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  • The Real History of Secret Societies

    Professor Richard B. Spence, PhD

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD
    Secret societies have attracted some of history’s most brilliant, and some of its most evil, minds. Often demonized by their enemies, many secret societies have become the stuff of myths and conspiracy theories. Award-winning Professor Richard B. “Rick” Spence brings the expertise of HISTORY® as he guides you through the fascinating, often mystifying—sometimes disturbing—occasionally inspiring world of brotherhoods, sisterhoods, orders, cults, and cabals that have influenced human culture from ancient times to the present.
    View Lecture List (26)
    Secret societies have attracted some of history’s most brilliant, and some of its most evil, minds. Often demonized by their enemies, many secret societies have become the stuff of myths and conspiracy theories. Award-winning Professor Richard B. “Rick” Spence brings the expertise of HISTORY® as he guides you through the fascinating, often mystifying—sometimes disturbing—occasionally inspiring world of brotherhoods, sisterhoods, orders, cults, and cabals that have influenced human culture from ancient times to the present.
    View Lecture List (26)
    26 Lectures  |  The Real History of Secret Societies
    Lecture Titles (26)
    • 1
      Small-Town Secrets
      Get a brief introduction to the realm of secret societies you will study throughout the course, seen through the personal experience of Professor Spence in his home town of Taft, California. Often demonized by their enemies and misunderstood by outsiders, many secret societies have become the stuff of myths and conspiracy theories. x
    • 2
      Secret Societies: The Underworld of History
      Meet Willa Rhoads. She was 16 when she died. Her body was discovered in October 1929—five years after her death—which opened the door to a public awareness of the Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven, also known as the Blackburn Cult. Professor Spence intentionally opens his course with an obscure story to introduce you to the idea that secret societies come in many forms and operate under many names. x
    • 3
      The Knights Templar
      Uncover the story behind The Knights Templar—a military monastic founded two centuries earlier, during the Crusades who persevered through time to become the subject of so much rumor, speculation, and outright fantasy that it’s almost impossible to separate fact from fiction. Are they guardians for a holy bloodline reaching back to Jesus and Mary Magdalene or are they secret devil worshippers? Are they connected to the heretical Islamic sect known as the Assassins or the Jewish mystics known as Kabbalists? x
    • 4
      Masonic Revolutions in America and France
      Secret societies do often work behind the scenes to change the world, although not often in the way the stories claim. Professor Spence looks at the secret societies behind the Boston Tea Party and Bastille Day. Understand the part that the Sons of Liberty, the Society of the Friends of the Constitution (the Jacobins), the Grand Orient Lodge, the Nine Sisters Lodge, and other groups played in these important revolutions and see how famous names such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, and additional founding fathers were involved with these—and other—secret groups. x
    • 5
      Bolsheviks, Masons, and Russian Revolution
      Were the Bolsheviks a political movement or a secret society? Dive into this question as you survey the rich history of governmental secret societies who combated revolutionary conspiracies with their own conspiracies. You will gain a vivid appreciation for the allure of the elite, and the power of conspiracy, showing that history is made not by the inactive majority but by active minorities—including Trotsky, Lenin, Kaplan, and others. And you’ll see that there is no better active minority than a well-oiled secret society. x
    • 6
      Adolf Hitler and the Thule Society
      Start with the history of the smaller secret societies that were popping up all over Germany at the end of the 19th century. Then look at how the larger societies and individuals, which have already been covered in this course, will weave through the background of Hitler's rise to power. Then explore the role that secret societies played, or might have played, in Hitler's rise; how they influenced his beliefs; and how the Nazi leader came to embrace secret-society methods for his own purposes. x
    • 7
      Synarchy, Schemers, and Vichy France
      The 1930s has been called “a low, dishonest decade.” It saw economic crisis, the rise of Hitler, Stalinist terror, and the general decline of democracy. Were the events coincidence or consequences? Was there a hidden hand at work undermining democratic institutions and encouraging dictatorship? And was this hidden hand something called Synarchy? Dive into the movements and events that have been tied back to various Synarchy ideas and see how it may have bled over into America with the so-called Business Plot of 1934. x
    • 8
      Ancient Mystery Cults
      Travel back to Ancient Greece to hear what we do know of The Eleusinian Mysteries—which are among the most ancient and prestigious of the Greco-Roman world and were guarded on pain of death. This first secret society—which had endured for almost 2,000 years, and counted among its members the likes of Socrates, Plato, Plutarch, and Cicero—ceased to exist. Or did it? After reviewing the history of the Great Mysteries of 391, Professor Spence considers if secret societies ever die or if they just change into something else. x
