearing problem and especially appreciate that there is no background music, just facts. As a person with a hearing loss I depend on the ability to read lips. When the speaker is off screen, looks down at notes, or turns his head away, I loose part of what he is saying. I have a cochlear implant and I listen to the tapes to set the track to learn to use the implant. My hearing is no longer nerve conducted, but now is bone conducted. It would be a great help if they were captioned, so those who are hearing impaired could get the full story. I am guessing most people who would buy this tape would be older, and many of us are hearing impaired.Thanks for doing what you do.
Date published: 2018-08-23
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Very Informative Perfect summary of pertinent historical events! Extremely informative.
Date published: 2018-07-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Great overview Although I was 11 years old when Japan surrendered and had followed the war since Pearl Harbor and then, through the rest of my life, read much about it-- this course gave me a new, integrated perspective. I am very grateful for that.
Date published: 2018-07-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Outstanding Series! Professor Childers does an outstanding job of presenting this material in a way that is informative and readily understandable. The course organization is easy to follow and builds upon itself in a logical manner. Though it might be good if only listened to, the graphics that were used in the video presentation really enhanced the course. I highly recommend this course.
Date published: 2018-07-17
Rated 2 out of 5 by from World War II: A Military and Social History of the Too concentrated and concerned about the American experience at the expense of other allies. In the Pacific conflict I gained the impression that only the US was involved. At least some acknowledgement of the contribution of allies should be made.
Date published: 2018-06-27
Rated 4 out of 5 by from A Survey Course This is a good course for those who seek an integrated overview of the war. As such, it touches on all the Stations of the Cross, but maybe not as thoroughly as some may want. Stalingrad and Midway are only two examples of key battles that I thought were underdeveloped. If you are looking for a good overview, purchase the program. It is not perfect, but still pretty good.
Date published: 2018-06-08
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Good. Could be better I thought this course was quite informative and I certainly enjoyed it. I think I would have liked it more though Professor Childers is clearly well informed but needs to be smoother in his delivery. I found his delivery halting and wanted a faster pace as well. Amon certain points he is as repetitive although the point had already been made. Less repetition would leave more time to convey lore information and value.
Date published: 2018-05-08
Rated 1 out of 5 by from A course full of inaccuracies. Beware the professor who gives a course out of his area of expertise. Professor Childers may know the social history of the war well, but his is completely out of his depth when discussing the military aspects of the conflict. I managed to get through about a third of the course before getting so frustrated with his errors I couldn't go further. Here's three. The Poles did give the "Enigma code machine" to the French, but it wasn't a code machine, it was a cipher machine. Further, the machine wasn't the key, it was the "bombe," an analogue computer that the Poles developed to help break the ciphers, that was critical. Second, Professor Childers is incorrect that the French army did not have telephones, and they therefore had to use couriers. The French had an excellent telephone network, but the rapidly advancing Germans cut the lines. What the French lacked were radios to use when the telephone network failed. And couriers were needed to deliver plans, reports, and maps that cannot efficiently be dictated over phone lines. Indeed, even as late as Vietnam, we were still using couriers. Third, the British bomber offensive was not directed at the German industrial infrastructure. From the very onset, it was specifically directed at German civilians in an attempt to kill or "dehouse" German workers, and to break civilian morale. In short, this course is riddled with errors. Don't take it.
Date published: 2018-04-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent Very interesting. Even if you know a lot about WWII you still learn a lot.
Date published: 2018-03-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Binge watched - never dozed off The lecturer was engaging, and though he read frequently from his notes, he was never dull. Since all my knowledge of the war had been based on movies, it was a delight to learn how all the names and battles fit together. Also, his maps were very helpful in understanding the war in the Pacific. My only wish is that his maps would have been included in the study guide booklet.
Date published: 2018-02-23
Rated 3 out of 5 by from Falls far short of a comprehensive course on WW2 the lecturer completely overlooked much of the story of the Eastern Front. There was a chapter on the beginning of the Barbarossa campaign and one on Stalingrad with short shrift to the rest of the Russian front. This is unacceptable in a college level course and any good military historian knows this.
Date published: 2018-02-06
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Extremely thorough and fascinating Of my nearly 50 courses over the years this is among my top 5. If it were a book I would not be able to put it down. Excellent presentation. Hope Prof. Childers does more courses.
Date published: 2017-10-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from World War II This course is outstanding. There is so much to take in, I'm only half way through it and plan on listening a second time.
Date published: 2017-09-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Best Course I've Ever Taken on World Ward II This was by far the best course I have taken on the Second World War. It was comprehensive and provided me with much additional information and context that I had not had in other courses or documentaries which I have seen. Dr. Childers close of the course was both chilling and poignant.
