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  • Language and the Mind
    Course  |  Language and the Mind

    Professor Spencer Kelly, PhD

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD

    What is our species’ greatest invention? Medicine, computers, space travel? Not even close. The innovation that underlies each of our past achievements and those we still aspire to is ... language. Learn why language is our ultimate invention—one that has allowed us to change the physical and social world around us in every conceivable way, and one that has fundamentally changed us, as well.

    View Lecture List (24)

    What is our species’ greatest invention? Medicine, computers, space travel? Not even close. The innovation that underlies each of our past achievements and those we still aspire to is ... language. Learn why language is our ultimate invention—one that has allowed us to change the physical and social world around us in every conceivable way, and one that has fundamentally changed us, as well.

    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  Language and the Mind
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      Language in Mind
      What is the human mind and how could it have developed language? Learn why dualism, materialism, structuralism, and reductionism-all captivating and forward-thinking mind models of their time-have each come up short. Instead, explore the fascinating concept of emergentism and learn why this model offers the best framework for understanding the development of language. x
    • 2
      Language as a System
      Explore the five components of language-pragmatics, syntax, semantics, morphology, and phonetics-and how they each contribute to the meaning of language. Learn the ways in which language is, and is not, similar to other systems in the body, and the specific reasons why learning a second language can be so challenging. x
    • 3
      Eleven Linguistic Universals
      While other animals have ways to communicate information, the universal properties of language distinguish us from all other species. Learn about the fascinating aspects of language we take for granted every day: our ability to use symbols, understand rules, generate novel utterances, speak about the past and future, and even purposefully lie. All of these universals, and more, have allowed language to become our greatest tool. x
    • 4
      Communication in the Animal Kingdom
      Could language be considered an organism whose only natural habitat is the human mind? Explore the fascinating results of our efforts to analyze and influence animal communication. What have we learned about our own relationship with language as we have studied honeybees, songbirds, vervet monkeys, chimpanzees, and dolphins? x
    • 5
      Genes, Brains, and Evolution
      While there is no single gene for language or any other complex human system, specific aspects of the human genome and our biology create the perfect biological environment for the development of language. Explore the important relationship between the brain's Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the significance of the gene FOXP2. From an evolutionary point of view, could language be a new machine built out of old parts"?" x
    • 6
      How the Brain Created Language
      Did the human brain gradually evolve a specialized mental organ" designed for language? Or was language a product of cultural evolution? Take a deep dive into the fascinating arguments on both sides and examine our relationship to the human microbiome as an analogy. We aren't born with the bacteria in our microbiome, but our biology is extraordinarily receptive to them. And once combined, the relationship transforms us and our abilities-very similar to language." x
    • 7
      Gesture and the Origins of Human Language
      What did the very earliest forms of human language sound like? Chances are earliest language had less sound than you may think. Learn why many researchers believe hand gesture was actually our first attempt at language. From embodied brains to the widespread prevalence of gesture, from its human uniqueness to its many benefits for us, the evidence suggests that language was born in the body and grew up from there. x
    • 8
      Development: A Mind under Construction
      While scientists used to think of human development in terms of nature vs. nurture, it's now commonly accepted that the human mind is the result of both, guided by the foundational process underlying all human learning-neuroplasticity. Discover the biological processes underlying how babies learn facial recognition and language, and the commonalities and differences between the two. x
    • 9
      Specializing in Speech Sounds
      Explore the brain structures of babies that give them their extraordinary auditory abilities, and why it's so difficult for adults to learn new languages. Discover how exposure to our native language actually changes our brain, removing our ability to access objective auditory information in the environment, and why we each perceive a uniquely distorted world. x
    • 10
      Navigating a World of Words
      Explore the several mechanisms babies use in the formidable task of identifying discrete words from the streams of sound in language. Look closely at their innate ability to employ the cognitive constraints of whole object assumption, mutual exclusivity bias, and taxonomic assumption. And learn why the sing-song rhythm and pitch of parental baby talk" is exactly what babies need to hear." x
    • 11
      Learning to Play the Game of Language
      Explore many of the evolutionary features that help babies prepare for successful communication, including the social cues that help them identify specific word meanings in an almost limitless sea of options. Consider the power of pupillary contagion as it activates the brain networks involved in perspective taking and the crucial social skill known as theory of mind. x
