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  • Life in the World's Oceans

    Professor Sean K. Todd, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Video Download, DVD

    The Great Courses teams with the Smithsonian to produce a vivid exploration of life in the world’s oceans with Professor Sean K. Todd of the College of the Atlantic. From the beginning of life on Earth to the state of our oceans today, you’ll learn about the latest research on marine-mammal intelligence and communication, bioluminescence, exploration of the ocean floor, the Smithsonian’s own cutting-edge research work around the world, including the Great Barrier Reef, and so much more.

    View Lecture List (30)
    30 Lectures  |  Life in the World's Oceans
    Lecture Titles (30)
    • 1
      Water: The Source of Life
      So much of what we take for granted about our world—from our body’s access to and use of nutrients, to our planet’s liquid oceans, to the ice floating in your glass of soda—is a direct cause of the structure and polarity of H2O. Learn how those specific properties make water the essential ingredient for life as we know it. x
    • 2
      Ocean Currents and Why They Matter
      No matter where you live, your climate, weather, and even available foods are determined to a great extent by ocean circulation. The uneven heating of the Earth by the Sun and the Coriolis effect result in vast circulation cells of air above the Earth, the movement of huge water masses in the oceans, and resultant “hot spots” of marine life. x
    • 3
      The Origin and Diversity of Ocean Life
      How and where did life begin on Earth? The existence of both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic food chains—along with experiments confirming the mechanisms of abiogenesis—points to the possibility that life could have originated through two different paths. While many questions remain unanswered, two things seem certain: Life began in the oceans, and bacteria are the most successful organisms on the planet. x
    • 4
      Beaches, Estuaries, and Coral Reefs
      Beach organisms exist with the constantly changing winds, waves, and tides—sometimes underwater, sometimes fully exposed to the air. Life in estuaries, where rivers meet the oceans, face constant fluctuations in environmental salinity. And hard corals are continually pummeled by wave action. Yet each of these physically challenging environments can be diverse and fecund ecosystems. x
    • 5
      Life in Polar and Deepwater Environments
      Tropical oceans are relative deserts when compared to the potential productivity of higher latitudes—and it’s all due to spring and fall blooms of phytoplankton. These microscopic photosynthetic organisms form the base of almost all marine food chains, including that of the blue whale, the largest animal known to have ever existed. But far below the penetration of sunlight a very different and only recently discovered food web relies solely on the chemosynthetic ability of bacteria. x
    • 6
      Phytoplankton and Other Autotrophs
      When we think of healthy marine ecosystems, we should be thinking about phytoplankton. In many ways, we owe our existence to these diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, cyanobacteria, and others. Not only do scientists believe they are the ancestors of terrestrial plants, but phytoplankton continues to produce about half of all the oxygen available in our atmosphere today. x
    • 7
      Invertebrate Life in the Ocean
      The vast majority of animals on our planet are the gloriously diverse invertebrates. From microscopic organisms to the crab with a three-meter leg span, marine invertebrates exhibit enormous variety in form and function. They include sessile and mobile organisms, free-living and parasitic. They live at the surface and within the ocean floor sediments, protected by hydrostatic endo- and exoskeletons. x
    • 8
      An Overview of Marine Vertebrates
      Only certain classes of vertebrates have a marine presence, while others are strictly terrestrial. Mammals are certainly represented in ocean life, but which species should be identified as “marine” when considering ocean productivity? The extremely complex marine food webs maintain long-term stability, even as they undergo natural perturbations over time. But when Homo sapiens enters as an apex predator, productivity can deteriorate, and systems can even collapse. x
    • 9
      Fish: The First Vertebrates
      Through 550 million years of evolution, fish have developed a wide variety of adaptations to the unique demands of living in a watery and mostly dark world. Learn how gills, swim bladders, bioluminescence, chemosensory glands, echolocation, and electrolocation have allowed fish to succeed in almost every type of ocean environment. Which fish are our ancestors? You might be surprised. x
    • 10
      Marine Megavertebrates and Their Fisheries