    • 9
      The Islamic Assassins
      Travel to a historic empire that stretched from Anatolia to Central Asia as you get to know The Assassins, who’s roots reach back at least as far as the beginning of Islam in the 7th century. This invisible empire was led by Hasan-i-Sabah who called his acolytes asasiyun, “the faithful.” See how “assassin”—our generic term for professional killer, especially one who commits political murders—is linked to these asaiyun, who were notably the cause of 200 years of terrorism and murder, including a chief minister, a sultan, viziers, emirs, and even a Crusader king. x
    • 10
      The Medieval Cathars
      Professor Spence starts with the 1244 the fall of Montsegur, which most history books note as The Cathars last stand as an organized movement. Yet, as Professor Spence demonstrates, this influential group shows up over and over throughout history. The true origins of the Cathars are lost in time, yet it's clear they didn't spring from nothing. See how The Cathars inherited and adapted much older beliefs, and how they undoubtedly influenced other groups to come. x
    • 11
      The Rosicrucians
      Did you know there is a secret-society theme park right in the middle of Silicon Valley? Professor Spence introduces you to The Ancient and Mystical Order of the Rosae Crucis, or Rosy Cross, or just AMORC for short. AMORC might be the first commercially marketed secret society. During the early 20th century, the mystical order’s grand imperator, H. Spencer Lewis, advertised in magazines, radio, and comics, claiming that “The Secrets Entrusted to the Few,” including skills like levitation and telepathy, could be yours for a low price and enticing the likes of Walt Disney and L. Ron Hubbard. See how this group—or more accurately, the idea of this group—wove itself throughout both history and society. x
    • 12
      The Illuminati
      Even if you haven’t taken notice of secret societies before, you’ve heard of the Illuminati, a group so prevalent they have been satirized by Taco Bell. Explore the roots of the 28-year-old Adam Weishaupt’s secret society—the Order of Perfectibilists, which later became the Order of the Illuminati, or, in German, the Illuminatenordern: The Order of the Enlightened. Discover how Weishaupt envisioned nothing less than “A New World,” which necessitated destruction of Christianity and all other forms of religion. Professor Spence demonstrates the goals of Weishaupt’s Illuminism, the influence of the movement—even reflected in the modern-day promises of Communism, and the famous names associated with the Illuminati. x
    • 13
      The Freemasons
      The Freemasons inspired and influenced many societies, so much so that many object to the idea that their group is secret. They don't hide their existence. However, they did popularize the idea of secrecy: adopting a clandestine set of identifying factors, ensuring their rituals and initiations are complicated and intimidating, and even having a term for outsiders or non-members. Discover the multiple evolutions and adaptions of Freemasons, which has helped to keep this group shrouded in mystery. x
    • 14
      Ireland's Secret War for Independence
      The Irish Republican Army was a tightly organized secret society battling the greatest power on Earth, the British empire, and, after Bloody Sunday, perhaps the best known. But they were not the first secret society to practice resistance in Ireland. Professor Spence introduces you to The Whiteboys, the Peep o’Day Boys, the Orange Order, the Sons of the Shamrock, Young Ireland, the Molly Maguires, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and more—outlining the effect these secret societies had both on Ireland and on America as they migrated to the United States. x
    • 15
      Debunking the Elders of Zion
      Professor Spence opens the door on secret society conspiracy that permeated across countries and decades, with each iteration more complicated and bizarre than the last. The Learned Elders of Zion never actually existed, but to this made-up secret society was attributed a real-life protocol to take over the world, which caused—and continues to cause—incalculable harm and religious intolerance. Discover the deceitful origins and global impact of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. x
    • 16
      Mafia! Criminal Secret Societies
      We are exposed to them all the time in movies, television, and novels, so do criminal gangs really qualify as secret societies? Yes: They’re selective in membership, require oaths and initiations, and members usually advance through grades or ranks. Starting with the biggest—and most feared—all-female gang in the London underworld, Professor Spence turns a spotlight on organized crime. From the early 20th century, Thuggees of India to the modern-day Mafias that have arisen in cities all over the world, you’ll get to know the seedy underbelly of society like never before. x
    • 17
      Aleister Crowley, Occultism, and Espionage
      Focusing on the worldwide impact of Aleister Crowley, Professor Spence highlights the murky connections between secret societies, occultism, and espionage. Credited with being “the wickedest man in the world,” the reason America joined the war, a Satanist, the “Leader of Irish Hope,” and a number of other nefarious titles, you may be surprised to see the number of world-changing events Crowley had his hands in. Although once you discover the extent of power stemming from the secret societies he was involved with, including his turn as a spy, it may not be so surprising after all. x