    • 12
      Mastering the Structure of Language
      Explore the many ways in which the mind is wired from birth to see structure in language. Delve into how children utilize Bayesian learning to understand language-making predictions of meaning based on their current evidence and prior knowledge. This process, by which they update their future predictions in a never-ending loop, is the perfect innate mechanism for language acquisition-and more. x
    • 13
      The Brain as a Window into the Mind
      Learn about the three basic principles of the brain as the foundation of all human learning: neural specialization, the connectome, and the brain's plasticity. Discover how the many developments in neuroimaging over the past 30 years-including ERP, MEG, and fMRI scans-have helped us better understand the relationships between brain mechanisms and behavior, both typical and atypical. x
    • 14
      How the Brain Comprehends Language
      Only recently have scientists had the tools to examine the neural processing of language. The results reveal a brain that has evolved to process language as a survival mechanism. Learn about the brain's dual-stream pathways and their benefits, the very latest research revealing that words activate practically every square inch of the brain's surface, and the details that are still being debated today. x
    • 15
      How the Brain Produces Language
      Explore the latest scientific research and theories related to the brain's ability to produce speech-one of the most complex of all human activities requiring the coordination of an estimated 100 muscles in the lungs, throat, jaw, tongue, and face. And learn why we need to hear our own speech in order to successfully produce it, even as adults. x
    • 16
      Dancing Brains: The Social Side of Language
      See why language truly is an example of emergentism, and why language production cannot fully be understood without considering how human brains connect to each other. Then, probe the fascinating workings of the mirror neuron system, neural synchrony, and the significance of the N400 response, as you discover why face-to-face interactions are so crucial for optimal communication. x
    • 17
      How Writing Transformed the Mind
      Investigate how the plasticity of the brain allows us to cobble together" a neural network for reading and writing as we mature, using dyslexia and synesthesia to illustrate this networking property. This network develops at different times for different people, but no one is born with it; our "reading brain" is truly a technological transformation." x
    • 18
      Sign Language: Language in Our Hands
      By exploring a version of language that operates in a different modality than speech, you'll develop a wider and deeper appreciation of what language actually is. You'll unveil many myths about sign language, as you learn about its fascinating development and linguistic components. Our relatively recent understanding of neural mechanisms reveals that language is language, regardless of modality. x
    • 19
      Embodied Language: Mind in Body-Body in Mind
      Witness how the arbitrary and abstract elements of language interact with the iconic and concrete expressions of the body. Remembering that language originally evolved within a face-to-face context, the revelation of recent studies is not surprising: The body influences all parts of language and we use the whole body to take meaning from what we hear. x
    • 20
      The Multilingual Mind
      What happens in the brain when we learn a language in addition to our native tongue? That depends on when that additional language is learned and its modality relative to the native language-i.e., are both languages speech, or is one sign? Discover the fascinating experiments that have revealed the brain's bilingual language control" function and the many ways in which it can go awry." x
    • 21
      Does Language Shape Thought?
      Since English speakers have relatively few words for snow, is it impossible for us to experience snow in all its forms? If an African tribe has fewer color names than English, is their vision different than ours? Does language influence our perception or does our perception influence language-or, could it work both ways? Investigate the fascinating arguments on all sides of this still-ongoing debate about language. x
    • 22
      Does Culture Shape Language?
      Journey through a series of fascinating experiments developed to determine whether or not language can influence thought independent of culture. Perhaps not unexpectedly-and working with individuals from preverbal infants to adults-these experiments reveal that language and culture both influence thought, often working in tandem. x
    • 23
      The Benefits of Bilingualism
      What are the potential by-products of speaking multiple languages? Learn what relatively recent research has shown about the ways in which having multiple languages opens up different emotional, cognitive, and social worlds, and how the mind travels back and forth between them. And consider the controversial claim that becoming a bilinguist can actually improve your cognitive reserve. x
    • 24
      How Language Makes Us Human
      Language is the ultimate tool humans use when we extend our minds beyond the here and now, and beyond what we have previously known. Learn how language has allowed humans to develop math, build a capacity for logic, categorize the world around us, develop the concept of metaphor, and construct narratives. While we take each of these functions for granted every day because they feel so natural, none would have been possible without language. x
  • The Great Tours: France through the Ages