      While humans have been fishing for hundreds of centuries, we have only recently had a significant impact on marine food webs. Industrialization has led to problems with by-catch and overexploitation of resources. Today—since the megavertebrates we love to eat are often the apex predators of their natural food webs—we are creating trophic cascades with long-term impacts we do not yet understand. x
    • 11
      Sharks and Rays
      Are you afraid of sharks? Fish certainly have good reason to fear these top-of-their-game predators with their multiple rows of teeth, extraordinary sensitivity to smell, taste, and vibration, and ability to detect electrical current better than any other animal. But while four species have been known to assault humans with no provocation, almost 99 percent of the many hundred shark species would rather swim away from us than attack. x
    • 12
      Marine Reptiles and Birds
      While the reptilian evolution of the amniotic egg allowed animals to move completely from the sea onto land, some reptiles retained strong marine ties. These include sea turtles and sea birds whose wide variety of adaptations allow for drinking saltwater, remaining underwater for long periods, and flying great distances using very little energy. But wait . . . did we just classify sea birds as reptiles? x
    • 13
      The Evolutionary History of Whales
      Marine mammals did not evolve from marine species. Rather, they evolved from land mammals who found a plethora of “suddenly” open ecological niches when the dinosaurs became extinct about 65 million years ago. Today’s marine mammals might resemble each other because convergent evolution has led to similar adaptation. But best as scientists can tell, they have five separate lineages and no single common ancestor. x
    • 14
      The Taxonomy of Marine Mammals
      Through tens of millions of years, evolution has resulted in a fascinating array of marine mammal adaptations. With the ability to process thousands of gallons of water each day or dive to a depth of almost three kilometers, and with numerous methods of locomotion or extraordinary social behaviors, these whales, porpoises, phocids, and more can thrive in varied environments around the globe. x
    • 15
      How Animals Adapt to Ocean Temperatures
      If you’ve ever jumped into frigid water, you quickly realize humans are definitely not adapted to life in the sea. What are we missing? In a word, it’s blubber—the thick layer of fat just beneath the skin of almost every marine mammal. In fact, blubber is such a successful insulator that marine mammals have evolved internal and external means for getting rid of all that heat, possibly even including planetary migrations. x
    • 16
      Mammalian Swimming and Buoyancy
      For all practical purposes, terrestrial mammals live on a plane. Marine mammals, on the other hand, navigate a more viscous, three-dimensional environment with all its opportunities and challenges. We understand their propulsion mechanisms fairly well. But how do they control their buoyancy to position themselves in the water column? We don't yet have the answers. x
    • 17
      Adaptations for Diving Deep in the Ocean
      Not surprisingly, deep-diving marine mammals have evolved a physiology very different than our own. Adaptations including those related to blood chemistry, the location of stored oxygen, a variable heart rate, and articulated rib cages support the ability to go deep and stay long. But what about rising back up to the surface? How do they avoid getting “the bends”—or do they? x
    • 18
      The Importance of Sound to Ocean Life
      Sound travels much better in water than in air. In fact, low-frequency waves, such as those produced by certain whales, can travel through water uninterrupted for hundreds or even thousands of kilometers, allowing the animals to be “in touch” with their group over vast distances. Other marine mammals produce and hear sounds at high frequencies perfect for echolocation. But what happens when human-generated sound gets in the way? x
    • 19
      Food and Foraging among Marine Mammals
      Trophic patterns are complex cycling webs, often difficult to completely decipher. But two things are clear: Almost all marine food webs are based on microscopic photosynthesizers, and only a small fraction of the energy available at any trophic level becomes available to the next level. Adaptations such as baleen, ventral pleats, and unique tooth morphology allows these large animals to meet their energy needs. x
    • 20
      Marine Mammal Interactions with Fisheries
      With plastic and nylon lines and nets becoming common in the last century, by-catch became an even greater problem for the marine mammals. When the media picked up the story in the mid-1960s, the public became engaged, and the Marine Mammal Protection Act was passed in 1972. But whale entanglement remains a problem, and some argue that even whaling was far less cruel. x
    • 21
      Breeding and Reproduction in a Large Ocean