    • 18
      Red Octopus: The Communist International
      Discover how some politically-driven secret societies have far-reaching impact, as Professor Spence dives into a period of time when America was full of Soviet espionage and clandestine communist activity. Through a number of interlinked, connected history, he demonstrates how the Communist party relied on proven secret society techniques, such as selective recruitment, rigorous discipline, and fanatical loyalty. Then note, once you start integrating secret societies inside secret societies—as the American communist party became infested with FBI informants—they can quickly wither to insignificance. x
    • 19
      Japan's Black and Green Dragons
      The 1942 fictional Bela Lugosi film Black Dragons was not just a figment of a screenwriter’s imagination. The real-life group was described as a “nationalistic organization” that aimed to “inform the Japanese people of their … rights to dominate the world” and enjoyed a close relationship with the Japanese crime syndicate, the yakuza. Examine how the Black Dragons had a huge impact in pushing Japan into fanaticism, militarism, and a devastating war. Explore additional Asian-based groups, including the Green Dragons and the Genyosha (or Dark Ocean), and how they dabbled in everything from major bombings to a plan to assassinate Charlie Chaplin. x
    • 20
      Italy's Secret Government: The P2 Lodge
      Propaganda-Due, or P-2 , an Italian pseudo-Masonic organization has been tied to a number of shady crimes and mysteries, including corruption, bribes, and even murder—but was made up of senior military and police officers, parliament members, journalists, and the heads of all three of Italy’s intelligence agencies. In fact, this exclusive society was rumored to be Italy’s secret government. Learn how this organization grew to include such important figures and what, exactly, its intent was. x
    • 21
      From the KKK to the Black Shriners
      Professor Spence turns his focus to the United States and looks at uniquely American secret societies, including the sham group known as the U. S. Secret and Civil Service Society, Self-Supporting Branch. He also covers the disturbing emergence and evolution of the Ku Klux Klan. The history of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine—or the Shriners is also covered. Discover how the secret societies that emerged during this period provided foundation for and acted as a reflection of America at the turn of the century. x
    • 22
      Bohemian Grove, Bilderbergers, and Elites
      Sometimes being among the 1 percent is not exclusive enough. Get to know the elite secret societies that only recruited members who were already—or would likely be—rich or influential, including the Bohemian Club, the Schlaraffia, the Sath-Bhai or Asiatic Brethren, the FOGC, the Skull & Bones Society, and more. These primarily men-only clubs are rumored to have dabbled in black arts, unusual rituals, and conspiratorial agendas. Discover which famous, influential, and prominent big names were members of these privileged groups. x
    • 23
      Secret Societies for Aging Swingers
      In what sounds like the start of a bad joke involving L. Ron Hubbard, J. Edgar Hoover, and Charles Manson, Professor Spence introduces you to a crazy-sounding story about Aleister Crowley’s secret society, Ordo Templi Orientis, as he debates the merits of truth around it. From there, hear some fantastical stories about UFOs, the Priory of Sion, the American Heraldry Society, the Society of St. John of Jerusalem—known as Shickshinny Knights, and other groups and events developed from hoaxes and disinformation that was intentionally designed to distract and mislead. x
    • 24
      Terrorism's Long Trail of Secret Cells
      From the 1920 Wall Street bombing to the events of 9/11, see where secret societies have embraced terrorism as a mind game throughout history. Most secret orders are more or less harmless, but Professor Spence peers inside some which have used violence to further their agendas, including the Ku Klux Klan, the Red Army Faction, the Weathermen, the Symbionese Liberation Army. Professor Spence also provides an overview of the evolution of Islamic extremism. x
    • 25
      Secret Societies: The Never-Ending Story
      Professor Spence provides some final examples of secret societies that reinforce what their common characteristics are and what their leaders are like. Taking an in-depth look at The Order—an American society of anti-Semites, white supremacists, and neo-Nazis—as well as FEAR (Forever Enduring, Always Ready), the Silver Legion of America (Silver Shirts), and others, he demonstrates how so many of these secret societies begot, influenced, or resulted in other ones, keeping the tradition going, suggesting that there are hundreds, if not thousands, more that have remained secret. x
    • 26
      UFOs and the Elusive George Hunt Williamson
      On the afternoon of 20 November 1952, a small group of people milled around a canyon outside Desert Center, California. Among them was 25-year-old George Hunt Williamson, an ex-military man and amateur archaeologist. Consider the possible connection between a desert cult and the UFO craze of the 1950s. x
  • Great American Short Stories: A Guide for Readers and Writers