    Professor John Greene, PhD

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD
    France ignites the imagination and dazzles the senses like no other country on Earth. In this thrilling travelogue, you’ll discover the 35,000-year-old cave paintings of Chauvet, the medieval castles of the Cathars, the palace of Versailles, and the sites where the French Revolution unfolded. You’ll also explore romantic Paris; the Loire Valley châteaux; and France’s food, wine, sublime art and architecture, and so much more.
    View Lecture List (24)
    France ignites the imagination and dazzles the senses like no other country on Earth. In this thrilling travelogue, you’ll discover the 35,000-year-old cave paintings of Chauvet, the medieval castles of the Cathars, the palace of Versailles, and the sites where the French Revolution unfolded. You’ll also explore romantic Paris; the Loire Valley châteaux; and France’s food, wine, sublime art and architecture, and so much more.
    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  The Great Tours: France through the Ages
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      Point Zero: Charting Our Course
      Begin by contemplating the French art de vivre (art of living"), and the timeless appeal that makes France the world's most visited tourist destination. Take an overview of the course's journey across the rich cultural landscape of France, and learn about the iconic figure of Charles de Gaulle. Finish with an aerial view over Paris, and a first look at its beloved monuments." x
    • 2
      The Birth and Rise of Paris
      Mine the layers of history that reveal how Paris evolved from an ancient settlement on the Seine to a Roman city and then the capital of France. Learn about medieval Paris through the Cluny Museum, the great cathedral of Notre Dame, and the royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle. Follow the growth of Paris and its architectural treasures through the Renaissance, to the reign of Louis XIV. x
    • 3
      The Splendor of Versailles
      Discover the remarkable palace of Versailles as the self-contained world of Louis XIV, the Sun King." Note how the landscaping surrounding the palace symbolizes features of Louis's reign, and how the Versailles court prized royal spectacle and appearances. Take account of Louis's patronage of the arts, and how he and his successor built extravagant private residences within the palace grounds." x
    • 4
      Paris in Revolution
      Examine the social, intellectual, and political background of the French Revolution of 1789. Visit key locations in Paris where the events unfolded, from a legendary coffee house to the site of the Bastille prison and the Place de la Concorde. Then map the turbulent epoch of Napoleon, and witness the lasting impact of his rule on both the look of Paris and the features of French society. x
    • 5
      Northeast to Champagne
      In your journey to the first of France's diverse regions, begin at the city of Rheims, and chart the fortunes of its glorious and historic cathedral. Learn about the beverage that gives this region its name, and about some of the area's great champagne producers. Visit the cemeteries and memorials that poignantly commemorate World War I, and a small town that is central to French identity. x
    • 6
      Normandy at War: Beaches and Bunkers
      Travel now to the northern French coast, where three dramatic events in world history took place. Learn first about the 1066 Norman invasion of England, and the role of the famous Bayeux Tapestry. Then visit Dunkerque (Dunkirk), site of the massive evacuation of Allied troops during World War II, and finally the beaches of Normandy, where the D-Day invasion of Nazi-held Europe unfolded. x
    • 7
      Normandy at Ease: Painters and Pilgrims
      The beauty and clear light of the Normandy coast became a magnet for 19th-century painters. Travel these shores in the footsteps of Claude Monet, then visit his home at Giverny, and learn about the inspiration for his famous paintings of water lilies. Sample the region's fine cheeses, apples, and apple brandy, and finish with the history and architectural wonders of the island citadel of Mont Saint-Michel. x
    • 8
      Brittany: The Wild West
      Investigate the Celtic culture of Brittany, starting in the walled port city of Saint-Malo, with its ramparts, forts, and seafaring past. Experience the wild beauty of the northern coast and note two contrasting cities: Quimper, with its Breton traditions and creperies, and Lorient, with its superb seafood and dramatic World War II history. Also, view the enigmatic ancient megaliths of Carnac. x
    • 9
      The Loire Valley: Among the Chateaux
      Begin your tour of this famous region with the fabulous Chartres Cathedral and its masterpieces of stained glass. Trace the history of the Loire's plethora of extraordinary chateaux, explore two of the most celebrated, and learn about some of the region's notable citizens. Finally, visit the historic maritime city of Nantes, home to a remarkable 19th-century science fiction theme park. x
    • 10
      Bordeaux and the Coast of Aquitaine
      Ponder the mysterious cave paintings of Lascaux and Chauvet, considered some of the greatest treasures of prehistory. Then encounter the extraordinary figure of Eleanor of Aquitaine and the region that bears her name, and view the majestic architecture of the city of Bordeaux. Take in the renowned Bordeaux wine region and study the essential concept of terroir," a key to the quality of France's finest produce." x
    • 11
      The French Basque Region and the Pyrenees
      Trace the origins of the Basque people and uncover their unique architecture and culinary traditions, seen in the picturesque city of Bayonne. Travel to the 19th-century resort town of Biarritz, the historic fishing port of Saint-Jean-de-Luz. Then, head into the Pyrenees and the town of Lourdes, a major site of religious pilgrimage and a lightning rod for the modern role of French Catholicism. x