      Semi-aquatic marine mammals exhibit behaviors quite different than those who live fully in the water. In the former, an entire female community in one geographic area can come into estrus simultaneously and needs relatively few males—the strongest and “sneakiest”—to reproduce. In the latter, reproduction appears to be one of the driving forces of whale songs that can be heard over thousands of kilometers. x
    • 22
      Behavior and Sociality in Marine Mammals
      From individual whales that corral their confused prey to highly coordinated bubble-net feeding and aunts who “babysit,” marine mammals have developed an extraordinary variety of social and hunting behaviors—each with its own “cost/benefit analysis” developed over millions of years. If the energy expenditure does not support the goal of passing on genetic material, natural selection will eventually drop the adaptation. x
    • 23
      Marine Mammal Distribution around the Globe
      With sixty million years of evolution on their side, marine mammals have adapted to the widest possible variety of marine ecological niches. Some live only in rivers or lakes, others only in waters over the continental shelves, and some in the open ocean. A few—like the Weddell seal with exceptional blubber, diving skills, oxygen capacity, and ice-sawing teeth—are even adapted to live at the poles. x
    • 24
      Intelligence in Marine Mammals
      Within their own species, marine mammals have developed sophisticated communication. In captivity, we know they can be trained to learn rules, which indicates higher cognitive function. And even in the wild, we have documented some extraordinary instances of learning and cultural transmission of information. But is their intelligence comparable to our own? Maybe the question itself is meaningless. x
    • 25
      The Charismatic Megavertebrates
      Are marine mammals to be exploited as a resource? Or are they intelligent creatures to be revered with an almost religious admiration? Your answer might depend to some extent on your country and culture of origin—and the truth is probably somewhere in between. Our relationship with these impressive animals continues to evolve as we increase our understanding of their biology, cognition, and sociality. x
    • 26
      The Great Whale Hunt
      Over and over, humans have behaved as if a given resource were inexhaustible. That was certainly the case with worldwide industrial whaling of the early 20th century when six species of whales were hunted to dangerously low numbers. In the near future, as their populations continue to recover, some countries are expected to promote a resumption of the commercial whale hunt. x
    • 27
      The Evolution of Whale Research
      Although the irony is unmistakable, our understanding of marine mammals increased tremendously by having access to carcasses during the years of industrial whaling. Today, we focus on species protection while learning as much as we can via SCUBA, SONAR, tagging, biopsy darts, photo-identification, studying animals in captivity, and examining stranded individuals when available. x
    • 28
      Marine Mammal Strandings
      Most of us seem to have a natural instinct to want to help a stranded marine mammal, but it requires very specific skills to render aid without causing further stress and harm. Even with the best intentions and professional assistance, not all animals can be saved. What can we learn from these strandings—no matter how they end—and where are they most likely to occur? x
    • 29
      The Urban Ocean: Human Impact on Marine Life
      Our high-tech use of the ocean for food, transportation, and energy has far-reaching effects, particularly on certain species. Focusing on issues from noise pollution to microplastics, we can mitigate our impact to provide better futures for ourselves as well as for marine life. The work begins with understanding the extent of our true impacts. x
    • 30
      Our Role in the Ocean's Future
      Although there was a time when we treated the oceans as if they were too vast to feel our impact, we now know the truth: we have contributed to global climate change, ocean acidification, and overfishing. The results are potentially catastrophic—both to marine life and to our own health. But there is a bit of light at the end of this tunnel, and it depends in part on our own daily actions. x
  • Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality

    Professor Mark Leary, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Video Download, Audio Download, DVD, CD

    What makes you different from other people? And what makes you—sometimes—the same? Designed as a fascinating, accessible scientific inquiry, the 24 lectures of Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality, will have you thinking about your personality in a way that leaves you enriched and better informed about what makes you, you.

    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      What Is Personality?