    Professor Jennifer Cognard-Black, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD

    Whether you want to write short stories, simply want better insight as a reader, or even if you are looking for a new lens through which to view American history, the 24 rich and informative lectures of

    Great American Short Stories: A Guide for Writers and Readers

    will show you the ins and outs of this infinitely adaptable—and intrinsically American—literary form.

    View Lecture List (24)

    Whether you want to write short stories, simply want better insight as a reader, or even if you are looking for a new lens through which to view American history, the 24 rich and informative lectures of

    Great American Short Stories: A Guide for Writers and Readers

    will show you the ins and outs of this infinitely adaptable—and intrinsically American—literary form.

    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  Great American Short Stories: A Guide for Readers and Writers
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      “Come In Here”: How Stories Draw Us In
      Begin your exploration of American short stories with a look at one of the form's most important features: the opening sentence. Learn the four P's (people, place, perspective, and problem) and how they can help build a strong opening to a story. Then listen to multiple examples of first sentences and their various strengths and weaknesses. x
    • 2
      Discovering the American Short Story
      What defines a short story? And what makes American short stories unique? Take a look at some features and definitions that help explain the form and its boundaries, while also learning how the form has changed over time. You'll also get a partial reading list that will allow you to explore some of the greatest authors of different styles and eras. x
    • 3
      The Storytelling Instinct in America
      Storytelling can help us find meaning in chaos, foster empathy, and share lessons and values across generations. Look back into the past and see how oral and print cultures came in contact with each other in the Americas, creating a hybrid form of storytelling that continues into the present day. x
    • 4
      Storytelling and American Mythos
      After the Revolutionary War, American authors sought to forge their own national literary traditions. Examine the emergence of the short story as a patently American genre, beginning with the “sketches” of writers like Washington Irving. Along the way, you will see how writers have shaped the American mythos—the stories that tell us who we are. x
    • 5
      Sentimental Fiction and Social Reform
      Can stories change the way we look at the world? In the mid-19th century, many Americans believed you could use fiction to shape public opinion and morality. Look at the tradition of sentimental fiction and the writers that mastered the tools of emotion and empathy, focusing especially on the ways women contributed to the field. x
    • 6
      The Rise of Realism in American Fiction
      Realism dominated American short fiction from the end of the Civil War until the outbreak of World War I. See how four decades of social upheaval and the rise of print journalism motivated the rise of the “boys’ club” of realist writers, in opposition to the more feminine-influenced sentimental fiction of earlier decades. x
    • 7
      American Modernists
      The rise of modernism in the early 20th century was a self-conscious reaction to realism. Reflecting the rapid changes of the time, modernist short stories have an intentionally fragmented, staged feeling that many writers felt made the work more “literary.” Examine the work of modernist writers like William Faulkner, Gertrude Stein, and Jean Toomer. x
    • 8
      Contemporary American Storytelling
      Ernest Hemingway remains the single most influential short story writer of the 20th century. Disillusioned by World War I and heavily influenced by the objectivity of journalism, Hemingway changed the American short story—and possibly the American identity. Consider how this one writer revolutionized short fiction and influenced countless other authors. x
    • 9
      Setting or Donnée in American Short Fiction
      Shift from the history of American short fiction to the technical aspects of the form with a look at how writers build verisimilitude into their story worlds. Professor Cognard-Black guides you through several stories with different settings—or, more specifically, données—and shows how the writers convey time and place as well as mood, atmosphere, symbolism, and more. x
    • 10
      The Use of Detail in American Short Fiction
      What is the difference between fact and truth, and why does this distinction matter in fiction? Discover how writers use certain details to inform readers about the inner life of the characters and look closely at why the facts in a short story are never random. Works by Toni Morrison, James Thurber, and Lee K. Abbott demonstrate different levels of detail. x
    • 11
      Character: Who You Are in the Dark
      Creating characters that feel true to life means going below the surface and revealing their inner dimensions. Using the FAT principle of fiction (Feelings, Actions, and Thoughts) and looking at three major errors in fiction writing, compare and contrast flat, stock characters with the deeper characters that stick with readers long after the story has ended. x