Date published: 2017-07-28
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Solid Overview Yes, this recording goes back quite a bit, but I just don't understand why so many people have such a problem with that. How much WWII scholarship has changed since this recording? I can say there is not a single fact Childers shares that hasn't since been discovered incorrect, but on the whole I can't believe that the age of the recording itself is such an issue to so many people. It's not like a 1997 overview of advanced computers, which would of course be useless today. I don't tend to grade these courses on the font of the visuals, or the shape of the bullets on bullet point lists as some do. In fact I think some of the newer course go too far in trying to be flashy and trendy, what with courses on interior design on some such. But this is a history course, and I rate them on content and presentation. On those grounds, I am happy to have bought this one. Yes, the professor does read from notes, and no I haven't the slightest problem with that. There were some lengthly pauses here and there when he may have lost his place, what what is "so 1990's" about that? Someone reading from their notes in a lecture is a 1990's thing?? Childers is nonetheless easy to listen to. Casual. To tell the truth, the folks in studio laughed more during this presentation than in any other I have purchased, so there must be something to his style. Content wise, it is an overview. There were some things I perhaps would have liked to know more about, but there are other things he covered well. Such is the nature of a sprawling topic such as this. My foundational knowledge of the war is without a doubt improved, and I will refer to any given lecture again to keep my knowledge in tact.
Date published: 2017-07-24
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Balanced Presentation I listened to audio version, so he didn’t seem to be reading, and his presentation was organized and accurate, although obviously a little dated, since it was recorded 20 years ago. World War II puts its emphasis on military history (very little of the promised social history.) It is a generally accurate summary of WW II, although he avoids mentioning idiocies that SOE, run by hopeless old-boy network, committed during the early years of war or contributions of Poles to RAF, in becoming their best pilots. Nor does he mention that Poland and Czechs were abandoned by US & Britain as the war would down.
Date published: 2017-07-14
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Terrific course This is an excellent overview of a complex and demanding topic. It is designed for those who do not wish to wade through countless books examining every detail and battle of WWII. I only wish Dr. Childers had spent a little more time on the role and impact of the British code-breaking success in deciphering the Nazi enigma machine and on the impact of the clever British efforts to confuse the Germans about the planned location of Operation Overlord (the D-Day invasion). Dr. Childers also got the date of the US' Hiroshima bomb drop wrong: It was August 6, not August 7, 1945. But these are very, very minor quibbles. As an overview of the war, it is exceptionally-excellent. It gives one a good grasp of both the strategies of the combatants and of the war's timeline and terrible human costs.
Date published: 2017-07-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Well Organized Perspective These lectures logically lay out the chronology and thought process contributing to the events of WW II. Professor Childers artfully portrays the the turning points that altered the narrative for this great conflict. In addition, he weaves in the human emotions evoked by the war.
Date published: 2017-06-07
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Best WWII Overview History classes always seemed to end before they got to WWII, so I knew little about it. This is a well-organized and engaging overview of the causes and battles of the wars against Germany and Japan. The professor occasionally would use a term without explaining it, but overall it was excellent. I'm very glad you offered this!
Date published: 2017-05-06
Rated 4 out of 5 by from A good overview of the complex history of the war Basic info but I enjoyed listening as I walked in the morning
Date published: 2017-04-21
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Battle history good on both fronts I have not quite finished the course. However the WWI course had more social implication attached. I will be able to consider the course more fully when done. Im on lesson number 23,
Date published: 2017-03-21
Rated 4 out of 5 by from World War II: A Military and Social History I will give this Title, World War II: A Military and Social History, to a friend as a gift this next weekend. Thanks for your help.
Date published: 2017-03-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Excellent course and teacher! I believe that this course is wonderful. Thomas Childers is an interesting teacher and brings more than just facts to the course. His quotes of relevant poetry and letters really adds to the topic. He brings important insights to the history.
Date published: 2017-03-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Classic I would say, after having watched all of the DVD's that this course was more than I anticipated. I didn't mind that it was 'aged' as to me this lent even more authenticity. I actually liked that he had an audience of people engaged. This felt more like a college class than a studio production. The mix of magazine articles from WWII, Journal entries from Soldiers, a cultural context of this war was amazing. If you want to understand all of the implications of WWII, this is the class for you. If you want a lot of videos, pictures, war maps...this is a little less of that.
Date published: 2017-03-01
Rated 5 out of 5 by from My wife and I are fascinated by World War II in all its misery and glory. Professor Childers does a superb job of presenting the lead-up to the war, providing background for how German and Japanese decision makers chose to go to war. Professor Childers also presents moving personal testimonies from participants that make what people endured clear to all who see this series.
Date published: 2016-12-16
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Good review of a topic that could take volumes This a a good review of a topic that could take many volumes to discuss. The lecturer summarizes the important aspects of this topic in a manner that is easily understood by both the causal reader and those more interested in the details of history.
Date published: 2016-12-12
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Why Is This Still in the "Great Courses" Catalog? Although this is a course about history - the past, it is very outdated in its content and especially in its presentation. The course was recorded in the 1990's. The professor - Dr. Childers - READS his material. I have enjoyed numerous Great Courses (well over 20) but this is awful. I returned it. I am disappointed with Great Courses that they still have this course in their catalog and disappointed with myself that I didn't read reviews first using the "Rating - Low to High" option in the pull down menus. I would have known better had I done that. Bottom line - "Great Courses" should drop this course" - it is no where near "great"
Date published: 2016-10-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Informative and enjoyable The course is very good, with informative well structured content and easy to follow lectures. The only thing I could recommend is to add English subtitles in order to help non-native speakers follow the lectures better. And perhaps it would be a good idea to advertise here the second option for viewing such courses - through the great course plus website, that works more in a way of a monthly payment for various courses instead of paying for each separately. Only after buying this course I learned about the second option and I think that had I known about it beforehand I would have preferred the latter.
Date published: 2016-09-09
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