      In this introductory lecture, ground your understanding of personality in the concept of “proportion-of-variability,” which tells us how strongly related a particular personality characteristic is to behaviors, emotions, or other characteristics. As an example, you’ll consider a case study of the causes of delinquent behavior in teenage boys. x
    • 2
      Key Traits: Extraversion and Neuroticism
      There are five key traits that best help us understand a person's behavior. Here, explore the two traits that give you the broadest picture of what a person is like. The first: extraversion, or your level of sociability. The second: neuroticism, the degree to which you experience negative emotions. x
    • 3
      Are You Agreeable? Conscientious? Open?
      Examine the three remaining building blocks of personality. You'll learn about agreeableness, the degree to which you have a positive or negative orientation toward others; conscientiousness, the degree to which you're responsible; and openness, or your receptivity to new experiences and idea. Plus, consider a sixth personality trait that's starting to get attention. x
    • 4
      Basic Motives Underlying Behavior
      What motivates you to do the things you do each and every day? Professor Leary explores three motives that instigate and energize people's behavior: the motive to interact with other people, the motive to achieve and be successful, and the motive to influence other people. x
    • 5
      Intrapersonal Motives
      There are other motives that underlie behavior—ones that don’t involve getting anything from the outside world. What are the benefits of these motives? After considering the Freudian roots of the subject, learn about three fascinating intrapersonal motives: for psychological consistency, for self-esteem, and for authenticity. x
    • 6
      Positive and Negative Emotionality
      A large part of who you are as a person depends on the kinds of emotions you experience as you walk through life. In this lecture, look at our general tendencies to experience positive and negative emotions. What, exactly, are emotions? What leads some people to have more positive – or negative – emotions than others? x
    • 7
      Differences in Emotional Experiences
      In addition to the general tendency to feel good and bad, we also differ in the degree to which we experience specific emotions such as anger, joy, guilt, and sadness. These tendencies, too, are an important part of your personality. As you'll learn, they help explain why different people respond to the same event in different ways. x
    • 8
      Values and Moral Character
      When we talk about someone's character, we're referring to the degree to which that person tends to behave in ethical (or unethical) ways. In this illuminating lecture, take a look at moral aspects of personality from four critical angles: values, moral foundations, virtues, and character strengths. x
    • 9
      Traits That Shape How You Think
      Turn your attention to cognitive aspects of personality: characteristics related to people's styles of thinking. Here, Professor Leary focuses on four cognitive characteristics that involve differences in the degree to which people are curious, make decisions quickly, critically evaluate their beliefs, and enjoy thinking. x
    • 10
      Beliefs about the World and Other People
      You are who you are partly because of the beliefs that you hold. Discover several big, broad beliefs that function like personality traits. These include people's beliefs about human nature, fairness, and the beliefs and attitudes that underlie authoritarianism. x
    • 11
      Beliefs about Yourself
      Your beliefs about yourself have a dramatic impact on how you feel and behave. Take a closer look at four types of self-related beliefs: identity (who you think you are), self-efficacy (what you're capable of doing), self-esteem (your evaluation of yourself), and self-compassion (how you think about yourself when bad things happen). x
    • 12
      Personality and Social Relationships
      Some of the most important differences among people involve their ways of relating to others. First, examine the differences in people's attachment styles. Then, consider the tactics people use to persuade and influence others (with a focus on Machiavellians). Finally, explore three aspects of empathy: cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, and empathic concern. x
    • 13
      Consistency and Stability of Personality
      People obviously don't act the same way all the time, and personalities do change over the course of a life (at least within limits). Yet people do show stability in how they tend to think, feel, and behave. In this lecture, learn about the complexities that make personality both stable and changeable. x