    • 12
      American Dialogue and Interior Monologue
      Crafting good dialogue means listening to how real people talk, but also understanding that speech in a story is fundamentally different from the real thing. Using exercises from both real life and fiction, learn how purposeful dialogue can be crafted. Then, look at how internal monologue works and how it serves to reveal character in important ways. x
    • 13
      Standing Apart: The Third Person
      See why the point of view of a story is one of the most important choices a writer can make. Different perspectives create different reactions in the reader, and the third person has three distinct variations that allow writers to determine the level of objectivity and distance a story needs to create the best effect. Consider several examples and how they work. x
    • 14
      Standing Close: The First and Second Person
      There is power and there is peril in the first- and second-person perspectives. Both create close relationships with the story and both promote immediacy and empathy. However, they also have dangers that can derail a story if not handled properly. Explore both the first- and second-person perspectives and their effect on readers. x
    • 15
      Plot: What Characters Do Next
      Instead of looking at plot as a clearly defined journey from point A to point B, here you will see why plot should be dictated by characters and their choices. Understand how good short stories strike a balance between structure and (seeming) randomness to capture something that feels meaningful and true to life. x
    • 16
      Imagery in American Short Fiction
      Vivid imagery is crucial to good storytelling. Professor Cognard-Black takes you through several examples to see how sensory and figurative language can help create an immersive experience. Along the way, you will get useful introductions to tools like personification, allusion, symbolism, metaphor, and other literary devices through writers like Flannery O'Connor. x
    • 17
      Style in Traditional American Short Stories
      Compare and contrast two iconoclastic American writers, William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway, to see how style encompasses every aspect of an author's writing, from word choice and sentence length to syntax and punctuation. You'll also receive a list of writing handbooks that can help you explore style. x
    • 18
      Experimental American Short Stories
      How is writing fiction like making a quilt? Turn your attention to the innovative short fiction that emerged in the turbulent years after World War II to find the answer. Look at the deconstructionist approach to short stories, focusing particularly on metafiction, and then explore the use of voice to create both intimacy and scope simultaneously. x
    • 19
      Genre Short Fiction in America
      Though genre fiction has a reputation for being frivolous or commercial, it has been an important part of America’s literary tradition since the 19th century. Focusing on the “big three” genres of horror, science fiction, and fantasy, you will see how genre fiction has grappled with the same issues and concerns as literary fiction, simply through different means. x
    • 20
      Graphic Short Fiction in America
      Short stories in the 21st century have broken out of traditional constraints of size and form to include more experimental modes, as you will explore here with graphic short fiction. Discover how visual storytelling works in short fiction and why the images and words must work together in ways that go beyond mere illustration. x
    • 21
      Postmodern Short Fiction in America
      While the postmodern era is hard to define, the features of postmodern fiction are rooted in artifice and hyperawareness. Consider how the “meta-experience” of postmodernism is created by going against the traditional ideas of immersion and author invisibility, and investigate how different authors accomplish this tricky balancing act. x
    • 22
      American Microfictions
      While the accepted length of a short story has always been somewhat vague, here you will see what kinds of storytelling feats can be accomplished with a drastically limited word count. Dive into microfictions written by Professor Cognard-Black and her writing students to see how even the briefest pieces can contain entire narrative worlds. x
    • 23
      Short Story Endings
      How can writers create endings that are both authentic to life and satisfying to readers? Reflect on endings from various short stories and see how they have changed over time. Also consider the ways writers create a sense of closure in fiction that never really happens in everyday life, yet feels authentic to human experience. x
    • 24
      A Hundred False Starts
      Even the greatest writers experience failure; the key is to fail creatively. Professor Cognard-Black closes the course with a look at the nature of publishing in today’s market, as well as how false starts and unfinished work can be a crucial part of the process of successful, fulfilling writing. As the careers of writers like F. Scott Fitzgerald and many others demonstrate, the most important skill a writer—or a reader—can have is perseverance. x
  • Visual Literacy Skills: How to See