    • 12
      The Camargue: Land of the Cathars
      Start your journey through the Camargue with a visit to the spectacular castles of the medieval sect known as the Cathars, as well as the town of Carcassonne with its fairy tale grandeur. Continue with the extraordinary urban landscape of Montpellier, and end at Albi, taking in its fortress-like cathedral, its memories of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and the delicious regional dish of cassoulet. x
    • 13
      Arles: A Jewel of Provence
      Near the Provencal city of Arles, contemplate two incredible feats of engineering: an ancient Roman viaduct and a 21st-century cable bridge taller than the Eiffel Tower. Stop at the monarchist" village of Les Baux-de-Provence; then view the Gallo Roman architecture of Arles, see the sites that inspired Vincent Van Gogh, and discover Arles' lavender fields and local food specialties." x
    • 14
      Along the Riviera: From Marseille to Cannes
      Here, explore the storied Cote d'Azur, starting with the history, culture, and noteworthy architecture of the industrial port of Marseille, France's second-largest city. Sample the area's signature dish, bouillabaisse; the game of petanque; and the local liqueur, pastis. Finish at the summer playground of Cannes, city of literary history and of the world-famous film festival. x
    • 15
      Corsica: The Isle of Beauty
      Savor Corsica's blend of French and Italian cultures, starting in the capital of Ajaccio, birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte and a location of beautiful coastal scenery. Learn about the island's food and drink at the historic port of Bastia. Also, visit the citadel of Bonifacio, home to the renowned French Foreign Legion, and take in the island's beloved landscapes, flora, and nature trails. x
    • 16
      Avignon: From Popes to Produce Stands
      Learn the singular and colorful history of Avignon, home to the papacy in the 14th century, whose legacy is the city's magnificent Palais des Papes, now the site of one of France's most revered theater festivals. See how the rich Rhone valley's produce is embodied in the region's celebrated ratatouille and the Cotes du Rhone wines, and climb the legendary Mont Ventoux, Provence's tallest peak. x
    • 17
      The French Alps, Lyon, and Beaujolais
      In yet another of France's distinct regions, experience the spellbinding vistas of Mont Blanc, western Europe's tallest mountain and the birthplace of rock and ice climbing. Then pay a visit to Lyon, the capital of French gastronomy, and encounter its famous chefs, eateries, and Beaujolais wine. Explore Lyon's historic neighborhoods, World War II history, and its proud invention of the cinema. x
    • 18
      Dijon and Burgundy: The Delicious Heartland
      Trace Burgundy's history as a politically independent duchy, and begin your visit at Dijon's Les Halles Centrales market, an exemplar of the lively culture of French street markets. Review Burgundy's dining specialties before traveling to Baune, with its medieval treasures and iconic wine auction. Learn about the region's famous citizens, from Louis Pasteur to Resistance heroine Lucie Aubrac. x
    • 19
      Alsace and Lorraine: France Meets Germany
      In this much fought-over region, take the measure of Lorraine's great heroine, Jeanne d'Arc (Joan of Arc), and how she saved her country. Examine the oldest written document in a proto-French language. Then travel to picturesque Strasbourg, home to the European Parliament; savor Alsatian wine and German-style beer; and ponder Alsace's poignant roles in French military history. x
    • 20
      Paris Transformed: La Belle epoque
      Witness the massive 19th-century urban planning works of Emperor Napoleon III and city administrator Georges-Eugene Haussmann, which thoroughly altered the urban landscape of Paris, largely creating the city we know today. Against the sociopolitical background of the Second French Empire, take in the Grands Boulevards, parks, sewer system, and standout masterpieces such as the magnificent Opera Garnier. x
    • 21
      Bohemian Paris: Artists and Expats
      Explore famous artists' haunts of Paris, beginning with the neighborhood of Montmartre, where the quality of light and bohemian culture were a magnet for painters and writers during the Belle Epoque. Visit the cemeteries of Montmartre and Pere Lachaise, the resting places of many famous Parisians and expats. Learn about the literary culture of Montparnasse and enjoy two of its most famous cafes. x
    • 22
      Paris: The Capital of Design
      Get to know Paris as a vital hub for the creative arts. First, visit the Cinematheque Francaise and grasp the rich role of the cinema in Paris's cultural life. Trace how photography came of age in Paris and take note of the many Parisian venues for photography. Discover Paris's world-famous fashion houses, and visit the Sevres porcelain factory and the Cordon Bleu culinary school. x
    • 23
      Paris and the Future
      Observe the ways in which Paris has responded to successive waves of modernization. Note how architectural wonders such as the Eiffel Tower and the Grand Palais came to be and tour the Metro, Paris's much admired underground rapid transit. Then take account of groundbreaking public works such as the Centre Pompidou, the complex of La Defense, the Musee D'Orsay, and the Pyramide du Louvre. x
    • 24
      United France: Celebrating Together
      Conclude your tour with a look at some of France's great national celebrations. First, visit the Stade de France, a shrine to French sports achievements. Learn about two essential events that conclude on Paris's Champs-Elysees: the Tour de France and the Bastille Day parade. Finish with national cultural events such as the Fete de la Musique, the Fete du Cinema, and the national Heritage Days. x
  • Adobe Lightroom Classic CC: The Complete Guide