    • 14
      Evolution and Human Nature
      The fact that certain personality characteristics can be seen in almost everybody probably reflects evolutionary processes. Learn why some aspects of behavior became part of a shared human personality; how some personality features evolved differently for men and women; and why people who live in different environments may develop different personalities. x
    • 15
      Personality and the Brain
      All differences we see in people's personalities are based on differences in what's happening somewhere in their brains. Unpack research being done on the neuroscience of personality, with a focus on four aspects of anatomy and physiology that involve brain regions, neurotransmitters, hormones, and bodily rhythms. x
    • 16
      Genetic Influences on Personality
      Take a closer look at the ways in which the genes you inherited from your parents have contributed to your personality. Topics in this lecture include heritability studies; the role genes play in people's attitudes; and how genes can change our environment in ways that then affect our personality. x
    • 17
      Learning to Be Who You Are
      Professor Leary explains four learning processes that influence how people's personalities turn out: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning, and personal experience. It's a lecture that'll change how you think about the ways learning has helped make you who you are. x
    • 18
      How Culture Influences Personality
      How might your personality have turned out differently if you'd grown up in a culture different from the one you grew up in? Explore this question by looking at several dimensions on which cultures differ: individualism versus collectivism, power distance, agentic versus communal orientations, and uncertainty avoidance. x
    • 19
      Nonconscious Aspects of Personality
      Freud believed that much of what influences our behaviors occurs outside our conscious awareness. To understand people’s personalities, we have to consider unconscious processes—the topic of this lecture. What is our nonconscious? How can we determine someone’s nonconscious motives? How does this idea relate to behaviors like procrastination? x
    • 20
      Personality and Self-Control
      People differ in self-control, so understanding how we self-regulate is critical to understanding personality. After learning about the nature of self-regulation, examine the characteristics and skills that affect how well people control themselves. Then, learn important findings from studies of self-regulation in childhood and explore the relationship between self-regulation and impulsivity. x
    • 21
      When Personalities Become Toxic
      In the first of two lectures on the three broad clusters of personality disorders, consider the dramatic-emotional-erratic cluster, which includes the antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. As you'll learn, these disorders all involve problems with emotional regulation and impulse control. x
    • 22
      Avoidance, Paranoia, and Other Disorders
      First, learn about a cluster of three personality disorders that involve excessive anxiety: the avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Then, explore a cluster that involves eccentric behaviors and distorted thinking: the paranoid personality disorder, the schizoid personality disorder, and the schizotypical personality disorder. x
    • 23
      The Enigma of Being Yourself
      Should you try to always be yourself? Can you tell when you’re not being yourself? Professor Leary considers the possibility that authenticity has some serious problems as a psychological construct—that it’s either not what we assume it is, or that it’s not as important as we typically think. x
    • 24
      The Well-Adjusted Personality
      Conclude the course by drawing on much of what you've learned in the preceding lectures to look at the relationship between personality and healthy psychological adjustment. You'll learn the five key ingredients of adjustment, traits that are associated with good adjustment, and more. x
  • American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents

    General Wesley K. Clark, Former NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe

    Available Formats: Video Download, Audio Download, DVD, CD

    Gen. Wesley Clark explores America’s armed conflicts, from the French and Indian War in the mid 18th century to the Global War on Terrorism in the 21st, covering battles such as Gettysburg, D-Day, and Operation Desert Storm. You learn military history the military way—analyzing tactics, strategy, logistics, leadership, training, and other factors that go into winning battles and ultimately wars.