    Professor Carrie Patterson, MFA

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD
    In these 24 lessons, you’ll take a deep look at how the principles and skills of visual literacy directly inform our experience. You’ll learn the formal vocabulary of art, the principles of visual design, how visual language operates, and how to communicate visually. You’ll also learn how to cultivate powers of deep observation, how to generate original thought, and how to create your own art or design.
    View Lecture List (24)
    In these 24 lessons, you’ll take a deep look at how the principles and skills of visual literacy directly inform our experience. You’ll learn the formal vocabulary of art, the principles of visual design, how visual language operates, and how to communicate visually. You’ll also learn how to cultivate powers of deep observation, how to generate original thought, and how to create your own art or design.
    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  Visual Literacy Skills: How to See
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      Visual Power: What It Is and Why It Matters
      First, take into account the dominant role of visual input in the way we perceive, understand, and navigate the world. Consider the value of examining our visual experience and the visual choices we make, as they shape how we think, feel, and act. Practice two experiential exercises that train you to carefully observe what you see, and to explore the visual world through your other senses. x
    • 2
      Seeing as a Skill
      Begin to explore the components of visual literacy through specific exercises. Grasp how visual literacy involves accurately seeing, describing, and constructing meaning from your experience. Learn about the nature of visual syntax, and the importance of the function and context of what you see. Finally, examine how the modes of representation, abstraction, and symbolism function in art. x
    • 3
      Sensing and Perceiving: How You See
      Study the anatomy of the eyes, the physiology of seeing, and how the eyes process visual sensations. Then, observe how the brain translates sensation into perception by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information. Look at visual perception using the principles of Gestalt psychology, as the principles describe how the elements of perception are organized into a holistic visual experience. x
    • 4
      Should You Believe What You See?
      Delve into the most important aspect of our visual experience: the ways we create meaning from what we see. Learn about the nature of human cognitive function and how we conceptualize our perceptions of the world. Explore optical illusions, and how they're used in Op Art. Then, examine how changing cultural norms affect the work of artists and architects, influencing their visual choices. x
    • 5
      Representation and Illusion
      How do we define what is real? To begin to answer that question, look into representation in art, and how we value artists’ ability to create the illusion of form and dimension. Observe how photography alters our experience of the world, and how we tend to view photos as “truth.” Grasp the ways in which, in both photography and art, images are “constructed,” and how fact and fiction can overlap. x
    • 6
      Elements of Visual Syntax
      Visual syntax is the foundation for visual language. Look first at seven formal elements artists and designers use, such as line, shape, color, and texture. Learn about the principles of design that create a composition, including unity, emphasis, and balance. See how these elements and principles are used to create specific effects, by studying historic and contemporary interiors. x
    • 7
      Visual Foundations: Dot, Line, and Shape
      Take a systematic look at the visual elements artists and designers use in their creative work. Start with the dot, an individual point in space. Observe how artists use dots to establish location, form, and value. Continue with the properties and expressive uses of lines and implied lines in art. Finally, discover the principles of shapes, and study positive and negative space. x
    • 8
      Visual Foundations: Value
      Continue your study of visual language with value, the degree of lightness or darkness of a hue or a form. Assess value in the work of celebrated artists, and practice exercises that train the eyes to see value. Note how the materials you use influence your work with value, and evaluate the value of colors using a grayscale. Learn to change value in paint colors through tinting and shading. x
    • 9
      Visual Foundations: Color
      Observe how each human culture possesses a “language” of color, and how we assign meaning to colors. Look at different scientific systems for understanding color, and practice exercises to identify the dimensions of hue, value, and chroma. Grasp how color is relative to its surroundings, and how knowledge of color plays a key role in art, design, architecture, and any visual decision. x
    • 10
      Visual Foundations: Texture
      Consider texture as a vital component of our interaction with the visual world, noting how we experience texture through both touch and sight. Look into the physiology of touch, and the power of texture to produce strong physical and emotional responses. Explore texture through the techniques of collage, montage, and assemblage, and practice minute observation and the copying of textures. x
    • 11
      Visual Foundations: Space
      Study how artists and designers create the illusion of space in two dimensions. Begin with shallow space, a compositional approach which stresses the two-dimensional aspect of an artwork. See how artists indicate space and depth through the placement of objects and measuring of proportions within the picture plane. Learn about atmospheric perspective, linear perspective, and projection. x