    Instructor Ben Willmore, Photoshop Expert

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD

    In 20 helpful, illuminating lessons, Adobe® Lightroom® Classic CC: The Complete Guide teaches you everything you need to become confident and efficient in using Lightroom. Join popular software instructor Ben Wilmore, a member of the Photoshop® Hall of Fame, as he offers a detailed boot camp that’s also an enduring resource for building and honing your photo editing skills.

    View Lecture List (20)

    In 20 helpful, illuminating lessons, Adobe® Lightroom® Classic CC: The Complete Guide teaches you everything you need to become confident and efficient in using Lightroom. Join popular software instructor Ben Wilmore, a member of the Photoshop® Hall of Fame, as he offers a detailed boot camp that’s also an enduring resource for building and honing your photo editing skills.

    View Lecture List (20)
    20 Lectures  |  Adobe Lightroom Classic CC: The Complete Guide
    Lecture Titles (20)
    • 1
      Bootcamp Introduction and Overview
      In this first lesson, start getting your files into Lightroom with a few key basics. Learn the difference between Lightroom CC and Lightroom Classic. Pick up basic terminology like libraries" and "smart previews" and "RAW." Then, get yourself into the Lightroom mindset by learning key differences between Lightroom and Photoshop." x
    • 2
      Importing Images and Customizing Lightroom
      Dive into Lightroom's myriad import tools. Learn what different import options mean, then create your own import preset for easily importing images and saving them in your preferred folder scheme. Afterward, learn to customize your workspace, from the tools you see to the image data visible in your library. x
    • 3
      Understanding Catalogs and File Management
      Lightroom is also an excellent tool for organizing images. That organization starts with a Lightroom catalog. Here, dig into catalogs, from how many you need to what files you need to edit photos on the go. Also, avoid the headaches that come when Lightroom can't find your photos. x
    • 4
      Baseline Raw Image Adjustments
      Jump into the editing process by digging into the basic RAW adjustments inside the Basic panel in the Develop module. Walk through what each tool does along with some behind-the-scenes insights. Also, uncover hidden tricks like how to quickly see what parts of your image are a true black. x
    • 5
      Creating Finalized Files and Printing
      Lightroom has, so far, only recorded all your changes as a text file. Learn how to turn that edited Lightroom preview into a finalized file for printing and sharing. Learn the different export options, as well as advanced tools like adding a watermark. Then, explore Lightroom's Print module. x
    • 6
      Organizing Your Images and Managing Projects
      Lightroom works with the folder structure on your hard drive. But what if you want more structure than that? Learn how to organize photos with Collections, Lightroom's playlists," as well as how to use the Smart Collections, which automatically update themselves, and Collection Sets." x
    • 7
      Making Your Images Searchable with Keywords
      Using searchable keywords, you can find an image from any collection in a matter of seconds. In this lesson, Mr. Wilmore walks through adding keywords to images, then using those keywords inside Lightroom for different tasks. Plus, learn advanced keyword tools, like adjusting one keyword in every image using the term. x
    • 8
      Fixing Isolated Problems
      Lightroom adjustments don't have to apply to the entire image. Some of Lightroom's most well-loved tools are local adjustment options. Join Mr. Wilmore for a guided tour of the Lightroom tools that can help you perfect your images in small pieces. Among them: the adjustment brush and the graduated filter. x
    • 9
      Image Adjustment Techniques
      Sometimes an image isn't great on the first try-it needs to be tweaked. In this lesson, explore Lightroom's editing tools that exist beyond the Basics Panel and local adjustments. Here, Mr. Wilmore walks through adjustments like sharpness and noise reduction, along with correcting common types of distortion. x