    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      America: Forged in War
      Gen. Clark begins the course by plunging you into combat with a 25-year-old Army captain in Vietnam in 1970. He was that captain. He then turns back the clock to one of the formative conflicts in American military history, the French and Indian War of the mid 1700s, focusing on the experiences of a young colonial officer fighting for the British: Lt. Col. George Washington. x
    • 2
      George Washington Takes Command
      The French and Indian War helped unite Britain's North American colonies. When the colonies began their struggle for independence, they chose their greatest war hero, George Washington, to lead the army. Analyze Washington's brilliant defense of Boston and his disastrous defeat trying to hold New York City. Contrast British and American objectives in the Revolutionary War. x
    • 3
      Redcoats Fall to the Continental Army
      Pick up the story of the American Revolution with Washington's army in dire straits and his command in question. He revived his reputation with the famous crossing of the Delaware River to defeat the British at the Battle of Trenton. Follow the next four years of the revolution, which saw Britain's strategic advantage deteriorate, ending with their surrender at Yorktown in 1781. x
    • 4
      Andrew Jackson and the War of 1812
      Historians still debate why the United States chose to fight Britain in the War of 1812, which lasted until 1815. Survey America's grievances and ambitions, which included conquest of Canada. Study the poor strategy, command, and training that led to a strategic stalemate. The exception is the one military genius who emerged from the war: Andrew Jackson, the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. x
    • 5
      The Mexican-American War of 1846–1848
      The continental U.S. reached its present span due to the Mexican-American War, which also served as a proving ground for future commanders on both sides of the Civil War. Explore the superb strategy and tactics of generals Zachary Taylor (later elected president) and Winfield Scott. Both showed what disciplined and bold maneuvers conducted by a professional army could accomplish. x
    • 6
      Opening Volleys of the Civil War: 1861–1862
      The Civil War set the pattern for warfare in the 20th and 21st centuries—in scale, consequences, and slaughter. Cover the political events leading up to the war, the strategy devised by the Union’s initial commanding general, Winfield Scott, the chaotic First Battle of Bull Run, and developments in the western theater, which saw the emergence of a remarkable leader, Ulysses S. Grant. x
    • 7
      The Civil War's Main Front: 1862
      Trace the ebb and flow of battle in the eastern theater, as President Lincoln promoted and fired a succession of top commanders, including Gen. George McClellan. The South, too, faced instability in the top ranks, until Robert E. Lee emerged as the Rebel army’s preeminent leader, in concert with his chief lieutenant, Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson. Follow events through the bloody Battle of Antietam. x
    • 8
      Vicksburg to Gettysburg: 1862–1863
      In the summer of 1863, the Civil War reached a climax on two fronts. Study the brilliant generalship of Grant in isolating and defeating the Confederate force defending the Mississippi River fortress of Vicksburg, cutting the South in two. Then dissect Gen. George Meade's tactics that halted Lee's daring invasion of the North in a three-day battle in and around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. x
    • 9
      Chattanooga to Appomattox: 1863–1865
      Gen. Clark narrates the dramatic endgame of the Civil War, in which Gen. William T. Sherman outmaneuvered Confederate forces in the west to take Atlanta, then marched to the sea; while Grant fought Lee across a broad swath of Virginia, finally cornering him at Appomattox, where Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865. Review the murderous toll of this, the world's first modern war. x
    • 10
      The Spanish-American War of 1898
      A generation after the Civil War, America fought a major war with Spain over its misrule of Spanish colonies, including Cuba and the Philippines. Investigate such famous battles as the naval action at Manila Bay and the Rough Riders’ assault up San Juan Heights. Also look at the insurgency that frustrated American peace efforts—a problem that resurfaced years later in Vietnam and the Middle East. x
    • 11
      American Expeditionary Forces: 1917–1918
      Survey World War I, which drastically upped the material and human cost of war. Study the causes of the conflict, the rival alliances, and the failure of Germany's opening gambit, leading to ruinous trench warfare. Then trace America's belated entry into the war and its unprecedented mobilization. Learn how Gen. John J. Pershing was chosen to command the American Expeditionary Force. x
    • 12
      John J. Pershing, the Doughboys, and France
      America joined the fight against Germany at the height of the enemy’s last make-or-break offensive. U.S. commanders faced a steep learning curve, initially using tactics that were unsuited to the new style of mechanized warfare. Discover the hard-won lessons that allowed the Yanks—affectionately known as doughboys—to break the stalemate, driving Germany to accept an armistice on November 11, 1918. x
    • 13