    • 12
      Thinking in Three Dimensions
      This lesson explores the principles of three-dimensionality in art. Begin with a study of low relief artworks, where forms stand out against a flat surface, and do a studio exercise creating low relief in clay. Continue with high relief technique in clay, learning to model the volume of a form. Finish with a look at fully three-dimensional art, and create a simple freestanding sculpture. x
    • 13
      Building in Three Dimensions
      Architecture, design, and 3D art all rest upon knowledge of volume and mass. Grasp the vital role of the materials used in architecture, as they affect structure, volume, and the the experience of a space. Review a case study of a designed house, for its use of volume, material, proportion, and scale. Observe how design must balance volume and mass for both functional and visual concerns. x
    • 14
      The Limits of Space: Visual Landscapes
      Through landscape, explore how artists and designers navigate the complexities of space. Take a deep look at the rules of linear perspective as they apply both to art and to our immediate experience. Witness how artists capture the disordered sense of built environments through other perspective systems, and how they evoke a sense of timelessness and the infinite in depicting natural landscapes. x
    • 15
      Principles of Design
      Here, begin to refine and deepen your own skills as a visual communicator. Look first at the nature of composition, the arrangement of visual elements in relation to one another. Then delve into four fundamental principles of design: unity and variety, emphasis, balance, and proportion and scale. Learn specific methods for cultivating and applying these principles in your own life. x
    • 16
      Exploring Visual Time
      Witness the remarkable ways in which time operates in art and visual communication. Note how the experience of art is influenced by the creation time of the work, the duration of viewing, and how artists capture fixed moments and the progress of time. Practice ways of seeing and expressing time visually, and observe elements such as tempo, implied motion, and real time in visual experience. x
    • 17
      Strategies for Visual Storytelling
      Unpack the principles behind visual art that conveys a narrative or story. See how a narrative can be expressed within a still image (static visual narrative), within a moving image (dynamic visual narrative), and within a format that requires the participation of the viewer (interactive visual narrative). Practice the skills of static narrative, and learn to convey a story using still images. x
    • 18
      Symbol, Subject, Content, and Context
      Explore how symbols, subject matter, content, and context work together to create meaning. First, delve into the function of signs, symbols, and logos, and assess their remarkable power. Delineate subject matter in art, in relation to content, the impact or meaning of an artwork. Then grasp the vital importance of context, as it affects our understanding of symbol, subject, and content. x
    • 19
      Making Choices: Material, Method, and Style
      In art and design, your material, artistic method, and style all carry meaning. Take a thorough look at the matter of choosing your material, and the practical and aesthetic factors bearing on that choice. Observe how the artistic method you employ affects the work and its meaning. Finally, define what style is, and grasp how to develop and express style in your work and your life. x
    • 20
      Cultivating Creative Habits
      Look at ways to build daily habits that engage your visual skills and cultivate your creative self. Consider taking time at the start of your day to set the stage for creative thinking and work. Study strategies for remaining flexible and open, refining visual consciousness, and capturing creative thoughts, using drawing, reading, and writing. Identify artistic habits that you'd like to grow. x
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      The Visual Life: Active Observation
      Investigate what it means to become an intentional active observer. Consider practical ways to challenge or suspend ordinary perception in order to see in new ways and change your perspective. Practice convergent thinking and divergent thinking, non-linear brainstorming, sketching, and other techniques to expand your awareness and strip away assumptions about what you see. x
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      The Visual Life: Exploring and Connecting
      Contemplate the essence of innovative thinking, in making connections that may not be obvious within phenomena you observe. Practice pushing your thinking into new areas by arousing curiosity, exploring connections, doing research, and looking at the large picture. Study scenarios that foster original thought, ways to generate ideas, and how to structure a period of creative work. x
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      The Visual Life: Collecting
      Examine the human impulse to collect, curate, and appropriate objects, and consider collecting as an essential skill for artists and designers. Observe examples of personal and historical collections, as well as public and private collections, and look into how to begin collecting yourself. Also, learn how to curate and display your own collection, and study guidelines for collecting art. x
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      The Visual Life: Becoming a Maker
      Conclude with an inspiring view into the process of creating art and design. Inquire into what type of artistic works attract you, and explore different paths to becoming a maker of art. Learn to set creative goals, set up a workspace, and select materials. Finally, look at how to identify a theme and subject matter, and consider ways to discover your unique creative process. x