    • 10
      Fine Tuning Your Image
      Go beyond the Basics Panel and dig into the creative tools for fine-tuning your image. First, learn how that histogram in the corner can guide your edits. Then, custom color your image using hue, saturation, and luminance. Also, dig into tools for vignetting (or correcting a natural vignette from the lens) and working with curves. x
    • 11
      Facial Recognition and Map Viewing
      Shooting with a GPS-enabled camera or manually adding location keywords allows Lightroom to literally put your images on the map. Learn the fun ways to use the Map module. Then, discover how Lightroom can actually recognize the people in your photographs and how to best use the Adobe Sensei facial recognition inside Lightroom. x
    • 12
      Adjustment Workflow: BW, HDR, and Panoramas
      In this lesson, investigate the tools Lightroom packs in for specialty edits. Start with controlling the black-and-white conversion of color images, then learn how to merge high dynamic range, or HDR, images without leaving the software. Finally, stitch multiple photos together with a panorama merge. x
    • 13
      Organizing Your Keywords
      Sure, adding keywords can be time-consuming-but we live in a world where keywords are the norm, not the exception. And organizing your keywords can help speed up the process, allowing you to easily find images without as much time commitment. Here, Mr. Wilmore walks through organizing keyword lists and creating related keywords. x
    • 14
      How to Find Any Image Quickly
      Lightroom has powerful search tools-powerful enough that, when using the tools properly, the software can find any image in five seconds or less. Here, Mr. Wilmore walks through all the different search tools and options for narrowing down the results to quickly find that specific image. x
    • 15
      Showcasing Your Work: Slideshows and Books
      What happens when it's time to display your work? Adobe Lightroom has built-in tools to help you show off multiple images. In this lesson, explore how the software's Slideshow tool works, from creating an impromptu slideshow to customizing the results. Then, learn how to create photo books directly inside Lightroom. x
    • 16
      Image Adjustments: Start to Finish Workflow
      Now that you've dug through all the adjustment tools, it's time to watch closely to learn how they work together. Follow Mr. Wilmore's editing process as he puts all the tools together from start to finish and gives you tips and tricks to go from original image to finished photograph. x
    • 17
      Lightroom to Photoshop and Back
      Most of Lightroom's photography plans also include Photoshop-and there are times where those Photoshop tools are essential. Thankfully, Creative Cloud programs are designed to work together. Here, Mr. Wilmore explains the process of adjusting a Lightroom image in Photoshop, all the while keeping the Lightroom catalog up to date. x
    • 18
      Basic Troubleshooting
      Sometimes, things go wrong with programs. Why is Lightroom doing this? Why won't Lightroom do that? In this lesson, gain the tools you need to troubleshoot common Lightroom problems. Mr. Wilmore walks through the most common Lightroom problems you might face, many typically experienced by students and learners like you. x
    • 19
      Advanced Tips and Tricks
      Lightroom can certainly be used by beginning photo editors, but it can also be an essential tool for advanced photo editors as well. Here, discuss topics like working on two computers. Then, launch into some advanced tips and tricks to get the most out of your Lightroom subscription. x
    • 20
      Workflow Refinement and Final Summary
      In the final lesson of this workshop, put the final pieces together with tips to refine your workflow, from ways to share photos to a friend's smartphone to syncing with Lightroom Mobile to using web galleries. Then, wrap up with a recap before leaving as a fully-fledged Lightroom guru. x
  • 1066: The Year That Changed Everything