      From Pearl Harbor to the Battle of Midway
      Two decades after World War I, Germany was ready to fight again, supported by Japan and Italy. Focus on America's preparations for war and its reaction to Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in late 1941, followed by Germany's declaration of war against the U.S. See how the U.S. Navy halted Japanese expansion in the Pacific, fighting crucial battles in the Coral Sea and off Midway Island. x
    • 14
      War in North Africa and the South Pacific
      Consider U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt's strategic dilemma in simultaneously fighting Germany and Japan. Weigh the competing views of Army Chief of Staff George Marshall and Chief of Naval Operations Ernest King, along with the views of Allied leaders Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. Learn why the North Africa campaign was so vital, and spotlight continuing actions in the South Pacific. x
    • 15
      Air Power over Germany; Toward Japan by Sea
      Air power achieved strategic importance in World War II. Compare American and British bombing strategies against Germany. Also follow the Allied land offensive from North Africa to Sicily to the Italian peninsula. Then cover America's island-hopping campaign in the Pacific and the momentous Battle of the Philippine Sea, which defeated Japan's attempted naval comeback, crippling its carrier force. x
    • 16
      From Normandy to Berlin and Tokyo
      Go ashore on D-Day with the largest amphibious operation in history, tracking the Allied invasion through its breakout from the beachhead and reversals such as the Battle of the Bulge. After Germany's surrender in May 1945, follow Pacific troops to the brink of a planned invasion of Japan. Then examine the B-29 bombing campaign, which culminated in the dropping of two atomic bombs, ending the war. x
    • 17
      Korea and the Cold War
      The U.S. emerged from World War II as the most powerful nation on Earth. That status was challenged by the Soviet Union, which pushed the spread of its communist ideology. The two rival systems clashed in Korea in a war that was vicious and inconclusive. Focus on America's part in this opening shot of the Cold War and the controversial role of the U.S. commander in Korea, Douglas MacArthur. x
    • 18
      The United States Enters Vietnam
      Gen. Clark introduces the war that was his own baptism of fire, Vietnam, where he served as a young officer after graduating from West Point. In this lecture, he covers the background of the war, charting how America was drawn deeper and deeper into the conflict, and discusses Gen. William Westmoreland's initial American strategy, which proved ineffective for dealing with an insurgency. x
    • 19
      Elusive Victory in Southeast Asia
      Get a behind-the-scenes look at the new approach to winning the war in Vietnam, instituted after Gen. Creighton Abrams took over in 1968. This was the war fought by your lecturer during his tour of duty. Gen. Clark describes in vivid detail the firefight that abruptly ended that tour, and he gives a sober evaluation of how the disastrous end of the war might have been averted. x
    • 20
      American Forces in Grenada and Panama
      Explore the American military’s struggle to overcome the loss of confidence known as “Vietnam syndrome,” which was especially worrisome due to the Soviet military buildup at the time. Highlight two operations that demonstrated renewed vitality: the U.S. invasion of the Caribbean island of Grenada in 1983 and Panama in 1989–1990. Both restored democratic rule amid worsening political turmoil. x
    • 21
      Knocking Iraq Out of Kuwait
      Continue your study of America's rebuild of its war-fighting capability in the 1980s. Then see how this expertise was put to use in 1991 to eject Iraq from Kuwait, which it had invaded the previous year. With Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf in command, U.S. and coalition forces executed a classic envelopment of the Iraqi army, in the process fighting the largest armored engagement in military history. x
    • 22
      Balkan Wars: Bosnia and Kosovo
      Now hear directly from the commander of a major military operation. Gen. Clark himself was head of NATO forces during the Kosovo War of 1998–1999, directing a 78-day bombing offensive that defeated an attempted Yugoslav takeover of newly independent Kosovo. In a conflict rife with ethnic and international tensions, Gen. Clark applied strategic lessons you’ve learned in the course. x
    • 23
      Afghanistan, Iraq, and Terrorism
      The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 sparked a U.S. military response like no other, combining overwhelming air power against the terrorist regime in Afghanistan, along with special forces and allied units on the ground. Also chart the 2003 invasion of Iraq, another success in regime change. Unfortunately, initial victory in both cases evolved into a no-win struggle with insurgents. x
    • 24
      Facing Wars Past and Future
      Probe why U.S. troops faced endless low-level warfare in Afghanistan and Iraq. For perspective, review the lessons of American military history, from the young nation's own guerilla movement during the Revolution to today's era of push-button war. Then look ahead at America's challenge for staying preeminent in military technology. Gen. Clark closes with lessons from his lifetime of service. x
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