    Professor Jennifer Paxton, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Instant Video, Instant Audio, DVD
    With 1066, Professor Jennifer Paxton's exciting and historically rich six-lecture course, experience for yourself the drama of this dynamic year in medieval history-centering on the Norman Conquest of England that would dramatically reshape both English and Western history. Taking you from the shores of Scandinavia and France to the battlefields of the English countryside, this course plunges you into a world of fierce Viking warriors, powerful noble families, politically charged marriages, tense succession crises, epic military invasions, and more.

    View Lecture List (6)
    With 1066, Professor Jennifer Paxton's exciting and historically rich six-lecture course, experience for yourself the drama of this dynamic year in medieval history-centering on the Norman Conquest of England that would dramatically reshape both English and Western history. Taking you from the shores of Scandinavia and France to the battlefields of the English countryside, this course plunges you into a world of fierce Viking warriors, powerful noble families, politically charged marriages, tense succession crises, epic military invasions, and more.

    View Lecture List (6)
    6 Lectures  |  1066: The Year That Changed Everything
    Lecture Titles (6)
    • 1
      The Norman Conquest through History
      What makes 1066 such a pivotal year in the history of Western civilization? How has the meaning of the Norman Conquest been debated and interpreted over time? And how did two weddings-between the English king Aethelred and the duke of Normandy's sister, Emma, and then, after the death of Aethelred, Emma's marriage to the Danish king Cnut-lay the groundwork for this tumultuous moment? Find out in this lecture that provides crucial information for grasping the Norman Conquest. x
    • 2
      England and Normandy before the Conquest
      Take a closer look at the half-century between the Danish conquest of England in 1016 and the fateful year of 1066-a chaotic time when power was up for grabs. Two figures were crucial during this time. The first: Edward the Confessor, who succeeded to the English throne in 1042 but was dominated by the powerful Godwinsons. The second: William the Bastard, the ruler of Normandy, who brought the Norman nobles under control and then set his sights on conquering England. x
    • 3
      The Succession Crisis in England
      Investigate how the relationship between Edward the Confessor and William the Bastard put England and Normandy on a collision course when the childless King Edward had to plan the succession to the English throne. You'll focus on Edward's plans for succession, meet the contenders to the throne, and learn how Harold Godwinson achieved victory at the Battle of Stamford Bridge-only to face another invasion of England from the south. x
    • 4
      The Battle of Hastings
      Revisit one of the most important moments in English history: the Battle of Hastings, after which the island nation-and the entire Western world-would never be the same. Dr. Paxton reveals how the Normans mustered up enough men and ships for their invasion; investigates some intriguing mysteries and controversies about the invasion; explains the tactics of medieval warfare; and provides a blow-by-blow account of the battle. x
    • 5
      Completing the Conquest
      It took several years for William the Conqueror to consolidate the gains he made at the Battle of Hastings. Learn how he used a combination of diplomacy and clever military tactics to take control of London without a fierce battle; how he won over the church so that he could get himself crowned king; how he spent the early years of his reign responding to various rebellions in the northern part of the country; and more. x
    • 6
      The Aftermath of the Conquest
      Why does the Norman Conquest matter? Take a closer look at the relationship between the Normans and the English in the generations immediately following the conquest, with a focus on the myriad ways that Norman and English culture intermingled. You'll realize the ultimate legacy of this vital year: the transition of England into the European mainstream. x